CompTIA A+ 220-1101 Core 1 Study Flashcards

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Local Area Network (LAN)
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Terms in this set (160)
Port 22SSH (Secure Shell) - TCP - Encrypted Communication - Looks/Acts the same as Telnet (2.1)Port 23Telnet (Telecommunications Network) - TCP - Non-encrypted Communication - Log into devices remotely (2.1)Port 25SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) - TCP - Used to send mail from device to mail server (2.1)Port 53DNS (Domain Name System) - UDP - Converts names to IP addresses - CRITICAL Resource (2.1)Port 67/68DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - UDP - Automated configuration of IP addresses - IPs can be reserved for certain devices - IP Range: through (2.1)Port 80HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) - TCP - Non-encrypted communication in the browser (2.1)Port 110POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) - TCP - Receive emails from an email server - Basic mail transfer functionality (2.1)Port 143IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol) - TCP - Includes management of email inboxes from multiple clients. (Sync email across multiple devices) (2.1)Port 161/162SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) - UDP - Port 161 queries devices for performance statistics. - Port 162 monitors when metrics exceed a certain threshold. (2.1)Port 389LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) - TCP - Store & retrieve info in a network directory. - Commonly used in Microsoft Active Directory. (2.1)Port 443HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure) - TCP - Encrypted Communication in the Browser (2.1)Port 445Server Message Block (SMB) & Common Internet File System (CIFS) - TCP - Provides direct connection & communication over TCP without the NetBIOS Transport (2.1)Port 3389RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) - TCP - Share a desktop from a remote location (2.1)Access PointExtends wired network & converts it into a wireless network. (2.2)RouterRoutes traffic between IP subnets (2.2)Patch Panel- Goes between work desks & switches - Work desk connections to patch panel are permanent. (2.2)Firewalls-Filters traffic by TCP/UDP port number (OSI Layer 4 filtering) -Some can filter based on the application -Can encrypt traffic in/out of the network (protect traffic between sites) -Can proxy traffic (common security technique) -Can be used as a Layer 3 device (routers) (2.2)PoE (Power over Ethernet)Devices that send Ethernet data and power over twisted-pair cable to compliant devices (for example, cameras, phones, etc). (2.2)Modem- Cable Version: Uses DOCSIS (Data over Cable Service Interface Specification) which is broadband. - DSL Version: Uses ADSL (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) where download speed is higher than upload speed. (2.2)ONT (optical network terminal)- Fiber - ISP fiber line stretches to demarc point at which your in-home copper wire takes over. (2.2)NIC (Network Interface Card)- A device that serves as an interface between the computer and the network. Also called a network adapter or network card. - Ethernet Connection - May need drivers installed before hardware is installed (Check Manual) (2.2)802.11 Typesa (10/1999) - 5Ghz & 54 mbit/s b (10/1999) - 2.4 Ghz & 11 mbit/s g (06/2003) - 2.4 Ghz & 54 mbit/s n (10/2009) - 2.4/5 Ghz & 600 mbit/s ac (01/2014) - 5 Ghz & Almost 7 Gb/s ax (02/2021) - 2.4/5 Ghz & About 9.6 Gb/s (2.3)DNS Server- Converts a website name to an IP Addresses - Usually managed by ISP or enterprise IT Dept. (2.4)DHCP Server- The server leases IP addresses to network clients - IP Range: through (2.4)File Server- Centralized Storage of documents, files, etc. - Standard system of file management - SMB (Server Message Block) - AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) (2.4)Print Server- Connect a printer to the network - Provide printing services for all network devices - May be built-in to the printer - Uses standard printing protocols - SMB (Server Message Block), - IPP (Internet Printing Protocol), - LPD (Line Printer Daemon) (2.4)Mail Server- A server that manages the storage and transfer of e-mail messages on a network. (2.4)Syslog Server- A type of server used for collecting system messages from networked devices - Usually a central logging receiver (2.4)Web Server- A server that delivers requested webpages to your computer or mobile device - Uses HTTPS/HTTPS & HTML/HTML5 - Web pages are stored on the server (2.4)Authentication Server- A server that keeps track of who's logging on to the network and which services on the network are