100 terms

ANIMAL COGNITION EXAM 1

STUDY
PLAY
Scala Naturae
-"Great Chain of Being"
- A hierarchical list of species in terms
of their "perfection."
- EX: lowest = air/soil, highest = humans then God
Charles Darwin
- Proposed the Theory of Evolution
- Studied isolation of genes on galapagos islands
Branching Evolution
- Descent from a Common Ancestor
- Ancestor -> (evolved) -> new species to match environment
- All lines (species) would come from single ancestor
- Explains fossil record, homologous types, recapitulation, vestigial structures and biogeography
Phylogenetic tree
- AKA: evolutionary tree or a tree of life
- Shows relatedness of species through evolution of common ancestor
Darwin's finches
- Found beak size is controlled by single gene
- One ancestor finch evolved into different species due to adaptation of environment
Fossil Record
- Species fall into logical order that follow the theory of evolution
Homologous types
- Same structure modified for different uses
- Features derived from common ancestors
Recapitulation
- In development, we can see earlier species in this species'
embryo
- EX: humans have gill slits in embryonic state that disappear
Vestigial Structures
- Structures that we have that are no longer useful
- EX: Appendix in humans (lost much of ancestral function)
Biogeography
- Study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time
- Can usually be explained by historical factors such as: speciation, extinction, continental drift, and glaciation
Evolution of physical traits
- Explained by genetic variation & natural selection
- Genetic variations: usually bad, sometimes really good
Thomas Hobbes
- Emphasized the importance of reinforcement and punishment as determinants of behavior
Hedonism
- Voluntary behavior is governed by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain
- Forerunner of Malthus' ideas of "limited resources" and Charles Darwin's ideas of "survival of the fittest"
Evolution of psychological traits
- Behavior is a function of multiple levels of causation
George Romanes
- Naturalist
- Intelligence = "to make new adjustments, or to modify old ones, in accordance with the results of its own individual experience."
Clever Hans
- Horse that did math
- Shown one set of objects on one table, then asked to add, multiply, or divide by the revealed number of objects
- How he did it: unconscious postures and facial expressions.
Wilhelm von Osten
- Teacher
- Asked Hans math questions, Hans would answer correctly
Oskar Pfungst
- Studied Hans and Osten
- Found Hans relied on visual cues to answer
- Could only answer correctly when the questioner was within his visual field and if the questioner knew the correct answer already.
Experimental method
- Observation, Hypothesis, Experimentation, Verification, Explanation
- Filters out "bad science"
- Employed by Pfungst to discover the truth about Clever Hans
Comparative Perspective
- Species differences in motion sensitivity and acuity
- Researchers have to design paradigms for interpreting animal behavior that doesn't lead to the same outcome as the Clever Hans effect
Lloyd Morgan's Canon
- Canon: a rule/ body of rules/ principles generally established as valid and fundamental in a field.
- Don't get carried away with what look like astonishing animal performances
- Experiment to find the simplest explanation of behavior
Occam's Razor
- "All things being equal, the simplest explanation tends to be the best one."
Rule of Parsimony
- AKA Occam's Razor
- the simplest of several hypotheses is always the best in accounting for unexplained facts.
John B. Watson
- Founder of the "behaviorist" movement
B. F. Skinner
- Leader of the "behaviorist" movement
Behaviorism
- Mental events cannot be characterized independently from overt physical behaviors.
- Resists attempts to define mental expressions such as "pain" in reference to introspective reports by the subject
Wolfgang Köhler
- Book titled "Mentality of Apes"
- Observed apes using "insight" to solve problems
- Argued that the brain and perception organize sensations according to several principles to yield good form
- Gestalt psychologist
Insight learning
- An insight that manifests itself suddenly, such as understanding how to solve a difficult problem
E. C. Tolman
- Behaviorist
-Latent learning: not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned
Cognitive Map
- The rats in Group 1 always found food at the end of the maze. Quickly learned map of maze.
- Group 2 never found food. Only wandered maze.
- Group 3 found no food for 10 days, but then received food on the eleventh. Day 11; learned to run to the end of the maze by next day
- This showed that the Group 3 rats had learned map of maze, but without the reinforcement of food
Retina
- Light-sensitive layer of tissue, lining the inner surface of the eye.
