Specify what the government must do to ensure equal protection and freedom from discrimination.
Specify what the government cannot do.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Extended citizenship to anyone born in the U.S. and gave African Americans full equality before the law.
The Enforcement Act of 1870
Set out specific criminal sanctions for interfering with the right to vote as protected by the 15th Amendment and the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
Civil Rights Act of 1872
Made it a federal crime for anyone to use law or custom to deprive an individual of rights, privileges, and immunities secured by the Constitution or by any federal law.
Second Civil Rights Act of 1875
Declared everyone is entitled to full and equal enjoyment of public accommodations, theaters, and other places of public amusement, and it imposed penalties on violators.
Ineffectivness of Early Civil Rights Acts
14th Amendment was limited to correcting official actions taken by states; thus, the discriminatory acts of private citizens were not illegal.Civil War amendments and the Civil Rights Acts were ignored.
Examples of Voting Barriers
White primary, Grandfather Clause, Poll taxes, and Literacy tests
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Segregation of races in the public schools violates the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
Impact of Dred Scott Decision
Slaves were not citizens of the U.S., nor were they entitled to the rights and privileges of citizenship.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Forbid discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Outlawed discriminatory voter-registration tests Authorized federal registration of voters and federally administered voting procedures
The Civil Rights Act of 1868
Forbid discrimination in most housing and provided penalties for those attempting to interfere with individual rights