22 terms

Cells - Sheltered Biology

chloroplast: makes food for plant cells, photosynthesis mitochondria:release energy vacuole: stores food, water, and waste lysosome: found mainly in animal cells, digests old cell parts er: carries materials cytoplasm: supports and protects cell organelles nucleolus: makes ribosomes ribosome: synthesizes proteins cell membrane: outside of the animal cell, protection and support nucleus: controls cell activity cell wall: protection and support for plant, not animal cells
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nucleus
composed of a double membrane containing nucleic acids.
location:center of cell
Contains DNA that regulates protein synthesis and cell division.
Contains RNA
plasma membrane
Envelopes entire cell
Provides a barrier for the cell
regulates movement of materials in and out of cell
ribosome
contains 60% RNA
40% protein
either attached to ER
or Unattached in the cytoplasm
provides attachment site for mRNA during protein synthesis
cytoplasm
jelly-like substance inside the cell
composed of cytosol and organelles.
Region BETWEEN plasma membrane and nucleus
Cellular metabolism and other activities to maintain the cell.
lysosome
found randomly throughout cytoplasm
Contains digestive enzymes that breakdown materials:
- brought into cell
-components within the cell
-components outside of the cell
mitochondria
sausage shape with inner folded membrane.
-Randomly throughout the cytoplasm
-site where ATP is produced during cellular respiration
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
-branching tubules that may be flattened or tubular
-No ribosomes
-winds and twists throughout cytoplasm
-site of lipid and carbohydrate assembly
-detoxification of drugs/alchohol
golgi apparatus (golgi complex)
-usually near nucleus with secretory
-vesicles near plasma
-prepare and package cellar products for transport
centrioles
Composed of nine groups of three microtubules, forming a cylinders
-near the nucleus in the centrosome
-Participates in cell division
Cytosol
-thick, gel-like fluid mostly water and proteins
-surrounds organelles
-Transport of substances between organelles and other cell structures
Organelles
-formed bodies
-Suspended within cytosol
-Varied activities that maintain the cell
Cilia
-Long, slender projections of the plasma membrane of certain cells
-Extend outward, away from the cell surface
-Rhythmic movements propel fluids across cell surfaces
Flagellum
-Long, whip like structure
-extends away from cell surface
-Movement of a cell(sperm)
Microvilli
-Numerous, tiny folds of the plasma membrane
-Extend outward, away from the cell surface
-Increase the plasma membrane surface area for absorption or secretion
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Ribosomes attached
-extends between nucleus and plasma membrane
-site for protein synthesis
Peroxisome
-spherical, smaller than lysosomes
-Randomly throughout cytoplasm
-Contains enzymes to digest lipids
Protects the cell from effects of free radicals
Cytoskeleton
-Rods of protein
-throughout cytoplasm
-Supports cell structure
-stabilize position of cell organelles
-produce cell movement
-role in cell division
Secretory Vesicle
-membranous sac
-throughout cytoplasm
-Carry substances throughout cell
-release products from cell through exocytosis
Nuclear envelope
-double membrane with large nuclear pores
-Surrounds nucleoplasm
-Regulates movement of materials between CYTOPLASM and NUCLEOPLASM
Nucleoplasm
-gel-like fluid consisting of water, nucleic acids, and Proteins
-Contained within the nuclear envelope
-Site of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
Nucleolus
-small sphere containing RNA Proteins
-Located within the nucleoplasm
-Site of RNA synthesis
Chromatin
Threadlike material composed of DNA and Proteins
-Restricted to one area within the nucleoplasm
-DNA contains the genes which control protein sythesis