History Chapter 4 Sections 1-5
Terms in this set (58)
-A vast palace in the Minoan civilization
-The rulers of the Minoan civilization lived at Knossos. It had many rooms, religious shrines, frescoes, and places for artisans to work.
-The shrines and frescoes at Knossos tell historians a lot about how the Minoans lived, what they were interested in, and what they believed in.
-Areas dedicated to the honor of gods and goddesses
-There were shrines located at Knossos, where Minoans would have gone to worship their gods and goddesses.
-Shrines tell historians what gods and goddesses the Minoans believed in and worshipped.
-Watercolor paintings done on wet plaster
-There are many frescoes located at Knossos. They are paintings of a variety of things, like nature, religion, society, and culture of the Minoan civilization.
-Frescoes demonstrate what life was like for the Minoans and what their beliefs were.
-A war between the Mycenaeans and Troy that took place in 1250 B.C
-The Trojan War was most likely caused by the trading rivalry between Mycenae and Troy. However, in "The Odyssey" by Homer, the cause of the war is when Helen of Troy is kidnapped. The Trojan War was considered legend until evidence was discovered in the 1870's.
-The Trojan War was a massive war that took place and inspired one of the greatest pieces of literature of all time, "The Odyssey."
-A narrow water passage
-The straits that Troy controlled connected The Mediterranean Sea with the Black Sea. This gave them control of the trading economy in that area.
-The straits that were controlled by Troy allowed their trade to thrive and developed Troy into a rich city.
-The time from 1100-900 B.C after the Trojan War
-Writing and art is lost from the Greek civilization in the time period of 1100-900 B.C. Dorians invade from the north and Greek civilization falls to its knees.
-In this time period, Greek writing and art is lost. The Dorian invasion sets the path for Sparta to be established.
-A blind poet who lived around 750 B.C.
-Homer wandered from village to village telling heroic deeds. His tales were passed down orally for generations, then they were written down. His most famous works are The Iliad and the Odyssey.
-Most of what we know today about the Trojan War comes from the Iliad. We also learn important values that the Greeks felt were important.
-A city-state of Greece
-Every polis has an acropolis, a hilltop structure that is dedicated to the gods. The houses, market, and public buildings are located on lower ground. There is also an agora, which is a large, open meeting place. The average polis had a small population, which led to more pride and unity. Early polis' were ruled by monarchs, but power eventually shifted to landowners, resulting in an aristocracy. Power then shifted to wealthy merchants, resulting in an oligarchy.
-Polis' made up ancient Greece and each one was unique but similar. They tell us what we know about Greece.
-The section of a polis located on a hill, dedicated to the gods.
-On the acropolis, there were large marble statues for the gods and goddesses. Its name means high city.
-The acropolis was apart of every polis and shows the dedication towards religion that the Greeks had.
-The population of a polis was small. This gave citizens a sense of responsibility. Citizen's rights weren't equal.
-Citizens of a polis had much responsibility because of the small population. They made up the foundation of a polis and participated in festivals and debates.
-A government where a hereditary ruler has the most power.
-A monarchy was the first form of government in Greece. A king who inherited power ruled over the polis.
-During the time Greek city-states were governed by a monarchy, one king had power and could make vital decisions for the polis.
-Rule by a hereditary landholding elite
-Greek city-states eventually changed government systems from a monarchy to an aristocracy. This happened when a class of noble landowners emerged. They were the only citizens who could afford weapons, so they made up the military of their polis. They protected the monarch at first, but eventually wanted their own power.
-The aristocracy that ruled polis' changed how they functioned. Instead of one king deciding things for the city-state, there was a class of people with power.
-A government where the power is in the hands of a small, wealthy elite
-Wealthy merchants arise and challenge the power of the landowners in Greek city-states, resulting in an oligarchy
-The emergence of an oligarchy in Greek city-states took the power away from the landowners that used to hold power. Wealthy merchants would now have power in their polis.
-A massive tactical formation of armored soldiers
-The phalanx Sparta used in battle was composed of 256 men. It could move in any direction, and was used in many battles for the Spartans.
-The phalanx helped Sparta win key battles and defeat the enemy even when outnumbered like in the battle of Thermopylae.
