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4th edition wood version , cat practical test 2


external nares


expanded area inside the nares, contains course hair

nasal septum

formed by - perpendicular plate of the ethmoid , vomer - divides nasal cavity into left and right sides

superior, middle , inferior conchae

bony shelves protecting from lateral walls, opening between them

nasal meatuses

superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae ( bone part not passage ways)

hard palate

maxillae and palatine bones labeled big H

soft palate

extends posterior into pharynx, AREA BEFORE UVULA

3 regions of pharynx

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx,


opening between oral cavity and pharynx

pharyngeal tonsils

adenoids - lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx LABELED F

palatine and lingual tonsils

lympathatic tissue in oropharynx

6 parts of larynx

thyroid and cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, glottis, vestibular and vocal ligaments

auditory or eustachian tube

lead to middle ear, for pressure equilibration

thyroid cartilage

Adam's apple, a large shield shaped hyaline cartilage

cricoid cartilage

ring shaped hyaline cartilage


tongue shaped elastic cartilage - during swallowing- swings down to cover the glottis


an opening THE WHOLE

vestibular ligaments

fibrous cords enclosed in tissue folds spanning the glottis, prevents material from entering glottis

vocal ligaments

vocal cords, air flow causes them to vibrate , producing sound

3 parts of trachea

tracheal cartilage, trachealis muscle, and carina

tracheal cartilage

c shaped, keeps airway open

trachealis muscle

along posterior margin, allows expression of esophagus


internal ridge at base of trachea where it separates into primary bronchi

3 parts of bronchial tree

left and right primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary ( segmental ) bronchi

primary bronchi

l/r each serves a single lobe of the lung

secondary bronchi

each serves a single lobe of the lung

tertiary ( segmental) bronchi

each serves a single broncho pulmonary segment

2 parts of pseudo stratified columnar epithelium

cilia and goblet cells

where is pseudo stratified columnar epithelium found

nasopharynx, trachea. bronchial tree


small hair like projections covering the surface like a carpet

goblet cells

large white cells , secrete mucus


in walls of trachea , bronchi, and nasal cavity, cells
(chondrocytes) isolated in small caves called lacunae

2 sections of pleural cavity

partietal and visceral pleura

pleural cavity

space surrounding each lung, lined by serous membranes

parietal pleura

lines thoracic wall

visceral pleura

lines surface of lungs


conical superior surface of lung


flattened inferior surface

cadiac notch

medial concave indentation of the left lung

left lung has

superior and inferior lobes seperated by oblique fissure

right lung has

superior, middle, inferior lobes seperated by horizontal and oblique fissures

2 alveoli features

alveolar sacs ans simple squamous epithelium


Emphysema occurs when the air sacs in your lungs are gradually destroyed, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.

3 types of lung volume

tidal bvolume , exxpiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve

tidal volume

the amount of air inhaled or exhaled in an average breath under resting conditions, tyipical volume, 500 ml

expiratory reserve volume

the additional amount of air which can be exhaled after normal exhalation

inspiratory reserve volume

the additional amount of air which can be inhaled after normal inhalation

tidal volume aka

Vt or TV

expiratory reserve volume aka


inspiratory reserve volume aka




RMV calculation


lung capacities can be

adding or subtracting lung volumes


total lung capacity

vital capacity

Vc the maximum amount of air which can be inhaled or exhaled during a single breath


respiratory rate


pulmonary ventilation rate


partial pressure

Px calculation

% composition times P total

modes of breathing

quiet and forced

quiet breathing aka


forced breathing aka


quiet breathing

inhalation is active , exhalation is passive

forced breathing

inhalation and exhalation are both active

3 muscles of respiration

diaphragm, external intercostals, and accesory repiratory muscles

intrapulmonary pressure

change in the volume of the lungs affects air pressure inside the lungs

boyle's law

change in volume affects pressure in lungs, higher volume lower pressure


lines the lumen


stratified squamous from mouth to esophagus; simple columnar from stomach to rectum

lamina propria

connective tissue

muscularis mucosae

thin smooth muscle separating mucosa from submucosa

4 layers of digestive tract

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis ecterna, and seosa or adventitia

3 layers of mucosa

epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis externa


loose connective tissue containing vessels and nerves; overlies the submucosal plexus

muscularis externa

inner circular and outer longitudinal layers; overlies the myenteric plexus


serous membrane covering abdominal organs; OR adventitia - loose connective tissue surrounding pharynx, esophagus, and rectum

serosa aka

visceral peritoneum)


loose connective tissue surrounding pharynx, esophagus, and rectum

2 parts of Parotid Salivary Gland

serous cells & ducts

serous cells

arranged in acini (cul-de-sacs); produce salivary amylase


contribute to saliva and drain into oral cavity

4 parts to esophagus

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and adventitia


stratified squamous epithelium


loose connective tissue containing vessels and nerves

muscularis externa

inner circular and outer longitudinal layers


loose connective tissue surrounding esophagus and trachea

2 parts to stomach

mucosa and muscularis

2 parts to mucosa of the stomach

gastric pits and glands

gastric pits

columnar epithelium of mostly mucus cells

gastric glands

includes chief cells and parietal cells

2 parts to gastric glands

chief cells and parietal cells

chief cells

produce pepsinogen

parietal cells

produce H+ and intrinsic factor

muscularis externa

3 layers: inner oblique, middle circular, and outer longitudinal

3 parts to small intestines

plicae, villi, and intestinal glands


large folds in mucosa and submucosa (give submucosa a wavy surface)


fingerlike projections in mucosa; covered by columnar epithelium with visible brush border of microvilli; relatively few goblet cells

intestinal glands

shallow compared to stomach and large intestine

intestinal glands aka

crypts of Lieberkuhn)

