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270 terms

anatomy & physiology 2 lab - respiratory & digestive system

4th edition wood version , cat practical test 2
STUDY
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nostrils
external nares
vestibule
expanded area inside the nares, contains course hair
nasal septum
formed by - perpendicular plate of the ethmoid , vomer - divides nasal cavity into left and right sides
superior, middle , inferior conchae
bony shelves protecting from lateral walls, opening between them
nasal meatuses
superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae ( bone part not passage ways)
hard palate
maxillae and palatine bones labeled big H
soft palate
extends posterior into pharynx, AREA BEFORE UVULA
3 regions of pharynx
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx,
fauces
opening between oral cavity and pharynx
pharyngeal tonsils
adenoids - lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx LABELED F
palatine and lingual tonsils
lympathatic tissue in oropharynx
6 parts of larynx
thyroid and cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, glottis, vestibular and vocal ligaments
auditory or eustachian tube
lead to middle ear, for pressure equilibration
thyroid cartilage
Adam's apple, a large shield shaped hyaline cartilage
cricoid cartilage
ring shaped hyaline cartilage
epiglottis
tongue shaped elastic cartilage - during swallowing- swings down to cover the glottis
glottis
an opening THE WHOLE
vestibular ligaments
fibrous cords enclosed in tissue folds spanning the glottis, prevents material from entering glottis
vocal ligaments
vocal cords, air flow causes them to vibrate , producing sound
3 parts of trachea
tracheal cartilage, trachealis muscle, and carina
tracheal cartilage
c shaped, keeps airway open
trachealis muscle
along posterior margin, allows expression of esophagus
carina
internal ridge at base of trachea where it separates into primary bronchi
3 parts of bronchial tree
left and right primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary ( segmental ) bronchi
primary bronchi
l/r each serves a single lobe of the lung
secondary bronchi
each serves a single lobe of the lung
tertiary ( segmental) bronchi
each serves a single broncho pulmonary segment
2 parts of pseudo stratified columnar epithelium
cilia and goblet cells
where is pseudo stratified columnar epithelium found
nasopharynx, trachea. bronchial tree
cilia
small hair like projections covering the surface like a carpet
goblet cells
large white cells , secrete mucus
cartilage
in walls of trachea , bronchi, and nasal cavity, cells
(chondrocytes) isolated in small caves called lacunae
2 sections of pleural cavity
partietal and visceral pleura
pleural cavity
space surrounding each lung, lined by serous membranes
parietal pleura
lines thoracic wall
visceral pleura
lines surface of lungs
apex
conical superior surface of lung
base
flattened inferior surface
cadiac notch
medial concave indentation of the left lung
left lung has
superior and inferior lobes seperated by oblique fissure
right lung has
superior, middle, inferior lobes seperated by horizontal and oblique fissures
2 alveoli features
alveolar sacs ans simple squamous epithelium
emphysema
Emphysema occurs when the air sacs in your lungs are gradually destroyed, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.
3 types of lung volume
tidal bvolume , exxpiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve
tidal volume
the amount of air inhaled or exhaled in an average breath under resting conditions, tyipical volume, 500 ml
expiratory reserve volume
the additional amount of air which can be exhaled after normal exhalation
inspiratory reserve volume
the additional amount of air which can be inhaled after normal inhalation
tidal volume aka
Vt or TV
expiratory reserve volume aka
ERV
inspiratory reserve volume aka
IRV
VITAL CAPACITY CALCULATION
ERV + Vt +IRV
RMV calculation
RR X Vt
lung capacities can be
adding or subtracting lung volumes
TLC =
total lung capacity
vital capacity
Vc the maximum amount of air which can be inhaled or exhaled during a single breath
rr=
respiratory rate
RMV=
pulmonary ventilation rate
Px=
partial pressure
Px calculation
% composition times P total
modes of breathing
quiet and forced
quiet breathing aka
eupnea
forced breathing aka
hyperpnea
quiet breathing
inhalation is active , exhalation is passive
forced breathing
inhalation and exhalation are both active
3 muscles of respiration
diaphragm, external intercostals, and accesory repiratory muscles
intrapulmonary pressure
change in the volume of the lungs affects air pressure inside the lungs
boyle's law
change in volume affects pressure in lungs, higher volume lower pressure
mucosa
lines the lumen
epithelium
stratified squamous from mouth to esophagus; simple columnar from stomach to rectum
lamina propria
connective tissue
muscularis mucosae
thin smooth muscle separating mucosa from submucosa
4 layers of digestive tract
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis ecterna, and seosa or adventitia
3 layers of mucosa
epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis externa
submucosa
loose connective tissue containing vessels and nerves; overlies the submucosal plexus
muscularis externa
inner circular and outer longitudinal layers; overlies the myenteric plexus
serosa