available to each user. - Redundant Server (Always Available) (2.4)Spam Gateway- Checks for Unsolicited Emails - Scans incoming mail to accept or reject it. (2.4)UTM Gateway (Unified Threat Management Gateway)Services: - URL Filter / Content Inspection - Firewall - Malware Inspection - Spam Filter - VPN Endpoint - IDP / IPS (2.4)Load Balancer- A dedicated network device that can direct requests to different servers based on a variety of factors. - Distributes load to multiple servers - Server outages have no effect - TCP & SSL Offload (2.4)Proxy Server- A server that acts as an intermediary between a user and the Internet. - Access control, URL Filtering, Content Scanning (2.4)SCADA / ICS (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition / Industrial Control System)- Large-scale - PC Manages Equipment - Requires extensive segmentation - Usually expensive software, requires elevated permission to access. (2.4)IoT (Internet of Things)- Appliances such as fridges & microwaves - Air control (Smart Thermostats) - Access Devices (Smart doorbells and locks) (2.4)IPv4- The dominant protocol for routing traffic on the Internet - 4 Numbers (X.X.X.X) - 32 bits or 4 bytes -> 8 bits per number - Max value for each number is 255 (2.5)IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6)- 8 hexadecimals (X.X.X.X.X.X.X.X) - 128 bits or 16 bytes -> 16 bits per numberAPIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)- Link Local addresses (no router forwarding) - IETF has reserved - - Only communicates on your network (2.5)Static IP- An IP address that is manually assigned to a device and remains constant until it is manually changed. (2.5)Dynamic IP- IP address assigned by DHCP server. - This method insures there are no overlapping IP addresses within a network. - Changes when lease expires (2.5)Gateway- A node that handles communication between its LAN and other networks. (2.5)DNS Configuration- 13 root server clusters (Over 1,000 actual servers) - 100's of Generic Top Level Domains (gTLD) - Over 275 Country-Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLD) (2.6)Address Records- A records are for IPv4 addresses - AAAA records are for IPv6 addresses (2.6)MX (Mail Exchanger)- Determines host name for mail server (2.6)TXT (Text Records)- Can be used for verification purposes - Commonly used for email security - External email servers validate info from your DNS. (2.6)Spam Management- Domain Keys Identified Mail (DKIM) - Digitally sign a domains outgoing mail - Public key is available in DKIM TXT record - Sender Policy Framework (SPF) - List of all servers authorized to send emails on behalf of this domain; prevents email spoofing - Mail server validates mail is coming from authorized host - Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, & Conformance (DMARC) - Extension of DKIM / SPF - Decides what servers do with mail that isn't accepted by SPF/DKIM (2.6)Lease- Created by the DHCP server to allow a system requesting an IP to use that IP for a certain amount of time. (2.6)Reservation- An IP address that is set aside by a DHCP server for a specific network client, which is identified by its MAC address. (2.6)Scope- The predefined range of addresses that can be leased to any network device on a particular network. (2.6)VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)- Separated logically instead of physically - Multiple domains under one physical switch (2.6)VPN (Virtual Private Network)- Concentrator - Encryption/Decryption access device - Actively encrypts & decrypts your data packets (2.6)Satellite Networking- Non-terrestrial communication - 50 Mbit/s down, 3 Mbit/s up - High latency (250 ms up/down) - High frequencies (2 GHz) (2.7)Fiber Newtwork- High Speed Communication - Higher install costs vs copper wire - Large installation in the WAN core - Supports high data rates - SONET, Wavelength Division Multiplexing (2.7)Cable- Broadband (Transmission across many multiple frequencies) - Data on "cable" network - DOCSIS - High Speed (50-1000 Mbit/s) (2.7)DSL- ADSL (Assymetrical Digital Subscriber Line) - 200 Mb down and 20 Mb up is common (2.7)Cellular Network- Separates land into "cells" and each cell covers a different frequency - Tethering (Turn your phone into a router) - Mobile Hotspot (2.7)WISP- Wireless Internet Service Provider - Connects rural/remote locations - Need an outdoor antenna to connect typically (2.7)WAN (Wide Area Network)- Generally connects LANs across a distance - Many different technologies - Point-to-point Serial, MPLS, etc. (2.7)MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)- A network covering a city - Bigger than LAN, usually smaller than WAN - Common to see government