Large Intestine aka


2 parts to Large Intestine

mucosa and peyer's patches

mucosa of large intestine

columnar epithelium on surface; deep unbranching glands lined almost entirely by goblet cells

Peyer's patches

nodules of lymphoid tissue (purple) in submucosa

3 major parts to liver

lobules, portal areas, and sinusoids


hexagonal shaped arrays of tissue;


are arranged radially in plates surrounding a central vei

portal areas

at each corner of the hexagon; each contains a group of 3 vessels (hepatic triad):

(hepatic triad):

1. branch of the hepatic artery - carries blood from aorta
2. branch of the hepatic portal vein - carries venous blood from the digestive tract
3. bile ductule - carries bile towards the common bile duct


endothelial cells surrounding hepatocytes are widely spaced (don't form capillaries)

3 parts to panceres

acini, ducts, and islets of Langerhans

islets of Langerhans

patches of endocrine tissue; cells randomly oriented

acini and ducts -

exocrine structures; produce pancreatic juice that drain into duodenum via the pancreatic duct

Oral cavity:

labia, cheeks, vestibule, tongue, hard palate, soft palate, uvula, fauces

Salivary glands:

parotid, submandibular, sublingual


3 regions (nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx)


upper and lower esophageal "sphincters" (not true sphincters)


4 regions (cardia, fundus, body, pylorus), pyloric sphincter, rugae, greater and lesser curvatures

Small intestine:

3 regions (duodenum, jejunum, ileum - there is no clear boundary between these); duodenal papilla, ileocecal valve

3 regions (duodenum, jejunum, ileum - there is no clear boundary between these); duodenal papilla, ileocecal valve

6 regions (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum), 3 flexures (hepatic, splenic, sigmoid), appendix, haustra,
taenia coli, anus, internal and external anal sphincters


4 lobes (right, left, caudate, quadrate), falciform ligament, coronary ligament, porta hepatis, common hepatic duct


posterior surface of liver, between quadrate and left lobes of liver, drains bile into duodenum via the biliary tree


3 regions (head, body, tail), pancreatic duct


greater and Lesser omentum,Mesentery proper, and Mesocolon:

Lesser omentum

between lesser curvature of stomach and liver


transverse, sigmoid

Greater omentum

suspended from greater curvature of stomach

Biliary Tree:

bile flows from hepatocytes into ductules form
left and right hepatic ducts form
common hepatic duct
meets cytic duct from the gall bladder
to form common bile duct
meets the pancreatic duct and drains into the duodenum via duodenal ampulla and the papilla


air is taken into lungs, active, requires signal from brain


air passes out of lungs, relaxation

Respiratory values are

variable dependent of person's size, age, sex, and physical condition

Lung Volumes and Capacities

Lung volume
-Lung capacities
-Respiratory rates
-Pulmonary ventilation rates

Mechanics of Breathing

-Modes of breathing
-Muscles of respiration
-Boyle's Law (air pressure change)

Chemistry of Respiration

Dalton's Law (concentrations of gases in a mixture)
-Henry's Law (gases ability to dissolve in a liquid)

Minimal volume:

amount of air left in lungs after they are collapsed (100 ml

Residual volume -rv

air or air left in lungs after maximal exhalation (1,200 ml)

Tidal volume (VT or TV):

amount of air inhaled or exhaled in an average breath (500 ml

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV):

amount of additional air which can be exhaled after a normal exhalation (1,000 ml)

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV):

amount of additional air which can be inhaled after a normal inhalation (3,300 ml!)


-Most common of the pulmonary function tests
-Used to diagnose disease based on volume and/or flow of air


Device used to measure respiratory volumes

Total lung capacity =

-Average = 6,000 ml!

Inspiratory capacity=

-Total amount of air in lungs after maximum inhalation
-Average = 3,800 ml

Functional residual capacity=

-Total amount of air that could be exhaled after a maximum inhalation
-Average = 2,200 ml

Vital capacity=

capacity= ERV + VT + IRV
-Important diagnostic calculation
-Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhale
-Average = 4,800 ml in men; 3,100 ml in women

Respiratory rate (f or RR)

The number of breaths taken per minute
-Average = 12 breaths/ minute

Pulmonary VentilationRate (VE)=

fx VT
-Volume of air moved into the upper respiratory tract per minute
-Average = 6,000 ml

Modes of Breathing

Quiet breathing (eupnea): inhalation is active, exhalation is passive
-Forced breathing (hypernea): inhalation and exhalation is active

Muscles of Respiration

-External intercostals

Boyle's Law

Change in volume of lungs affects air pressure in lungs (intrapulmonary pressure)

See more

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