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Chapter 1

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Which of the following statements about cell theory is true?

a. All organisms are multicellular.
b. Cells were discovered in the early 1900s.
c. Cells are the most primitive form of life.
d. Cells arise by division of preexisting cells.
Cells arise by division of preexisting cells.
Which of the following is NOT evidence that cells are highly complex and organized?


a. Organelles have a very distinct shape and location.
b. Each type of organelle has a consistent composition of macromolecules.
c. Many of the most basic processes within the cell are distinct in all organisms.
d. DNA supplication occurs with a very small error rate.
Many of the most basic processes within the cell are distinct in all organisms.
Prokaryotic cells can be distinguished from eukaryotic cells by the absence of:

a. a nucleus
b. DNA
c. a plasma membrane
d. All of these are absent.
a nucleus
Which of these is NOT a common feature of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

a.Mechanisms for transcription and translation
b. Genetic information encoded in DNA
c. Construction of plasma membrane
d. Cytoplasmic organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex
Cytoplasmic organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex
A distinctive feature of cells in multicellular organisms is their specialization as a result of __________.

a. differentiation
b. homeostasis
c. replacement
d. conversion
differentiation
Which of the following statements about viruses is FALSE?

a. They can only be found associated with animal and bacterial cells.
b. They are smaller than bacteria.
c. They are responsible for numerous human diseases.
d. Some of them can become integrated into the DNA of the host's cell.
They can only be found associated with animal and bacterial cells
Contrary to viruses, bacteria:

a. contain genetic material in the form of DNA or RNA.
b. can be infected by bacteriophages.
c. have only 3 or 4 genes.
d. are microscopic.
can be infected by bacteriophages.
One of the goals of synthetic biology is to:

a. create a living cell in the laboratory.
b. develop novel life forms.
c. "custom build" a particular species of an existing organism.
d. All of these are goals of synthetic biology.
All of these are goals of synthetic biology.
The hypothesis that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells as the result of two or more simpler cells developing a relationship with one another is called:

a. panspermia.
b. symbiosis.
c. evolution theory.
d. endosymbiont theory.
endosymbiont theory.
The evolutionary relationship among cell types can be studied by comparing:

a. the sequence of genes.
b. the presence or absence of organelles.
c. the environment where the cells are usually found.
d. the cell shape.
the sequence of genes.
Animal cells have all of the following EXCEPT:

a. a nuclear envelope.
b. chloroplasts.
c. Golgi apparatus.
d. mitochondria.
chloroplasts.
Which of the following is not an example of a eukaryote?

a. Bacterium
b. Fungus
c. Animal
d. Plant
Bacterium
Model organisms are useful because:

a. they are particularly useful as research subjects.
b. they share many similarities with humans at the molecular level.
c. they share basic processes with most organisms.
d. all of these are correct.
all of these are correct.
Embryonic stem cells have the potential for becoming an invaluable resource in:

a. gene therapy.
b. cell replacement therapy.
c. replacement therapy.
d. none of these is correct.
cell replacement therapy.
Your instructor assigned a research project to investigate the genetic similarities among several viruses and their hosts. What would you expect to find?

a. fewer similarities among viral hosts but no differences among viruses
b. fewer similarities between viruses and their hosts than among different viruses
c. more similarities between viruses and their hosts than among different viruses
d. more similarities among different viruses than between viruses and their hosts
more similarities between viruses and their hosts than among different viruses
The endosymbiont theory includes all of the following EXCEPT:

a. The primitive eukaryote gave rise to two major groups of eukaryotes.
b. A large anaerobic, heterotrophic prokaryote takes in a small aerobic prokaryote.
c. A portion of the plasma membrane has invaginated into a nuclear envelope.
d. An anaerobic endosymbiont evolved into a mitochondrion.
An anaerobic endosymbiont evolved into a mitochondrion.
It is proposed that the early heterotrophic eukaryote evolved into an ancestor or photosynthetic eukaryotes by the acquisition of a:

a. cyanobacterium
b. bacterium
c. mycoplasma
d. none of these is correct.
cyanobacterium
The separation of a phylogenetic tree into the three domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya has been challenged by some investigators who have found the presence of eubacteria-like genes in archaebacteria and vice versa. The phenomenon may be due to:

a. mutations.
b. emergence of genes.
c. lateral gene transfer.
d. recombination.
lateral gene transfer.
All of the following individuals contributed to cell theory except:

a. Robert Hooke.
b. Matthias Schleiden.
c. Theodor Schwann.
d. Rudolph Virchow.
Robert Hooke
Of the following structures, which is the smallest?

a. viroid
b. hydrogen atom
c. bacterium
d. mitochondrion
hydrogen atom
Of the following, which is the most primitive?

a. virus
b. eukaryote
c. prokaryote
d. mitochondrion
prokaryote
Cell theory includes all of the following except:

a. All organisms are composed of more or more cells.
b. The cell is the most primitive form of life.
c. The cell is the structural unit of life.
d. Cells arise by division of preexisting cells.
The cell is the most primitive form of life.
All of the following are basic properties of cells except:

a. Cells have nuclei and mitochondria.
b. Cells have a genetic program and the means to use it.
c. Cells are capable of producing more of themselves.
d. Cells are able to respond to stimuli.
Cells have nuclei and mitochondria.
The Archaea include all of the following except:

a. methanogens.
b. halophiles.
c. hyperthermophiles.
d. cyanobacteria.
cyanobacteria.
Model organisms representing diverse but typical prokaryotic and eukaryotic species include all but:

a. Drosophila melanogaster.
b. Arabidopsis thaliana.
c. Caenorhabditis elegans.
d. Homo sapiens.
Homo sapiens.
All of the following are features of prokaryotes except:

a. nitrogen fixation.
b. photosynthesis.
c. sexual reproduction.
d. locomotion.
sexual reproduction.
Which of the following may account for the small size of cells?

a. the rate of diffusion
the surface
b. area/volume ratio
c. the number of mRNAs that can be produced by the nucleus
d. All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
Which of the following statements is NOT true of viruses?

a. Viruses have been successfully grown in pure cultures in test tubes.
b. All viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites.
c. All viruses have either DNA or RNA as their genetic material.
d. Viruses probably arose from small fragments of cellular chromosomes.
Viruses have been successfully grown in pure cultures in test tubes.
A change in viral host range:

a. occurs if genes encoding viral attachment proteins mutate.
b. may allow additional species to contract a particular disease.
c. may allow different organs or tissues to become diseased during viral infection.
d. All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
Bone marrow transplants are to blood transfusions as organ engineering is to _________.

a.organ transplant
b. organ transfusion
c. bone marrow transfusion
d. stem cell growth
organ transplant
The most powerful tool for determining evolutionary relationships among cell types is:

a. the study of cell shape.
b. the study of organelle shape.
c. the study of amino acid sequences in proteins.
d. the study of nucleic acid sequences in genomes.
the study of nucleic acid sequences in genomes.
In order for eukaryotic cells as we know them to exist

a. plasma membrane invagination needed to evolve.
b. endocytosis evolved.
symbiotic relationships and genetic c. information swapping evolved.
d. All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
Carl Woese's evolutionary studies that led him to propose the three Superkingdom taxonomic system compared nucleotide sequences present in:

a. cytochrome oxidase genes.
b. 16S rRNA genes
c. DNA polymerase genes
d. hexokinase genes
16S rRNA genes