ownership (2.7)SAN (Storage Area Network)- Looks & feels like a local storage device - Requires high bandwidth - Some people may use an isolated network solely for the SAN (2.7)WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)- A self-contained network of two or more computers connected using a wireless connection. - Usually within a building (2.7)Cable Crimpers- "Pinch" the connector onto a wire - Coaxial, twisted pair, fiber - Connect the modular connector to the Ethernet cable - Metal prongs are pushed through the insulation (2.8)WiFi Analyzer- Everyone "hears" everything - Specializes in 802.11 analysis - Identify errors and interference - Validate antenna location and installation (2.8)Tone Generator / Probe- Tone generator - Sends an analog sound through the cable it is attached to - Probe - Makes noise and/or lights up when touching the cable with the generator attached - Easy wire tracing (2.8)Punch Down Tool- A pointed tool used to insert twisted-pair wire into receptors in a punch-down block - Organization is key - Maintain twists in cables (2.8)Cable Testers- Continuity test - Can identify missing pins or crossed wires - Not usually used for frequency testing (2.8)Loopback Plug- Useful for testing physical ports - Serial, Ethernet, T1, fiber - Data leaves the interface, loops back, and reenters (2.8)Taps & Port Mirrors- Used to intercept network traffic - Physical Taps - Disconnect link & put tap in the middle - Active or Passive Tap - Port Mirror - Software based tap - SPAN (Switched Port ANalyzer) - Limited Functionality (2.8)Cat 5 & Cat 5e (enhanced)- Cable used to connect a network infrastructure - 1000Base-T Ethernet Standard - Work up to 100 meters (3.1)Cat 6 & Cat 6a (Augmented)- Use 10GBase-T Ethernet Standard - Unshielded Cat 6 works up to 55 meters - Shielded Cat 6 and Cat 6a work up to 100 meters (3.1)Coaxial- Single copper wire cable surrounded in layers - Uses RG-6 connector - Commonly used in TV's and High-Speed internet over cable (3.1)STP (Shielded Twisted Pair)- A type of cable containing twisted-wire pairs that are not only individually insulated, but also surrounded by a shielding. - Requires the cable to be grounded via an additional wire in the cable (3.1)UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)- Composed of pairs of wires twisted around each other at specific intervals. - No additional shielding around pairs of wires (3.1)Direct Burial STP- Protected from elements - Cable is buried in the ground - Often filled with gel to repel water - Shielding in the STP protects against interference (3.1)Plenum- The area above the ceiling tile for the HVAC system and usually network wires to run - Traditional cable is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and not safe against fires - Fire Rated Cable Jackets to use in a Plenum: - Fluorinated Ethylene Polymer (FEP) - Low-Smoke PVC (3.1)Fiber- Transmission by light - No RF signals - Difficult to monitor & tap - Multimode: Short Range Communication (2km) - Uses Cheaper LED's - Single Mode: Long Range Comm. (100km) - Uses Expensive Lasers (3.1)T568A & T568B- The two color codes used for wiring eight-position RJ45 modular plugs. - Neither is better than the other - Many organizations typically use T568B (3.1)USB 2.0- HighSpeed: 480 megabits per second - 5 meters max length (3.1)USB 3.0- SuperSpeed: 5 gigabits per second - 3 meters (No specified Length) (3.1)Serial (Console Cable)- Used to configure telephone and networking equipment - Commonly used for RS-232 (3.1)Thunderbolt Cable- High-speed serial connector - Thunderbolt v2 -20 Gbit/s aggregated channels -Mini DisplayPort connector - Thunderbolt v3 -40 Gbit/s aggregated throughput -USB-C connector - 3 meters w/ copper, 60 meters w/ optical (3.1)HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface)- Digital audio and video interface - 19-pin type a connector - Around a 20 meter range (3.1)DisplayPort- Digital video connector in packetized form - Carries audio and video - Compatible with HDMI & DVI (With an adapter) (3.1)DVI (Digital Visual Interface)- Single & Dual link video - Single = 3.7 GB/s &. Dual = 7.4 GB/s - DVI-A (Analog) - DVI-D (Digital) - DVI-I (Integrated) - Analog and Digital (3.1)VGA (Video Graphics Array)-DB-15 connector (Also known as DE-15) -Blue color -Analog signal (No digital option) -Image degrades after 5 to 10 meters (3.1)SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)- Uses serial signals to transfer data - SATA 3.0 (6 GB/s) - SATA 3.2 (16 GB/s)SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)- Designed to string up to 16 devices on one cable - LUN (Logical Unit) are defined within each SCSI ID - SAS (Serial Attached SCSI) devices