serous membrane covering abdominal organs; OR adventitia - loose connective tissue surrounding pharynx, esophagus, and rectum
serosa aka
visceral peritoneum)
adventitia
loose connective tissue surrounding pharynx, esophagus, and rectum
2 parts of Parotid Salivary Gland
serous cells & ducts
serous cells
arranged in acini (cul-de-sacs); produce salivary amylase
ducts
contribute to saliva and drain into oral cavity
4 parts to esophagus
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and adventitia
mucosa
stratified squamous epithelium
submucosa
loose connective tissue containing vessels and nerves
muscularis externa
inner circular and outer longitudinal layers
adventitia
loose connective tissue surrounding esophagus and trachea
2 parts to stomach
mucosa and muscularis
2 parts to mucosa of the stomach
gastric pits and glands
gastric pits
columnar epithelium of mostly mucus cells
gastric glands
includes chief cells and parietal cells
2 parts to gastric glands
chief cells and parietal cells
chief cells
produce pepsinogen
parietal cells
produce H+ and intrinsic factor
muscularis externa
3 layers: inner oblique, middle circular, and outer longitudinal
3 parts to small intestines
plicae, villi, and intestinal glands
plicae
large folds in mucosa and submucosa (give submucosa a wavy surface)
villi
fingerlike projections in mucosa; covered by columnar epithelium with visible brush border of microvilli; relatively few goblet cells
intestinal glands
shallow compared to stomach and large intestine
intestinal glands aka
crypts of Lieberkuhn)
Large Intestine aka
colon
2 parts to Large Intestine
mucosa and peyer's patches
mucosa of large intestine
columnar epithelium on surface; deep unbranching glands lined almost entirely by goblet cells
Peyer's patches
nodules of lymphoid tissue (purple) in submucosa
3 major parts to liver
lobules, portal areas, and sinusoids
lobules
hexagonal shaped arrays of tissue;
hepatocytes
are arranged radially in plates surrounding a central vei
portal areas
at each corner of the hexagon; each contains a group of 3 vessels (hepatic triad):
(hepatic triad):
1. branch of the hepatic artery - carries blood from aorta
2. branch of the hepatic portal vein - carries venous blood from the digestive tract
3. bile ductule - carries bile towards the common bile duct
sinusoids
endothelial cells surrounding hepatocytes are widely spaced (don't form capillaries)
3 parts to panceres
acini, ducts, and islets of Langerhans
islets of Langerhans
patches of endocrine tissue; cells randomly oriented
acini and ducts -
exocrine structures; produce pancreatic juice that drain into duodenum via the pancreatic duct
Oral cavity:
labia, cheeks, vestibule, tongue, hard palate, soft palate, uvula, fauces
Salivary glands:
parotid, submandibular, sublingual
Pharynx:
3 regions (nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx)
Esophagus:
upper and lower esophageal "sphincters" (not true sphincters)
Stomach:
4 regions (cardia, fundus, body, pylorus), pyloric sphincter, rugae, greater and lesser curvatures
Small intestine:
3 regions (duodenum, jejunum, ileum - there is no clear boundary between these); duodenal papilla, ileocecal valve
3 regions (duodenum, jejunum, ileum - there is no clear boundary between these); duodenal papilla, ileocecal valve
6 regions (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum), 3 flexures (hepatic, splenic, sigmoid), appendix, haustra,
taenia coli, anus, internal and external anal sphincters
Liver:
4 lobes (right, left, caudate, quadrate), falciform ligament, coronary ligament, porta hepatis, common hepatic duct
Gallbladder:
posterior surface of liver, between quadrate and left lobes of liver, drains bile into duodenum via the biliary tree
Pancreas:
3 regions (head, body, tail), pancreatic duct
Mesenteries
greater and Lesser omentum,Mesentery proper, and Mesocolon:
Lesser omentum
between lesser curvature of stomach and liver
Mesocolon:
transverse, sigmoid
Greater omentum
suspended from greater curvature of stomach
Biliary Tree:
bile flows from hepatocytes into ductules form
left and right hepatic ducts form
common hepatic duct
meets cytic duct from the gall bladder
to form common bile duct
meets the pancreatic duct and drains into the duodenum via duodenal ampulla and the papilla
Inhalation:
air is taken into lungs, active, requires signal from brain
Exhalation:
air passes out of lungs, relaxation
Respiratory values are
variable dependent of person's size, age, sex, and physical condition
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Lung volume
-Lung capacities
-Respiratory rates
-Pulmonary ventilation rates
Mechanics of Breathing
-Modes of breathing
-Muscles of respiration
-Boyle's Law (air pressure change)
Chemistry of Respiration
Dalton's Law (concentrations of gases in a mixture)
-Henry's Law (gases ability to dissolve in a liquid)
Minimal volume:
amount of air left in lungs after they are collapsed (100 ml
Residual volume -rv
air or air left in lungs after maximal exhalation (1,200 ml)
Tidal volume (VT or TV):
amount of air inhaled or exhaled in an average breath (500 ml
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV):
amount of additional air which can be exhaled after a normal exhalation (1,000 ml)
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV):
amount of additional air which can be inhaled after a normal inhalation (3,300 ml!)
