Science Quiz: Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat
Terms in this set (58)
The faster that particles of matter move, ...
The more kinetic energy they have.
A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in matter.
Which has faster moving particles, a cup of iced tea or a cup of hot tea?
The cup of hot tea because the higher the temperature, the higher the kinetic energy of the particles.
Most common temperature scale in US
Most common temperature scale in the world
Most common temperature scale in physical science
Which scale is divided into 100 equal parts between the freezing and boiling of water?
Kelvin and Celsius, they have the same scale.
The temperature where no more energy can be removed from matter.
Absolute Zero: -460°
Water Freezes: 32°
Water Boils: 212°
Absolute Zero: -273.15°
Water Freezes: 0°
Water Boils: 100°
Absolute Zero: 0
Water Freezes: 273
Water Boils: 373
The total energy of the particles in a substance. Depends on the temperature of a substance. Partly depends on how the particles of a substance are arranged. Depends on the number of particles in a substance.
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of material by 1 kelvin
3 Common scales used
Fahrenheit (°F), Celsius (°C), and Kelvin (K)
What is the unit of measure for specific heat?
Joules per Kilogram-Kelvin
Energy that is gained or lost is related to...
Mass, specific heat and change in temperature
Formula to calculate the change of thermal energy.
change in temperature. Or, Q = mc∆T
What are the 3 ways that heat can be transferred?
Conduction, radiation and convection.
One particle of matter to another without the movement of the matter. Things that are touching. EX: Someone touching a hot cup of tea.
Heat moves by with the movements of currents within a fluid. EX: Boiling water in a pot.
Heat moves through electromagnetic waves. EX: Fire place.
When heat flows from one substance to another, what happens to the temperature of the substance giving off the heat to the temperature of the substance receiving the heat?
The substance giving off heat will lose some of its temperature to the substance receiving the heat because the substance receiving the heat absorbs the thermal energy. The receiving substance's temperature would then increase.
Why can't ice transfer coldness into another substance?
There is no such thing as coldness. Everything will have a little bit of heat, except for absolute zero. Ice will make things colder as the thermal energy of another substance is absorbed by the ice.
A material that conducts heat well. EX: Silver, tile, most metals
A material that does not conduct heat well. EX: Air, wood, wool, fiberglass
One of the 3 forms of matter - solid, liquid, or gas - in which most matter on Earth exists.
Change of state
The physical change of matter from on state to another.
The change from solid to liquid state of matter. Solid absorbs more thermal energy and particles start to have more motion.
The change from liquid to solid state of matter. Taking away more thermal energy, particles have less motion.
The change from liquid to gas state of matter. Absorbs more thermal energy and particles have more motion.
Vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid.
Vaporization that occurs on and below the surface of a liquid.
The change from gas to liquid state of matter. There will be less thermal energy and particles have less motion.
The expansion when matter is heated.
3 types of matter
Gas, liquid and solid.
4th state, plasma. It is a type of matter with very high energy.
The particles are packed together in relatively fixed positions. They can't move out of their positions, but only back and forth. Fixed shape and volume.
The particles that make up a liquid are close together, but not held as tightly as particles in solids. Don't have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume.
The particles move so fast that they don't stay close to each other. They expand to fill space. Don't have a fixed shape/volume.
How can there be a change of state?
Matter can change from one state to another by releasing or absorbing thermal energy.
States during the change of state.
As temperature increases, so does thermal energy. Freezing/melting and condensation/vaporization's temperatures will stay the same during the processes but their thermal energies will increase.
Temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
Temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid
Temperature at which liquid boils.
How to bimetallic strips work?
As you heat the metal strip, it expands and curls up. As you cool the metal strip, it straightens.
What is the change of state from solid to gas?
What is the change of state from gas to solid?
How do refrigerators work?
Refrigerant absorbs heat. --> Compressor increases refrigerant's temperature. --> Refrigerant releases heat. --> Expansion valve decreases refrigerants temperature. --> Back to the beginning.
What does the thermal energy of a steam locomotive do?
Converts to mechanical energy for the train to move.
Is required to change thermal energy into mechanical energy.
Process of burning a fuel, such as gas or coal.
External Combustion Engines
Fuel is burned outside of the engine. EX: Steam engines. These will have pistons that move back in forth in a cylinder.
Internal Combustion Engines
Fuel is burned inside the engine. EX: Diesel and Gasoline. They have an up and down movements of a piston called a stroke.
The process of an external combustion engine.
1. Steam produces from an outside boiler comes into the engine.
2. The sliding valve controls the steam into and out of the cylinder.
3. The cylinder fills up with steam, then the sliding valve traps the heat in by closing.
4. Steam expands, pushing the piston from one side to another.
5. Mechanical energy of the piston is transferred to the flywheel to do work.
The process of an internal combustion engine.
1. Mixture of fuel and air is drawn into the cylinder during the intake stroke.
2. Compression stroke, mixture is squeezed into a smaller space.
3. During the spark stroke, a spark plug ignites the mixture and heats up the gas.
4. During the exhaust stroke, the piston pushes the heated gas out, making room for new fuel and air.
Where do a refrigerator transfer thermal energy from and to?
From a cold area to a warm area.
What provides the energy for a refrigerator to transfer energy from inside to outside?
Where does the gas that circulates through the tubes inside the refrigerator walls lose thermal energy?
It loses thermal energy in the pipes, or the condenser, which can be in back or the bottom and outside of the refrigerator.
How do refrigerators work?
1. Evaporator: Heat from food is absorbed by liquid refrigerant and changes to a gas.
2. Compressor: Gas refrigerant flows to the compressor. Increase is pressure raises refrigerants temperature so that is higher than room temperature.
3. Condenser: Gas refrigerant releases heat into room and changes to a liquid.
4. Expansion Valve: Liquid refrigerant flows through expansion valve. Lower pressure lowers refrigerant's temperature so it is lower temperature that the food.