have no jumpers, terminators, or settings - SCSI pronounced "scuzzy" (3.1)eSATA (External SATA)- A modern type of connector for attaching external hard disks (3.1)IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)- A hard drive whose disk controller is integrated into the drive, eliminating the need for a controller cable and thus increasing speed - Originally called PATA (Parallel AT Attachment) (3.1)RJ-11 Connector- A phone line connection or port found on modems, telephones, and house phone outlets. - 6 Position, 2 Conductor (6P2C) (3.1)RJ-45 Connector- A connector on an Ethernet cable, containing four twisted pairs of wires. - Like a telephone cable connector (RJ-11), but slightly wider. - 8 Position, 8 Conductor (8P8C) (3.1)F-Type Connector- Most common coaxial cable connector which features a screw on attaching mechanism. - Uses DOCSIS (3.1)ST (Straight Tip) Connector- A type of connector used by fiber-optic cables and can be used with either single-mode or multimode fiber-optic cables. - Connector does not support full-dupex transmissions and is not used on the fastest fiber-optic systems (3.1)SC (Subscriber Connector)- A fiber-optic cable connector that snaps and locks into place. (3.1)LC (Lucent Connector)- A small form-factor fiber optic connect - Uses a 1.25 mm furrule, half the size of the ST. (3.1)Punch down Block- A panel of data receptors into which twisted pair wire is inserted, or punched down, to complete a circuit. (3.1)microUSB- Smaller than a standard USB and used usually for mobile devices to charge and pass information. (3.1)miniUSB- This connector is used by portable electronic devices, such as digital cameras and some portable storage devices. (3.1)USB-C- 24 pin double sided USB connector - Smaller than regular USB connector - Used for USB, Thunderbolt, etc. (3.1)Molex Connector- 4 pin power connector used by optical drives, hard drives, and case fans - Keyed to prevent it from being inserted into a port improperly. - Provides +12V and +5V (3.1)Lightning Port- The proprietary Apple connector used on Apple iPhones, iPods, and iPads for power and communication (3.1)DB-9 Connector- A type of connector with nine pins that's used in serial communication and conforms to the RS-232 standard. - Built for modem communication - Now used as a configuration port (3.1)Virtual RAM- Swap File - Swap unused app data to storage to free up RAM (3.2)SODIMM (Small Outline Dual Inline Memory)- Used in laptops - Smaller form factor (3.2)DDR3 Memory- Max 16GB per DIMM - Twice the data rate as previous gen (3.2)DDR4 Memory- Max 64GB per DIMM - Speed increases over previous generation (3.2)DDR5 Memory- Faster Data Travel between memory and motherboard - Still max 64GB per DIMM (3.2)ECC (error-correcting code) RAM- Data detects and corrects errors on the fly - Looks identical to non-ECC memory (3.2)Multi-Channel Memory-Dual-channel, triple-channel, quad-channel -Should always match (exact matches are best) -Memory modules slots are often colored differently -Maximizes throughput (3.2)HDD (Hard Disk Drive)- The most common type of hard drive in computers. It includes spinning platters and read/write heads. - Speed to Latency (RPM/MS) - 15,000 (2ms) - 10,000 (3ms) - 7,200rpm (4.16ms) - 5,400rpm (5.55ms) - Typically 3.5" (3.3)SSD (Solid State Drive)- Non volatile memory (No moving parts) - Faster than HDD - Communicate over SATA, NVMe, and PCIe - Typically 2.5" drive (3.3)NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express)- Lower Latency & Higher Throughputs - Runs off M.2 interface (3.3)M.2- Can use a PCIe bus connector - Different connectors on drive (B, M, or B&M) - Won't always support NVMe (May be using AHCI) - Replaced mSATA quickly (3.3)Flash Drives- Use Flash Memory = EEPROM - Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory - Limited number of writes allowed - You can always read the information - Memory Cards: SD, microSD, miniSD, CompactFlash, xD, etc. (3.3)Optical Drives- Small bumps are read with a laser beam - CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, Blu-Ray - Can be an internal or external drive (3.3)RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)- Has different levels - Some levels are redundant, some levels are not - Can be inexpensive disks (3.3)Raid 0- Striping = Splits data evenly between two disks - High-Performance - No Redundancy (3.3)Raid 1- Mirroring = Files are duplicated between 2 or more drives - High disk utilization - files are doubled - High redundancy - Drive failure does not affect data accessibility (3.3)Raid 5- Striping with Parity = Data is evenly split between drives along with a parity block in each drive - Requires at least 3 drives - Efficient