- The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina
Rods
- Black and white
-Nocturnal animals have more
- Shows presence of light
Cones
- Color vision
- Smaller range of wave length
- Need more light to activate cone
Fovea
- Point of focus for human eye
- Mostly cones in human fovea
Blind Spot
- Result of the absence of rods and cones in the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye
Optic Nerve
- Transmits sensory information regarding brightness perception, red-green color perception, contrast (visual acuity), and visual fields
Diurnal Animals (Active during day)
- EX: Humans and pigeon
- Sharp vision at the expense of light
sensitivity
- Mostly cones in the fovea
Nocturnal Animals (active during night)
- EX: Mouse and owl
- Light sensitivity at the expense of sharp
vision (rely on other senses such as
hearing)
- Mostly rods in the fovea
Arrhythmic Animals (equally active at day and night)
- EX: Dog
- Must have both sharp and light-sensitive vision
- Have both rods and cones in the fovea
Visual Pigments
- Four visual pigments in the human retina
- molecules embedded in the outer cell membrane of rods and cones
- Light activates the pigment which causes a change in the signal sent to the nervous system
Black/White Vision
- Lots of rhodopsin
- More light sensitivity, less sharpness
Color Vision
-Blue, green, and red pigments in three different types of cones.
- They differ in sensitivity to different wavelengths
of light.
- We don't see as well in red
Rhodopsin
- Pigment found in rods that is responsible for black/white vision
- Varies in sensitivity across species.
African cichlid fish
- Not all fish have the same 3 cones
- We can trace lineage of development of pigments
- Explains how changes have occurred over time
Lake Baikal - the "Galapagos of Russia"
- very isolated lake
- 60% of species are unique to this lake
Cottoid fish
- Coloration of fish provide cues during mating, camouflaging
- At bottom, coloration not important
- Water filters out higher wave lengths
Psychophysics
- Attempts to measure sensitivity of perceptual systems to different dimensions of physical stimulation
- Determination of sensory limits
Gustav Fechner
- Originated Psychophysics around 1850
- German physicist
Absolute Threshold
- The point at which a stimulus intensity is detectable 50 percent of the time
- depends on visual system, age, vision
Titration Method
- Lower intensity until the stimulus is not detected, then raise it until it is, then lower it until it is not, then raise it again until it is
- The average of switches is the absolute threshold
Dark Adaptation Function
- First 10 minutes in the dark, the cones require less light to reach a threshold response than do the rods. Thereafter, the rods require less light.
- The point at which the rods become more sensitive after bright light is called the rod-cone break.
Donald Blough
- Pigeon Titration Method
- Trained pigeons to peck Key A when light was on and Key B when it was off on a partial reinforcement schedule.
- Psychophysical methods originally developed for humans can be adapted for use with animals.
Spectral Sensitivity
- Differential sensitivity to different wavelengths of light
- EX: Pigeons are more sensitive to ultraviolet and less
sensitive to red than we are
-Blough (1950) found animals have sensory systems that work much the same way that ours do.
Bottom-up Perception
- Physical characteristics of stimuli drive perception.
- Low-level information can be extracted from sensory
information using neural feature detectors
- Build-up the perception of the object from the combination of its features
Top Down Perception
- Knowledge, expectations, or thoughts influence perception.
- Start with the object in mind (or our previous experiences) and that influences our perception
- Matching previous experiences to present obstacles
- Perception is a dynamic searching for the best interpretation of the available data
Realism
- We perceive the world through sensation
Feature detectors
- Neurons that detect specific features
- Brightness
- Color
- Curvature
- Oriented lines/edges ! Line endings/junctions
- Movement
- Spatial frequency
Gestalt psychology
-Brain and perception organize sensations according to several principles to yield "good form"
- Top down
Holistic perspective
- Human perception is holistic: The world is made of objects against a background.
Constructivism
-we structure the world
Grouping
- figure vs. ground
Good Continuation
- points in a line appear as part of a line
Closure
- enclosed structures appear to be objects
Anne Treisman
-Feature Integration Theory
Feature integration theory
- Objects are automatically analyzed into features, then are combined into perceptual objects during a focused attention stage
- Processing is different for visual features versus objects involving conjunctions of features.
Preattentive stages
- unconscious, automatic accumulation of features in a visual field
- "collecting parts"
Focused attention stages
- assembling the parts into a singular object
- combining the features
Conjunctions of Features
- Require us to process both shape and color simultaneously to identify the target region
Pop-out Effects
- The point is to quickly group similar shape/color elements together amongst a region of distractor elements
- Where the target display easily stands out from the surrounding distractor display
Robert Cook
- Pop Out Studies in Pigeons
- Reinforced for pecking the target letter "P", in this example, or a particular shape or color
- Search reaction time for targets surrounded by single- feature distractors is typically independent of the number of surrounding distracters
- The results fit with Treisman's theory that objects are first analyzed into features, then the features are later combined into coherent perceptual objects
- Showed that both pigeons and humans have similar response rates to arrays of pop out & conjunctions
Texture Discriminations
- Human visual system can group similar color/shape features into global spatial regions and then segregate them at their boundaries/edges in order to begin establishing figure-ground relations
Bat Echolocation
...
Sensitivity to Electrical Fields
...
Weakly Electric African Fish
...
Object Permanence
the concept that objects continue to exist even when they disappear from sight.
Concept Learning
- Herrnstein and Loveland (1964)
- Showed that pigeons can quickly learn to sort color slides showing similar natural scenes according to the "higher-order" concept "human being."
Exemplar Model of Categorization
- Intact stimuli are stored as examples in memory.
- Generalization - make same response to similar stimuli
- Classification or recognition is determined by the degree of similarity between a stimulus and the examples
Feature Learning Model
- categories based on whether objects share some set of features
- Cerella (1980) show that pigeons often fail to learn to discriminate rearranged objects composed of the same features
- pigeons will see Charlie Brown even if his head is where his feet should be
Prototype Model
- Categorization is the acquisition of a prototype (an average of exemplars)
- In humans, performance can be better on the prototype than on any learned exemplar
- taking new stimuli and comparing it to the average of examples
- Pigeons not good at this because they are feature learners
E. A. Wasserman
- Object perception in pigeons
- Simultaneous Same/Different discriminations
Object perception
- Visual display variability was the key controlling dimension in pigeons' discrimination of Same from Different displays
Entropy
- measures the amount of variety or diversity in a category and accounts for pigeons choices.
stimulus equivalence
...
circadian rhythms
- free run ~25 hr
- still get hungry
- still have sleep cycle
- Synchronize animals' behavior and physiology with natural rhythms in the environment
- Give animals an internal sense of the passage of time on a long timescale
Zeitgeber
- entrained" by an external stimulus
- German for "time-giver
Actograms
- taller the bar = more the moved during given time segment
- Charts of counts of locomotor activity over time
- Dark and light bars over the charts indicate dark and light phases of the light-dark cycle
Russell Church
- "peak procedure" for studying animal timing
peak procedure - discrete-trial fixed interval (FI) schedule
- FI set at 20 seconds = rats' peak response rate is just after 20 seconds has expired.
- tells you when animal expected food
Weber's Law
-the larger the stimuli, the harder to discriminate difference stimuli
-EX: 2 pennies vs. 99 pennies
- EX: volume
scalar timing theory
- Time is like other stimulus dimensions in that it obeys
Weber's Law
- more time, curve expands b/c animal cant tell the difference
- scaled in terms of perception
- when animals are timing, the sense it just like a sensory experience
Temporal Bisection and the Geometric Mean
- bisecting = averaging
-Example: 10 sec versus 50 sec
- webers law = 50 is closer than 10, 5 times
Gibbon & Church's (1984) information processing model of timing
- (1st) clock process: pacemaker-> switch -> accumulator
- (2nd) memory processing: working memory -> reference memory
- (3rd) decision process: comparator -> repsond or dont respond
-waiting for working memory to match with reference, when they do, respond
Subitizing
- rapid assessment of number from a small number of simultaneously presented items, usually one to four
- similar to how we recognize colors
numerical competence
- 1. Relative number judgment (relative "numerosity)
- 2. Absolute number judgment
- 3. Counting
Relative number judgment (relative "numerosity)
- animals can tell that 5 is more than 3 or 8 tones are more than 4 tones
counting
- animal cognitively keeps track of each item in a set and assigns each one a code
absolute number judgment
- judgment about a single stimulus, e.g. about the value of one of its properties or about whether it is present or absent
Cardinality
-the number of elements in a set or other grouping, as a property of that grouping.
- EX: A (2,3,5,) = 3
Irene Pepperberg and Alex the African grey parrot
-Alex was trained daily, almost constantly, using the model-rival technique.
-Count up to 6 items.
- Count items in categories ("How many green blocks?").
- Count items in super-ordinate categories ("How many red and green blocks?").
model-rival technique
- Alex observed an instructor-student pair and spontaneously joins in the social interaction.
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