96 terms

Objective Proficiency (Unit 8) Vocabulary review

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

urban
relating to towns and cities ᅳ opposite rural
interrelationship
a connection between two things that makes them affect each other
see something through
to continue doing something until it is finished, especially something difficult or unpleasant (phrasal verb)
on/at the periphery
on the edge of an area
foster
to help a skill, feeling, idea etc develop over a period of time ᅳ synonym encourage, promote
prior to something
before (formal)
sustainable
able to continue without causing damage to the environment
walkable
capable of being travelled, crossed, or covered by walking
grim
making you feel worried or unhappy; very bad, ugly, or unpleasant
go bankrupt
to have so many debts that you are unable to pay what you owe
contravene
to do something that is not allowed according to a law or rule ᅳ synonym violate
visionary
(adj) having clear ideas of what the world should be like in the future; (n) someone who has clear ideas and strong feelings about the way something should be in the future
as it/things turned out
used to say what happened in the end
shuffle the deckchairs on the Titanic
to do something pointless or insignificant that will soon be overtaken by events, or that contributes nothing to the solution of a current problem.
to fiddle while Rome burns
to enjoy yourself and not give attention to something important and unpleasant that is happening.
preference for
to like something more than another thing and choose it if you can
infill
the process of filling a space, especially by building new houses
a built-up area
an area that has a lot of buildings and not many open spaces
urban sprawl
a large area of buildings that are spread out in an untidy and unattractive way
give priority to
to deal with something first and give it preferential treatment
civic
relating to a town or city
subdivision
the process, instance, or state of being divided again following upon an earlier division
to date
up to now
lag behind
to move or develop more slowly than others
principle behind
the basic idea that a plan or system is based on
mismatch (between...and...)
a combination of things or people that do not work well together or are not suitable for each other
overwhelming
1) very large or greater, more important etc than any other
2) having such a great effect on you that you feel confused and do not know how to react
the net result
the final result or effect of something
pie in the sky
something good that someone says will happen, but which you think is impossible or unlikely
excessive
much more than is reasonable or necessary
hence
for this reason
for the time being
for a short period of time from now, but not permanently
minuscule/miniscule
extremely small
dwelling
a house, apartment etc where people live
regardless of
without being affected or influenced by something
tenure
the legal right to live in a house or use a piece of land for a period of time
high-density housing
housing with a higher population density than the average, typically blocks of flats, and tower blocks
of necessity
used when something happens because that is the only possible way it can happen, not by choice
scarcity of
a situation in which there is not enough of something
consensus
an opinion that everyone in a group agrees with or accepts
by no means/not by any means
not at all
on the fringe(s) of something
at the part of something that is farthest from the centre ᅳ synonym on the edge of something
counter
to do something in order to prevent something bad from happening or to reduce its bad effects
run-down
in very bad condition
diverse
very different from each other
effortless
done in a very skilful way that makes it seem easy
amenities
things that make a place comfortable or easy to live in
pour with rain
to rain heavily without stopping
crawl
to move forward very slowly
dead-end street
a street with no way out at one end
trepidation
a feeling of anxiety or fear about something that is going to happen
torrential rain
heavy, pouring rain
rickety
in bad condition and therefore weak and likely to break
lash
to hit with violent force
steel yourself
to prepare yourself to do something that you know will be unpleasant or upsetting
draw up
(of a vehicle) to arrive somewhere and stop
discharge
to allow someone to leave
not get a wink of sleep/not sleep a wink
not be able to sleep at all
outcry
an angry protest by a lot of ordinary people
relish
to enjoy an experience or the thought of something that is going to happen
high-rise buildings
tall buildings with many levels
deafening
very loud
demolition
destroying a building completely
engage someone in
to make someone involved in an activity
embrace
to eagerly accept a new idea, opinion, religion etc
reach out to somebody
to show people that you are interested in them and want to listen to them (phrasal verb)
sectarian
related to the strong feelings of people who belong to different religious groups
at the junction of (...and...)
at a place where one road, track etc joins another
round something off
to do something as a way of ending an event, performance etc in a suitable or satisfactory way ᅳ synonym finish (phrasal verb)
preferable to something
better or more suitable than something
keep a low profile
to behave quietly and avoid doing things that will make people notice you
be in a good/bad state of repair
to be in good condition and not need repairing, or be in bad condition
fake
not real and seeming to be something it is not, in order to deceive people
as opposed to something
used to compare two things and show that they are different from each other
tip the balance (in favour of)
to give a slight advantage to someone or something
upkeep
the cost or process of looking after someone and giving them the things they need
priestly
like a priest, or relating to a priest
in due course
at some time in the future when it is the right time, but not before
cluster around something
form a small group in some place
shrub
a small bush with several woody stems
dispose of something
to get rid of something, especially something that is difficult to get rid of (phrasal verb)
residue
a substance that remains and cannot be removed easily
classify something as
to decide what group something belongs to
on-the-spot
done immediately while you are at a particular place
scrape
to remove something from a surface using the edge of a knife, a stick etc
grind (ground-ground) to a halt
to stop gradually
by far/far and away
used to say that something is much better, worse etc than anything else
deprivation
the lack of something that you need in order to be healthy, comfortable, or happy
pronouncement
an official public statement
intact
not broken, damaged, or spoiled
take matters into your own hands
to deal with a problem yourself because other people have failed to deal with it
groan
to make a long deep sound because you are in pain, upset, or disappointed
turn somebody/something down
to refuse an offer, request, or invitation (phrasal verb)
meet somebody's standards
to be as good as somebody needs, expects etc you to
impose a burden (on somebody/something)
to have a bad effect on something or someone and to cause problems for them
smooth something out
to make something happen in an even, regular way; to get rid of problems or difficulties (phrasal verb)