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must (1) posses some morally relevant feature that counts in its favor (2) the feature is such that were it the only morally relevant feature of the situation, then the act in question would be one's duty proper
Prima Facie Duty
obligatory (regardless of potential consequences) ; one has a prima facie duty to do it MORE stringent then any other conflicting prima facie duty
(1) fidelity (2) reparation (3) gratitude (4) non-maleficence (5) justice (6) beneficence (7) self-improvement
List the 7 prima facie duties
"x" is a good of its kind; indication of success of subject, comparative (ex. good runner)
attributive sense of 'good'
"x" is a good so-and-so; absolute term, ultimately or wholly good (ex. pleasure is good)
predicative sense of 'good'
value of objects, both physical objects and abstract objects, not as ends-in-themselves but a means of achieving something else
regarded as an end or end-in-itself; contains only good and indifferent elements- is good apart from consequences
final goal or end to which all lesser goals are the means—and it sets the standard by which all lesser goals are evaluate; indifferent elements contribute to the goodness of the whole
someone's life goes best when it goes as they desire it too; evaluate each case independently and make decision based on what is only in their best interest (desire is at the forefront)
what is best for someone is what would best fulfill ALL their desires- more general view of life overtime (desire is at forefront)
(Ross's favorite) certain things in life that have been established as absolutely good and absolutely bad; life would go best if did the things on the list that were deemed good (desire is NOT regarded, only theory of 4 where desire is irrelevant)
objective list theory
the philosophical doctrine that: (1) all pleasure is intrinsically good (2) nothing but pleasure is intrinsically good
disagreements are the result o the subjective nature of morality; normative position concerned with the differences in moral judgements across different people and cultures
theory that the world's cultures are so divided and distinct, persons from 1 culture cannot make reasonable value judgments about other people's cultures (midgely)
someone OUGHT or ought not to have acted in a certain way, or that it was right or wrong for him to have done so (NOT judgement that someone is good or evil)
various members of society knowingly reach an agreement in intentions- each intending to act in certain ways on the understanding that the others have similar intentions; reached through a process of mutual adjustment and implicit bargaining
actions are guided by general, clearly stated moral principles; either true or false
not motivated by any guiding principles, guided by context of situations (similar to prima facie duties)
general, universal guides to action that are derived from so-called basic moral truths that should be respected unless a morally compelling reason exists not to do so; also referred to as a "ethical principle"
view that no moral standards are morally justified, and no moral standard can be known to be true
the idea that you cannot judge other cultures or have any respect for other cultures that you do not belong to because you do not know anything about them. But, can be possible if a practice, action, or person is intelligible about that culture. To respect someone we have to know enough information about him to make a favorable judgment
moral judgment that is true or false that is independent of agents. Even if no one existed in the world, there would still be a right and wrong
belief that there are moral facts; clear distinctions between right and wrong; even if people did not exist in the world, the qualification of things as right and wrong would still exist
belief that there are NO moral facts, but moral facts arnt required to make sense of moral practice; moral judgemetns exist as statements of taste, belief or preference (moral cognitivism)
believe there are NO moral facts, but believe that without moral facts, moral practice is not existent either- extreme skepticism, moral judgements have no truth or existence
value of judgements are either wholly true (positive) or wholly fase (bad)- NO EXCEPTIONS
certain moral principles can and should be applied to everyone (synonymous with objective)
an ethical theory is particular to social beings; principles applied on a person by person basis with regard to diversities of opinion and circumstance
suggests that there are moral facts, determined by circumstances, and that our moral judgements express our belies about what these facts are
morality derives from an understanding among people. Agreement is if each number of people intends to adhere to some schedule, plan, or set of principles intending to do this on the understanding that the others similarly intend
the distinguishing property of mental phenomena of being necessarily directed upon an object
productive of the best possible outcome. Relies on consequences, the outcome leads to the best consequences
(pattern recognition) if one scenario mimics another then the end results should be similar; decide right thing to do based on content of situation
moral seeing model
(court case) right and wrong determined by facts of case, but case is evaluated by making a comparison between 2 things that are similar; source of comparison is different based on content of situation
argument from analogy model (precedence)
(bird) compare each situation to the same ONE paradigm case to determine if right or wrong
if not guided by certain principles then there is no justification for decisions we made (dworkin response: in order to have reasons for actions, need a principle- explanation for actions)
if we do not have moral principles it would be impossible to teach morality (dworkin response: learn morality through observation)
teaching morality objection
anything that helps to shape who you are and how you think; information about who you are (your experiences)
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