Spirometry
-Most common of the pulmonary function tests
-Used to diagnose disease based on volume and/or flow of air
Spirometer
Device used to measure respiratory volumes
Total lung capacity =
RV + ERV + VT+ IRV
-Average = 6,000 ml!
Inspiratory capacity=
VT+ IRV
-Total amount of air in lungs after maximum inhalation
-Average = 3,800 ml
Functional residual capacity=
RV + ERV
-Total amount of air that could be exhaled after a maximum inhalation
-Average = 2,200 ml
Vital capacity=
capacity= ERV + VT + IRV
-Important diagnostic calculation
-Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhale
-Average = 4,800 ml in men; 3,100 ml in women
Respiratory rate (f or RR)
The number of breaths taken per minute
-Average = 12 breaths/ minute
Pulmonary VentilationRate (VE)=
fx VT
-Volume of air moved into the upper respiratory tract per minute
-Average = 6,000 ml
Modes of Breathing
Quiet breathing (eupnea): inhalation is active, exhalation is passive
-Forced breathing (hypernea): inhalation and exhalation is active
Muscles of Respiration
Diaphragm
-External intercostals
Boyle's Law
Change in volume of lungs affects air pressure in lungs (intrapulmonary pressure)
Inhalation opf boyle
s law
-Diaphragm contracts, moves down
-Rib cage lifts and expands
-Lungs expand
-Air pressure is less in the lungs (intrapulmonary) than the atmosphere, air rushes in
•Exhalation
-Diaphragm relaxes of boyle's law
Diaphragm relaxes
-Rib cage relaxes, moves down
-Lung volume decrease
-Air pressure is greater in lungs than atmosphere, air rushes out
Dalton's Law:
the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures
-Partial pressure (Px) = % composition x P total
-Air: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% others and a total pressure of 760mm Hg
-Pxof oxygen = 0.21 x 760mm Hg = 159mm Hg
Henry's Law:
Gas law that describes the extent to which gases will dissolve in the blood plasma (proportional to the partial pressure)
Normal respiratory sounds
Bronchial sounds: air rushing through larger passageways
-Vesicular sounds: air filling alveolar sacs, rustling or muffled breeze
Diseased respiratory sounds
Rasping
-Whistling/ wheezing sound
Carbonic acid-bicarbonatebuffer system:
tabilizes arterial blood at pH 7.4
•CO2+ H2O yields H2CO3
CO2+ H2O
H2CO3
When blood is too basic:
H2CO3 dissociates to H++ H2CO3-
When blood too acidic:
H+ combines with HCO3-to form H2CO3
Upper Respiratory
External nares
-Pharynx
-Epiglottis
-Thyroid cartilage of larynx
-Cricoid cartilage of larynx
Lower Respiratory
-Trachea
-Primary bronchi
-Hilus of lung
-Lobes of lung
•Right -4 lobes
•Left -3 lobes
-Diaphragm
Before nutrients can be used as energy in thecell
food has to be digested from macromolecules to monomers(simplest unit)
enzymes
chemical reactions are controlled by a special group of proteins
enzymes lower
activation energy needed for a reaction to occur
-Highly specific for the substrate (molecule to be altered)
-Specific for pH and temperature conditions
Food:Carbohydrate Digestion
Starch and sugar
Monomer:Carbohydrate Digestion
monosaccharide
Enzymes:Carbohydrate Digestion
amylase, brushborder enzymes
Sites of action:Carbohydrate Digestion
Salivary amylase: mouth
-Pancreatic amylase: small intestine
-Brush border enzymes: villi of small intestines
Protein Digestion-Food:
protein
Protein Digestion Monomer:
amino acid
Protein Digestion Enzymes:
pepsin,pancreatic enzymes, brush border enzymes
Protein Digestion Sites of action
-Pepsin (+HCl):
Pepsin (+HCl): stomach
-Pancreatic enzymes: small intestines
-Brush border enzymes: villi of small intestines
Lipid Digestion food
fats and oils
Lipid Digestion monomer
glycerol and fatty acid
Lipid Digestion enzymes
pancreatic lipase, bile saltsalso important
Lipid Digestion Sites of action
pancreatic lipase: small intestine
-Bile salts: small intestine
Monosaccharides and amino acids:
Enter the blood capillaries of the villi via facilitated transport (Na ions or transport protein)
-Transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein where there are metabolized accordingly
Fatty acids:
Enter the intestinal cells via diffusion and combine with cellular proteins
-These complexes (chylomicrons) are released from the cell to the systemic circulation.
