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60 terms

Psych Midterm Hard Terms

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Dendrites
Projection that picks up impulses from other neurons
Axon
Nerve fiber projecting from the cell body that carries nerve impulses.
Axon hillock
Connects cell body of a neuron to the axon.
Axon terminal
Releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
Synaptic vesicles
Reuptakes neurotransmitters
Glial Cell
Glue
Myelin Sheath
Fatty coat that insulates the axons of some nerve cells, speeding transmission of impulses.
Blood-Brain Barrier
Separation of circulating blood and the brain extracellular fluid in the CNS.
Receptor Binding - lock & key (NT to receptor, chemical)
Hormone or neurotransmitter affects target cells by binding to specific receptor molecules, which are often located in the cell membrane.
Plasticity
The nervous system's ability to change
Neurogenesis, Synaptogenesis, Pruning
Creation of new neurons in the adult brain; creation of new synapsi; killing off of unnecessary neurons.
Action Potential - all stages (resting potential, depolarization, hyperpolarization, threshold, refractoryperiod, how sodium and potassium are involved)
Resting: no activity; depolarization: change in cell membrane's potential; hyperpolarization: makes cell membrane more negative; threshold: when the electrical charge inside the neuron reaches a high enough level relative to the outside.
Synapse and Synaptic Cleft
Terminal point of axon branch which releases neurotransmitters; a gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal
Neurotransmitters - molecules / chemicals, endogenous (inside)
Endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.
GABA
Main inhibitory neurotransmitter
Glutamate
Main excitatory transmitter
Serotonin
Mood and temperature regulation, aggression, sleep cycles
Dopamine
Motor function and reward
Norepinephrine
Brain arousal, mood, hunger, and sleep
Acetylcholine
Muscle contraction (PNS), cortical arousal (CNS)
Endorphins
Pain reduction
Anandamide
Pain reduction, increase in appetite
Psychoactive Drugs - exogenous, how they mimic NTs
Foreign, therefore exogenous; mimics normal processes.
Inhibitory
Activation of the receptor causes hyperpolarization and depresses action potential generation.
Excitatory
Excitatory: depolarizes membrane and promotes action potential generation.
Agonist
Promotes action (muscles)
Antagonist
Opposes action (muscles)
Central Nervous System
CNS: composed of brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Nerves that extend outside of the CNS
Forebrain
The most highly developed area of the human brain
Midbrain
Plays important role in movement
Hindbrain
Consists of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla
Frontal lobe
Language, memory, executive function: oversees other mental operations
Parietal lobe
Spacial systems
Temporal lobe
Hearing, understanding language, autobiographical memory
Occipital lobe
Very rear of brain; vision center
Somatosensory Cortex
Temperature, body position, and pain
Broca's Aphasia
Inability to form speach
Wernike's Aphasia
Nonsensical speach
Anterograde Amnesia
Inability to form new memories after a traumatic event.
Cerebrum
Controls all voluntary action
Cerebellum
Motor control, coordination, language, and emotion
Basal Ganglia
Movement & planned action
Basal Forebrain
Selective attention
Thalamus
Sensory relay station
Cerebellum
Balance
Medulla
Breathing, heart rate
Pons
Communication center between the two brain hemispheres; triggers dreams
Autonomic
Regulates emotion and internal physical states.
Somatic Nervous System
Carries messages from CNS to muscles throughout body
Sympathetic nervous system
Active during arousal, especially a crises.
Parasympathetic Division
Active during rest and digestion.
Limbic System
Interconnected brain regions: thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus
Hypothalamus
Hunger
Amygdala
Fear
Cingulate Cortex
Emotion
Hippocampus
Memory
Phrenology
Pseudoscience of bumps on head meaning traits. Gave rise to idea of brain specialization of processes.
Structural neuroimaging
Shows structure of brain and intercranial disease
Functional neuroimaging
Used to diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale