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Terms in this set (111)
A word or phrase that is not formal or literary, typically one used in ordinary or familiar conversation e.g. wanna (want to), gonna (going to) and buzz off (go away).
A basic sentence with one independent clause e.g. "the cat ate dinner."
The lengthening or shortening of a word formed by combining the sounds of two longer words e.g. does not doesn't.
A shortened form of a word e.g. RSVP, ASAP, St (street) and Rd (road).
A word formed from the first letter or first few letters of each word in a phrase or title e.g. Radar, Laser and Unicef.
An acronym or abbreviation formed from initial letters by pronouncing the individual letters e.g. CD, SBS, RACV etc.
Special attention put on something to give it importance e.g. adverbs such as honestly, strongly and highly.
The use of a derogatory, offensive or vulgar word or phrase to replace a (more) neutral original e.g. died instead of passed away, bullshit instead of lies and fag instead of homosexual.
A word or group of words that relate something that came before to what comes after e.g. however, therefore and so.
Casual type of language that is playful and trendy or used by a particular group of people e.g. bloody oath, arvo, carked it.
A word that can function as a noun phrase used by itself and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g. I, you ) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g. she, it, this ).
A word or phrase that makes a statement less forceful or assertive e.g. kind of, somewhat and sort of.
A word or phrase that marks a boundary in a discourse, typically as part of a dialogue e.g. so, right, anyway and well: "well, you need a car."
An apparently meaningless word, phrase, or sound that marks a pause or hesitation in speech e.g. um, uh, er, like and ah.
The omission, assimilation, or slurring over of a vowel, syllable, etc. in pronunciation: often used in poetry to preserve meter, as when a word ends with a vowel before another word beginning with a vowel "the inevitable hour".
The omission from speech or writing of a word (or words) that is superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues e.g. wanna go for lunch?
Any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word e.g. about bout, harmony harmny.
The process in which actual morphemes of a language are substituted either for semantic material or for place-fillers in the course of a derivation of a sentence e.g. drawing drawring, something somepthing.
Comparing one thing directly with another e.g. he is a man
when something is like or as something e.g. he is like woman
Giving something that isn't human, human qualities e.g. howling wind
An idea or feeling which a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning.
Features that appear when we put sounds together in connected speech. Some include voiced pauses, volume, tone, tempo and pitch.
A word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause (e.g. and, but, if ).
Main clause: a clause in a complex sentence that can stand alone as a complete sentence e.g.
A word form or suffix that indicates smallness e.g.
The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words e.g.
Turning something around, for example Doublespeak (implies intent to mislead or deceive. 'curvy' for 'fat', 'unique' for 'weird'), Euphemism (Attempts to soften something harsh e.g. passed away instead of died) and Passive voice (a type of sentence or clause in which the subject receives the action of the verb).
The distinctive speech of an individual, considered as a linguistic pattern unique among speakers of his or her language or dialect.
A joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words which sound alike but have different meanings. A play on words for example,
A misunderstood or misinterpreted word or phrase resulting from a mishearing of the lyrics of a song. "I can see those spider veins." "I can see those fighter planes."
A verbal error in which a speaker accidentally transposes the initial sounds or letters of two or more words, often to humorous effect, as in the sentence you have hissed the mystery lectures.
Consisting of or using both letters and numerals e.g. 4eva, h8 and 2moro.
An allusive or oblique remark or hint, typically a suggestive or disparaging one e.g.
The process of extending the application of a rule to items that are excluded from it in the language norm, as when a child uses the regular past tense verb ending -ed of forms like I walked to produce forms like
I goed or
My / mine / his / hers / its / it / their / theirs etc...
Pronouns that refer back to the subject of the sentence or clause i.e. I can look after [myself].
A pronoun that does not refer to a specified thing/amount/person i.e. anyone, anything, no-one, nobody, nothing, everybody, everything etc.
A group of words that has both a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone as a sentence. Also known as a subordinate clause e.g. "when the president arrives."
speaking over the top of someone else to either elaborate on their point or create a new idea.
a conjunction that introduces a subordinating clause e.g. as long as, though and because.
a conjunction placed between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences of equal rank, e.g. and, but, or.
Functions of Swearing
there are four types of swearing: expletive (letting off steam), abusive (name calling, harassing and cursing to another person), social (marking social distance).
An activity that is forbidden or sacred based on religious beliefs or morals e.g. abortion, adultery, paedophilia.
A way of showing a speaker that you are following what they are saying and understand, often through interjections like I see, yes, OK and uhu.
A branch of linguistics concerned with the use of language in social contexts and the ways in which people produce and comprehend meanings through language.
(when two words are spoken at speed which creates a new sound e.g. there is there ris)
(indicate a gap in something said)
(pauses of sounds that allow the speaker time to consider the next utterance)
(meaningless words inserted into speech by habit e.g. right, well, you know, like)
(can indicate the speaker is searching for the right word)
(where the speaker begins an utterance then self corrects and rephrases)
(two speakers speaking at once will break down the fluency of the conversation)
(Interrupting the current topic of conversation to introduce further information relevant to a topic discussed previously)
(Any variety of language that does not conform to the standard, prestige form of English accepted as the norm by society)
(occurs when we put certain words together to make well-used phrases e.g. fish 'n chips)
(refers to missing words, which are generally understood from the context of the speech)
(the process by which a speaker recognizes a speech error and repeats what has been said with some sort of correction e.g. "I mean...")
They are not really questions but are a way of asking the other person to make a comment and so keep the conversation open e.g. it's beautiful, isn't it?
An extreme exaggeration used to make a point e.g. "I've told you a million times"
Uncertain, indefinite, or unclear character or meaning.
Not conforming in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, etc., to the usage characteristic of and considered acceptable by most educated native speakers; lacking in social prestige or regionally or socially limited in use.
A particular form of a language which is peculiar to a specific region or social group.
A word or utterance of one syllable e.g. sun, sword, school.
A word or lexeme (such as mama) that contains two identical or very similar parts.
The presence of two or more possible meanings within a single sentence or sequence of words.
A broad term for speech or writing marked by a casual, familiar, and generally colloquial use of language.
An instance of using a word, phrase, or clause more than once in a short passage e.g. "it was funny because he didn't have fun, but I had fun. "
A type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another e.g. butter.
the process of turning verbs into nouns, as illustrated in the example below: Every day shops lose thousands of dollars' worth of valuable items.
an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.
a comparison between one thing and another, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification.
An expression (word, phrase, clause, etc.) that gives its meaning to a pro-form (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adverb, etc.). A proform takes its meaning from its antecedent, e.g. Susan arrived late because traffic held her up. The pronoun her refers to and takes its meaning from Susan, so Susan is the antecedent of her.
When writing goes beyond the actual meanings of words so that the reader gains new insights into the objects or subjects in the work e.g. The poorest man is the richest, and the rich are poor.
Creative Word Formation
Formation of new words include: Compounding (mailman, breakfast), Derivation, Affixation, Blending (brunch, mocktail), Acronyms (Radar, Laser, Lol), Initialism (Sbs, Abc, Pso's).
a phrase or opinion that is overused and betrays a lack of original thought e.g. time will tell, what goes around comes around, when life gives you lemons, make lemonade.
Insulting, abusive, or highly critical language (in relation with taboo/functions of swearing).
The expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect e.g. a man who is a traffic cop gets his license suspended for unpaid parking tickets.
The substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant, for example suit for business executive, or the turf for horse racing.
the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named e.g. cuckoo, sizzle.
a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction e.g. faith unfaithful kept him falsely true
a seemingly absurd or contradictory statement or proposition which when investigated may prove to be well founded or true.
the use of irony to mock or convey contempt.
The use of humour, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.
an instance of a form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn from two given or assumed propositions e.g. all dogs are animals; all animals have four legs; therefore all dogs have four legs.
the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities.
A statement or theory that is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved.
the general character or attitude of a place, piece of writing, situation
A story, poem, or picture which can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.
A picture, description, or imitation of a person in which certain striking characteristics are exaggerated in order to create a comic or grotesque effect
An assumption or conclusion that is rationally and logically made, based on the given facts or circumstances.
special words or expressions used by a profession or group that are difficult for others to understand.
excessively concerned with minor details or rules
a figure of speech in the form of a question that is asked in order to make a point, rather than to elicit an answer.
the fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect.
deliberately euphemistic, ambiguous, or obscure language.
the evolution of word usage, usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage
The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests.
a group of words established by usage as having a meaning not deducible from those of the individual words e.g. over the moon.
an alteration that is suggested or made by a speaker, the addressee, or audience in order to correct or clarify a previous conversational contribution.
the habitual juxtaposition of a particular word with another word or words with a frequency greater than chance.
social utterances such as hello, goodbye and how are you.
A word or phrase (such as this, that, these, those, now, then) that points to the time, place, or situation in which the speaker is speaking.
a temporary stop in action or speech.
a unit of conversation that contains an exchange of one turn each by two speakers.
The use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound or meaning e.g. like father, like son.
the public self-image that every adult tries to protect (brown and levinson).
lost sounds in words. For instance, "going to" changes to "gonna"
The subject is doing the acting, as in the sentence "Kevin hit the ball." Kevin (the subject of the sentence) acts in relation to the ball.
A close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned understand each other's feelings or ideas and communicate well.
found in spontaneous speech (not planned basically). It occurs when the speaker says something then rearranges what he/she says.
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