-Glycerol and short-chains of fatty acids are absorb into the blood capillaries of the villi and are transported to the liver vial the hepatic portal vein
large intestine- colon - 40 x
villi of small intestine
plicae of small intestine 40 x
small intestines 40 x
small intesintes 100 x
small intestines 40 x
fundus of stomach 400 x
stomach 200 x
stomach 100x
stomach 40 x
parotid salvary gland 100 x
parotid salvary gland 40 x
layers of digestive tract
...
trachea and esophagus
treachea 400 x
treachea 40 x
normal lung 40 x
emphysemic lung 40 x
normal lung 40 x
normal lung
pancreas 100 x
pancreas 40 x
lobules of liver 100 x
liver 40 x with lobules
large intestines colon 100 x
stomach
d
cardia
19
oesophagus
c
small intestine
e
jejunum
27
ileum
28
large intestine
f
transverse colon
33
ascending colon
32
descending colon
34
sigmoid colon
35
rectum
36
anal canal
37
internal anal sphincter muscle
39
external anal sphincter muscle
40
liver
g
common bile duct
50
proper hepatic artery
51
hepatic portal vein
52
cystic duct
48
gall bladder
47
pancreas
h
head of pancreas
53
pancreatic notch
54
body of pancreas
55
pancreatic duct
57
amylase
digests carbohydrates to sugars
lingual lipase
digests lipids to fatty acids
pepsinogen
secreted by chief cells in stomach, converted to pepsin.
pepsin
active in acidic pH, pH< 4.0. Digest proteins to amino acids.
parietal cells
secrete H+ to make acidic pH for pepsin activity.
Bile
solubilizes lipids and fats
Pancreatic juice: amylase
digests carbohydradest to sugars
Pancreatic juice: trypsin,
chymotrypsin - digest proteins to peptides
lipases
digests lipids to fatty acids
Ileum
absorption of digested material
identify cat external nares
...
identify cat pharynx
...
identify cat epiglottis
...
identify cat trachea
...
identify cat diaphragm
...
identify cat hard palate
...
identify cat soft palate
...
identify cat stomach
...
identify cat pyloric sphincter
...a
identify cat lesser omentum
...b
identify cat greater omentum
...c
identify cat duodenum
...d
identify cat mesentery
...e
identify cat ileum
...
identify cat cecum
...
identify cat liver
...
identify cat gallbladder
...
identify cat pancreas
...
what is the function of plicae
to increase surface area for nutrient absorption
pepsingogen
produce chief cells in stomach aid in digestion of proteins
salivary amylase
in parotid gland breaks down carbohydrates
esophagus has
stratified suamous cells and pass food from pharynx to stomach
abnormals features in smokers lungs
lvelar septumcarbon particles, debris, thick fibers in ave
small intestines are
simple columnar cells , may see peyers patches and lymph nodes
hepatic artery
hepatic artery. branch of hepatic portal vein, and bile ductile
enzymes in pancreas
typsin and pancreatic lipase
typsin
breaks down protein
pancreatic lipase
digest fats
partoid enzymes
breaks down carbs
colon is
simple columnar cell and absortion and compaction is it function
stomach is
simple columner

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