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Fatty coat that insulates the axons of some nerve cells, speeding transmission of impulses.
Receptor Binding - lock & key (NT to receptor, chemical)
Hormone or neurotransmitter affects target cells by binding to specific receptor molecules, which are often located in the cell membrane.
Neurogenesis, Synaptogenesis, Pruning
Creation of new neurons in the adult brain; creation of new synapsi; killing off of unnecessary neurons.
Action Potential - all stages (resting potential, depolarization, hyperpolarization, threshold, refractoryperiod, how sodium and potassium are involved)
Resting: no activity; depolarization: change in cell membrane's potential; hyperpolarization: makes cell membrane more negative; threshold: when the electrical charge inside the neuron reaches a high enough level relative to the outside.
Synapse and Synaptic Cleft
Terminal point of axon branch which releases neurotransmitters; a gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal
Neurotransmitters - molecules / chemicals, endogenous (inside)
Endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.
Psychoactive Drugs - exogenous, how they mimic NTs
Foreign, therefore exogenous; mimics normal processes.
Activation of the receptor causes hyperpolarization and depresses action potential generation.
Pseudoscience of bumps on head meaning traits. Gave rise to idea of brain specialization of processes.
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