-A city-state established by the Dorians
-Sparta was established when the Dorians invaded Greece. It had a government with two kings, a Council of Elders, and an Assembly of Citizens. Most people were helots, which were slaves owned by Sparta. Sparta's main focus was on military. Boys trained from the age of 7. This resulted in a very strong army, winning many battles. Women were required to stay healthy and fit to produce strong and healthy boys.
-Sparta was a city-state with a unique government and an army superior to most in their time. Their military training and tactics were unique and left a lasting impression on other civilizations.
-A Greek city-state that focused on education
-Unlike Sparta, Athens taught boys different subjects in school. They learned music and poems, as well as how to become a good public speaker. There was no military training. The government of Athens evolved into a direct democracy. The citizens take part in daily affairs of the government, and were rewarded with a small pay for holding office. They also served on juries in court.
-Athens valued education and had the first direct democracy.
-A government where the people have the power
-In Athens, the first direct democracy emerged. Citizens were encouraged to participate in the government and were given a stipend for holding public office. The people also served on juries.
-The democracy kept citizens happy with the government because they were part of it, and Athens was easily able to give the people what they wanted.
-People who gain power by force
-Citizenship in Greece was limited, with many government positions only being available to the wealthy. This lead to people becoming unhappy and gaining power by force. They would impose reforms to help the merchants and the poor, gaining their support. Greek tyrants were typically good rulers.
-Tyrants would rule Greek city-states after forcing power. They helped merchants and poor people by imposing reforms.
-A lawmaking body
-The legislative group of Athens was the assembly. This included all male citizens. They would debate laws and approve or reject them. This was made possible by Cleisthenes.
-The legislature makes the laws for a civilization. In Athens, the legislative group was made up of all male citizens, contributing towards a democracy.
-The ruler of Persia around 500 B.C.
-Greek city-states in Ionia rebelled against Persian rule. They were put to rest quickly, but were aided by Athens, which Darius I was mad about. He sent a large group of men to Athens, and those men took place in the battle of Marathon. The men were defeated even though they had much more men then the Greeks.
-Darius I sent the group that engaged in the battle of Marathon. This sparked the Persian Wars.
-The Athenian leader during the time of the Persian Wars.
-Themistocles knew that the Persian Wars were only beginning with the battle of Marathon. He told Athenians to build warships. This would become key in the battle of Salamis.
-Themistocles urged Athens to build warships after the battle of Marathon. This allowed them to win one of the major battles of the Persian Wars, the battle of Salamis.
-A Persian Wars battle fought in 490 B.C between Athens and Persia.
-Darius I sent a large group of troops to Athens to punish them for helping with uprisings against Persia in Ionia. Athens was greatly outnumbered, but was able to get close enough to the Persian forces to engage in hand-to-hand combat and force the Persians to retreat.
-The battle of Marathon was the first major battle of the Persian Wars and gave Athens confidence by ensuring that the Persian force, although large, was not unstoppable.
-A Persian Wars battle fought in 480 B.C. between Greek city-states and Persia.
-Darius I's son, Xerxes, sent a much larger force to northern Greece. A small Spartan group led by Leonidas who were vastly outnumbered fought to the last man, defending Persia in a narrow mountain pass. This gave Athens enough time to evacuate the city before it was burned by Persia.
-The battle of Thermopylae allowed Athens to evacuate before their city was burned, saving many Greek lives. It also shows the honor and courage that the Spartans fought with.
Bay of Salamis
-A naval battle fought during the Persian Wars between Athens and Persia
-Thanks to Themistocles, Athens formed a fleet of warships, in which each ship had an underwater battering ram. These battering rams destroyed the Persian fleet, while Xerxes watched from the shore.
-In the battle of Salamis, the Athenian warships destroyed the Persians and lowered their morale.
-Some Greek city-states resided in Ionia in the Asia Minor, ruled by the Persians
-The Greeks living in Ionia weren't happy because they were ruled by Persians. In 499 B.C. they rebelled with the help of Athens, and started the Persian Wars.
-Ionian Greeks rebelled against Persian rule, sparking the Persian Wars.
-The alliance formed between Athens and other Greek city-states to help each other.
-The Delian League was to help protect Greece from other outside forces. Athens dominated the alliance financially and forcefully. They used fundings to rebuild their city and forced city-states to stay in the Delian League.
-The Delian League was formed to protect and help Greek city-states, but was slowly ruined by the forced leadership of Athens.
-A government in which citizens directly take part in daily government affairs
-In Athens, a direct democracy existed. Citizens received a stipend for holding public office and served in juries. They could directly take place in the government.
-Direct Democracy allowed the citizens to take place directly in the government and keep citizens happy.
-A Greek leader that formed Athens into the significant cultural center of Greece.
-Pericles oversaw the rebuilding of the acropolis of Athens. He held festivals, competitions, and building projects that increased jobs.
-Pericles made Athens into the strong cultural center of Greece.
-A fixed salary
-In Athens, men who served in the Assembly or the Council were given a stipend. This allowed poor men to participate in the government and encouraged citizens to serve in the government.
-The stipend in Athens allowed any man to participate and raised morale for holding public office.
-To send away or banish someone
-Athens would ostracize anyone who posed a threat to their democracy. The ostracized person would typically have to live outside of the city for 10 years.
-Ostracizing in Athens protected their democracy and made an example out of people who went against their ideas.
-The Spartan alliance formed after the Delian League
-The Spartans didn't like the dominance Athens had over the Delian League, so they formed the Peloponnesian League. This would eventually lead to the Peloponnesian War.
-The Peloponnesian League would lead to a rivalry between Athens and Sparta, starting the Peloponnesian War.
-People who used observation and reason to find causes for events.
-Philosophers in Greece explored math, music, and logic. They thought that they could discover laws that governed the universe. They also studied ethics and morality.
-Greek philosophers came up with ideas that are still used today and challenged the belief that the gods were reason for all events.
-Greek philosophers challenged the common thought in Greece that the gods were behind all events. They used reason and observation with logic.
-Logic challenged common thoughts about the gods that Greeks had and awakened them to reason.
-The art of skillful speaking
-Greek Sophists used rhetoric to advance their careers. Many followed them, although elders accused them of undermining Greek values.
-Rhetoric was used to advance careers for Sophists and question common ideas.
-An Athenian stonemason and philosopher
-Socrates asked people about their beliefs. He challenged people to examine the implications of their answers to his questions. He wanted to help others and gain self-knowledge. He was disliked by Athenians for threatening accepted values and was put to death after facing a jury of 501 citizens.
-Socrates helped others while learning things and challenged common beliefs in Athens.
-The student of Socrates
-What we know of Socrates comes from Plato. We know of the process Socrates used for asking questions and what his goals were because of Plato. He started the Academy and taught his ideas. He rejected Athenian democracy.
-What we know of Socrates today comes from Plato. He also started the Academy to share his ideas.
-A philosopher who was a student of Plato
-Aristotle developed his own ideas about government. He went thought democracy would lead to mob rule. He supported a government with one leader. He started the Lyceum for study of all subjects. He wrote about many different subjects like politics, ethics, logic, biology, etc.
-Aristotle taught and wrote about many different subjects of knowledge.
-A temple dedicated to Athena
-The Parthenon has tall columns with a sloping roof. The Parthenon is an example of the widely admired Greek architecture.
-The Parthenon has grace and dignity, showing the advanced architecture of the Greeks.
-Athenians who challenged accepted ideas
-Sophists were skillful in rhetoric. They cared about success more then moral truth. They used rhetoric to advance their career. Sophists weren't liked in Athens for undermining Greek values.
-Sophists were masters of rhetoric and were able to use it to advance their careers and gain a following.
-Plays that told stories of human suffering
-Tragedy was meant to relive emotions of pity and fear. Many famous playwrights wrote tragedies.
-Tragedy showed people how anyone could be subject to misfortune and the wrath of the gods.
-Humorous plays that mock people or customs
-Most Greek comedies were by Aristophanes. They ridiculed members of society, therefore criticizing society.
-Comedies were a way to criticize society and for people to have fun and get away from their daily lives.
-One of the greatest Athenian playwrights who wrote tragedy
-Sophocles was a survivor of the Peloponnesian War. He questioned accepted ideas in society. In one play, he writes how a women is sentenced to death for burying her brother who was a traitor.
-Sophocles is considered one of the best Greek playwrights, and provided tragedies to the people of Greece.
-A Greek playwright who wrote tragedies
-In Oresteia Aeschylus shows a powerful family torn apart. He showed that anyone is subject to misfortune and no one can withstand the wrath of the gods.
-Aeschylus is considered one of the greatest Greek playwrights and he taught the Greeks important lessons through his tragedies.
-The playwright of almost all Greek comedies
-Aristophanes ridiculed members of society through his comedies. In Lysistrata, Athenian women band together to stop the war against Sparta. He sharply criticized society.
-Aristophanes criticized society through his plays and is the author of most surviving Greek comedies.
-A Greek who recorded many important events of history
-Herodotus is called the "Father of History." He visited people and collected information from reliable sources. He took note of biased accounts or conflicting stories. He focused on detail and accuracy. He wrote The Persian Wars, telling of how the war was a moral victory for Greeks and their love of freedom.
-Herodotus wrote things that tell us of events in ancient times accurately. He took time and cared about the detail and accuracy of his writing.
-An Athenian historian
-Thucydides was a survivor of the Peloponnesian War. He wrote about this war and how it corrupted the people involved in it. He was unbiased even though he was an Athenian.
-Thucydides wrote about the Peloponnesian War and was unbiased about it.
Alexander the Great
-A leader from Macedonia who controlled a huge region
-Alexander the Great took the throne at age 20. He conquered Persia, then some of India. He died of sickness at 32 years old.
-Alexander the Great controlled a huge empire and conquered powerful forces.
-Father of Alexander the Great and ruler of Macedonia
-Philip II made alliances with some Greek city-states and conquered others. In 338 B.C., he took control of all of Greece. He was assassinated at his daughters wedding before he could fulfill his dream of conquering the Persians.
-Philip II was a powerful leader who gave birth to the man who would conquer a vast empire.
-The murder of a public figure
-Philip II was assassinated at his daughters wedding. This prevented him from conquering the Persians, his dream.
-Philip II's assassination prevented him from fulfilling his dream.
-Local people living in Alexander the Great's empire assimilated Greek ideas. This spread Greek culture across a huge area.
-The assimilation of Greek culture spread its ideas from Egypt to India.
-A large cultural center in Alexander the Great's empire
-Alexandria sold things that came from Greece, Arabia, Africa, and other areas. It contained almost a million people. It had the Museum, which had labs, lecture halls, a zoo, and a library. It was a great center of learning, and the library had thousands of scrolls containing what people knew of the ancient world.
-Alexandria was a large cultural center where people could learn and be home to a place where different cultures blended together.
-The culture that blended Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian traditions
-The Hellenistic culture formed after Alexander the Great's rule. In the city of Alexandria, the markets sold things from different areas, cultures, and civilizations. Knowledge from different civilizations combined to form new philosophy and ideas about math and astronomy.
-Hellenization created the opportunity for the ideas from different cultures to combine into one.
-A mathematician in the Hellenistic age
-Pythagoras created a formula for the relationship between sides of a right triangle. This formula is still used today.
-The formula that Pythagoras created is still used today in schools.
-An astronomer in the Hellenistic age
-Aristarchus developed the theory that the solar system was heliocentric. This means that the sun is the center of the solar system, and our planet orbited the sun while rotating on an axis. This wouldn't be accepted for another 2000 years, but is now proven fact.
-Aristarchus developed a theory that wouldn't be accepted for another 2000 years, but he was correct.
-The founder of Stoicism
-Zeno founded Stoicism with important ideas about society and life. These ideas would effect many Romans and Christians.
-Zeno's ideas would carry over to other civilizations and be the basis for Stoicism.
-The most well-known scientist in the Hellenistic age
-Archimedes made inventions using the principles of physics. He was advanced with the lever and pulley.
-Archimedes made inventions and mastered the lever and pulley, a system used a lot today.
-A Greek physician who lived around 400 B.C
-Hippocrates studied illnesses and tried to develop cures. He made the Hippocratic oath that set doctors to ethical standards. This oath is used today by doctors.
-Hippocrates searched for cures to illnesses and made an oath that has lasted to modern-day doctors.
-A school of philosophy during the Hellenistic age
-Stoicism was formed by Zeno. Stoics had high moral standards. Their ideas would influence Romans and Christians later on.
-Stoicism had unique ideas and would influence later people.