Social and Behavioral Sciences - Online CPH Terminology

Terms in this set (127)

Community-level theory that attempts to describe the rate and process of the adoption of new ideas and behaviors in a specific population or between populations. An innovation is defined as "an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption," while diffusion is defined as "the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system." The process of diffusion occurs over the course of five stages: innovation development, dissemination, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. The adoption stage requires that an individual: 1) has knowledge of the innovation (has an awareness that the innovation exists, knowledge of how to use the innovation and how it works); 2) goes through a process of persuasion or attitude development, in which the individual discusses the innovation with others and forms a favorable or negative attitude toward it; 3) decides to adopt the innovation; 4) implements, or begins to use the innovation; and 5) goes through a process of confirmation, in which the individual integrates the innovation into his life and recommends it to others. In general, not everyone adopts an innovation at the same time. Diffusion of Innovations categorizes individuals into five groups, based on when they adopt an innovation: innovators are the first to adopt, followed by early adopters , then early majority adopters , followed by late majority adopters and finally laggards . The process of adoption in a population over time, as described by DOI, roughly follows a standard normal distribution: early majority adopters and late majority adopters are within one standard deviation of the mean; early adopters and laggards are within two standard deviations; and innovators are within three standard deviations of the mean. There are certain attributes of an innovation that determine the speed and extent of its diffusion. These attributes include: the relative advantage of the innovation over existing alternatives; its compatibility with the intended audience; its complexity , or ease of use; its trialability , or whether or not someone can try the innovation before deciding whether or not to adopt it; the observability or measurability of its results; its likely impact on social relations ; its reversibility ; its communicability , or how easily and clearly it can be understood; the time required to adopt the innovation; the level of risk or uncertainty associated with its adoption; the level of commitment required to use the innovation effectively; and the modifiability of the innovation over time.
Program planning framework intended to facilitate the development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion programs. Following a thorough review of the literature and an appropriate needs assessment, the process of intervention mapping includes five steps: "1) creating matrices of proximal program objectives from performance objectives and determinants of behavior and environmental conditions; 2) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical strategies; 3) designing and organizing programs; 4) specifying adoption and implementation plans; and 5) generating an evaluation plan." In step one, a list of performance objectives are generated that define the desired behavioral and environmental outcomes of the program; personal (internal) and external determinants of the behavioral and environmental outcomes are specified; if determinants vary by sub-population, the target population is differentiated; and, finally, performance objectives and determinants are linked in a matrix format, often by level (i.e. individual vs. organizational) and by sub-population, if applicable. Each cell in the resulting matrices will contain either a learning objective (linking a performance objective with a personal determinant) or a change objective (linking a performance objective with an external determinant) that defines what individuals need to learn or what changes need to take place in the environment as a result of the program. In step 2, a list of theoretical intervention methods (i.e. community planning) and a list of possible strategies for delivering those methods (i.e. community forums or meetings) are developed, based on the identified proximal objectives. In step 3, the selected strategies are operationalized into deliverable program components and delivery mechanisms (i.e. channel selection), and program materials are developed and pre-tested. During step 4, a "linkage system" between program users and developers is created so that the program can be modified to meet the needs of the users; adoption and implementation performance objectives are developed; determinants of adoption and implementation are specified; and an implementation plan is developed. Finally, step 5 involves developing an evaluation model, including a plan for process evaluation.
Phase 1, social assessment and situational analysis, involves engaging the target population to identify general indicators of quality of life. Phase 2, epidemiological assessment, includes identifying specific health goals or problems that contribute to or interact with the social goals or problems identified in phase 1. Phase 3, behavioral and environmental assessment, involves identifying and prioritizing behavioral and environmental determinants of the specific health problems identified in phase 2. Phase 4, educational and ecological assessment, includes identifying and prioritizing predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors that are related to the behavioral and environmental determinants. " Predisposing factors include a person's or population's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values and perceptions that facilitate or hinder motivation for change." Reinforcing factors are "the rewards received and the feedback the learner receives from others following adoption of a behavior." " Enabling factors are those skills, resources or barriers that can help or hinder the desired behavioral changes as well as environmental changes." Phase 5, intervention alignment and administrative and policy assessment, involves "intervention matching, mapping, and patching" to determine which program components and activities are needed to target the factors identified in the previous stages and determining whether or not the program has the policy, organizational and administrative capacity to do them. In phase 6, implementation occurs. Phase 7 includes process evaluation, phase 8 includes impact evaluation, and phase 9 includes outcome evaluation.