disk use and high redundancy (3.3)Raid 10- Also known as 1+0 - A Stripe of Mirrors - Speed of Striping, Redundancy of Mirroring - Requires at least 4 Drives (3.3)ATX (Advanced Technology Extended)- The most common form factor for PC systems presently in use, originally introduced by Intel in 1995. (3.4)ITX (Information Technology Extended)- Low power motherboards - Developed by VIA Technologies in 2001 - Fits in ATX casesPCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)- A bus common to personal computers that uses a 32-bit wide or a 64-bit data path. Several variations of PCI exist. - Common on older generation computers (3.4)PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express)- An expansion bus architecture that uses serial communications rather than parallel communications. - x1, x2, x4, x8, x16, x32 (Number of lanes for communication vary) (3.4)Power Connectors- 24 or 20+4 Pin Motherboard Connectors - 4, 4+4, or 8 Pin CPU Connector (3.4)Front Panel Connectors- A group of small wires running from the front of the computer case to the motherboard. - Control buttons & LED's on the case (3.4)Intel and AMD (Advanced Micro Devices)- Two producers of CPU's for computers - AMD typically less expensive - Differences have become more subtle over the years (4.4)Server Motherboard- Has space for multiple CPUs to split the load - Typically has 4+ memory slots (4.4)Laptop Motherboard- Small & Light - CPU is usually limited in speed, has thermal throttling to control temps - Limited ability to interchange parts (RAM, Storage, etc.) (3.4)BIOS Boot Options- Enable & Disable Hardware - Modify Boot Order for Connected Drives - Control what happens when your computer turns on (3.4)BIOS (basic input / output system)- The program a CPU uses to start a computer when it is turned on. (3.4)UEFI BIOS (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface BIOS)- Based on Intel's EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface) - Designed to replace Legacy BIOS - Extremely Outdated (3.4)USB Permissions- Enable / Disable USB Ports through the BIOS - DoD disabled all USB ports for 15 months after malware attack (3.4)TPM (Trusted Platform Module)- A chip on a motherboard that holds an encryption key required at startup to access encrypted data on the hard drive. - Windows BitLocker Encryption can use the TPM chip. - Password protected (3.4)Secure Boot- UEFI feature that prevents a system from booting up with drivers or an OS that are not digitally signed and trusted by the motherboard / manufacturer - Boot-loader must contain signature from Secureboot (3.4)Boot Password- System will not boot up without password - Use supervisor password to restrict BIOS settings changes (3.4)HSM (Hardware Security Module)- Cryptographic module that can generate cryptographic keys. - Secured storage for servers - Lightweight HSM's: Smart Card, USB, etc.) - Cryptographic Accelerators - Offload CPU cryptographic functions onto HSM from server (3.4)OS Versions- 32 Bit (x86) - 64 Bit (x64) - 32 Bit OS can't run 64 Bit apps, but 64 Bit can run 32 Bit apps (3.4)ARM (Advanced RISC Machine)- Energy-efficient processor design frequently used in mobile devices. - Also used in IoT (3.4)Single & Multi-Core- Refers to number of cores a processor has - Each core may have its own cache or one shared cache (3.4)Multithreading- Allows multiple threads from a program to run simultaneously - One CPU acts like two - 15-30% performance increase (3.4)Virtualization Support- Run other OS's within a single hardware platform - Multiple OS's share physical hardware components - Virtualization added to the processor - Hardware is faster and easier to manage - Intel Virtualization Technology (VT) - AMD Virtualization (AMD-V) (3.4)Sound Card- Device that can be slotted into a PCI slot to allow the use of audio components - Multiple input types (3.4)Video Card (GPU)- Processes video and graphics data - Higher performance vs integrated graphics (3.4)Capture Card- Sends video signal to a computer so that the signal can be recorded and saved to the storage drive - Video as an input - High performance (PCIe) (3.4)Case Fans- Layout, Location, and Size all matter - 80, 120, 140, & 200mm are common sizes - Variable speed and sound (3.4)Heatsinks- Passive cooling systems with metal fins to dissipate heat through thermal conduction (Copper or Aluminum Alloy) - Thermal paste creates contact between chip and heatsink (3.4)Thermal Pad- Not reusable - Not as effective as thermal paste - Mess free (3.4)Liquid Cooling- Coolant is circulated through a computer - Used in cars and mainframe computers - High-End systems - Gaming/Graphics processing - Contains radiator and fan (3.4)