81 terms

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Hunter Gatherers
Nomadic people, do not possess agriculture. Hunting and gathering for subsistence. All human beings were at one time hunter-gatherers.
Ainu
Northern Japan- Hunter-Gatherers.
Animism
The idea that objects in nature have their own spirits (rivers, trees, etc.)
Paleolithic Era
Old Stone Age
Neolithic Era
New Stone Age- Agriculture
Horticulture
Gardening for subsistence
Domestication
When humans cause plants and animals to adapt to their needs. Dog.
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (i.e. where they are located)
Southern Iraq/ Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent
Nile River Delta (where?)
Egypt- Med. Sea
Irrigation
Man-made methods of transporting water for the purpose of agriculture.
State
A Politically Organized Body of People.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Sumerian Epic literature. About the hero Gilgamesh, who defied the Goddess Innana/Ishtar
Innana (Ishtar)
Sumerian/Akkadian goddess of love.
Mesopotamia
Iraq, land between the rivers.
Sargon of Akkad
Established the world's first true empire in Mesopotamia. Akkadian Empire. Baby Sargon and the basket of reeds.
Enheduanna
Daughter of Sargon, first author known by name. Her hymns to the gods and goddesses were very violent/warlike.
Barbarians
A name used by peoples of sedentary, farming communities to describe peoples who lacked sedentary agriculture, formal laws, a system of writing, and who often raided sedentary communities.
Ziggaraut
A step pyramid design used in Mesopotamia, usually for temples.
Hammurabi
King of Babylon. Issued first extant code of laws
The Code of Hammurabi
Code of laws established by Hammurabi. Emphasis on evidence. Emphasis on Social Hierarchy.
Reciprocal Justice
Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth. Code of Hammurabi.
Transcendent (as it relates to a deity)
Beyond mortal comprehension. Beyond human limitations and characteristics.
Abraham
Founder of Hebrew people. Founder of Arab people. From city state of Ur. Smashed idols. Led his people west to Canaan.
Moses
Raised an Egyptian prince, of Hebrew blood. Led Hebrews out of Egypt according to the Book of Exodus. Received the 10 Commandants.
Joshua
Successor to Moses. Great Hebrew general. He conquered much of Canaan, including the city of Jericho.
David
King of Israel. OT-slew the Philistine giant Goliath. Poet, who according to tradition, wrote psalms. Known historical figure.
Solomon
Son of David. King of Israel. Governed kingdom of Israel at its height. Built temple to the Hebrew God.
Philistines
"sea peoples." Originated in southeastern Europe. Invaded Egypt and Canaan. Enemies of the Hebrews.
Egyptian conservatism
Very little radical change over a 3,000 year period.
Upper and lower Egypt
Upper Egypt-South. Lower Egypt-North. Based on how Nile flows.
Hieroglyphics
Egyptian writing system. Syllabary.
Imhotep
Egyptian priest. Architect who designed great pyramid. Discoverer of the circulatory system. One of the world's great early physicians. Later deified as god of medicine.
Pyramids
Tombs for dead pharaohs.
Great Pyramid at Giza
Massive pyramid. Great stone blocks not carved on site. Moved by human labor.
Osiris
Egyptian king of the gods. God of the dead, ruler of the underworld.
Isis
Queen of Osiris. Goddess of resurrection. Brought Osiris back from dead.
Set
God of foreigners , enemy of Horus.
Anubis
Jackal headed assistant of Osiris. Helps Osiris judge the souls of the dead.
Horus
Falcon headed god of war- hero god of the Egyptians. Enemy of Set and foreigners.
Amun Ra
Egyptian god of the sun.
Hyksos
A foreign, "Asiatic" people who conquered Egypt. Introduced chariots, composite bows to Egypt.
Ahmose
Pharoah who started the New Kingdom. Kicked out the Hyksos at the age of 15.
Hatshepsut
the only female pharoah. Reigned during a period of economic prosperity.
Akhenaten
Pharoah who worshipped monotheistic sun god Aten. Banned traditional Egyptian gods and goddesses.
Ramesses II
Great military pharaoh who led Egypt to its maximum extent of territory.
Hittites
People from what is now Turkey.
Battle of Kadesh Egyptians vs Hittites. World's first extant peace treaty.
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Hoplites
soldiers of Greek city states, wielded spear and shield.
Phalanx
tight formation of hoplites. Indestructible as long as formation held.
Monarchy
government by a king, queen, emperor, empress, etc.
Oligarchy
government by a noble class, special caste, group, etc.
Democracy
rule by the people.
Tyranny
Rule by an illegitimate ruler who uses force to maintain power.
Mob Rule
anarchy- rule by the rabble.
Parthenon
Temple built by Athenians to the goddess Athena.
Athena
Greek goddess of wisdom, grew from the head of her father Zeus.
Helots
slaves in the kingdom of Sparta. Awful circumstances.
Immortals
elite unit of Persian army. Iran.
Battle of Thermopylae
Spartans and the Persians. Famous last stand of Spartans attempted to delay the Persian advance at the mountain pass of Thermopylae.
Poseidon
Greek god of the sea. Brother of Zeus.
Zeus
King of the Gods. Sky god. Storm God.
Hera
Wife of Zeus. Jealous of her husband. Goddess of home and hearth and of marriage.
Hermes
Messenger of the gods. Son of zeus. God of atheletes.
Hades
God of the dead. Brother of Zeus. Name of the underworld.
Ares
Greek god of war.
Aphrodite
Greek goddess of love and beauty.
Artemis
Goddess of the hunt and nature.
Apollo
God of the Sun, medicine, and the arts.
Athena
Goddess of wisdom, protector of Athens.
Eros
son of Aphrodite. Called Cupid by Romans.
Hephaestus
God of smithing and work. Son of Zeus and Hera.
Demeter
Greek Goddess of the Harvest, Fertility. Mother of Persephone.
Charon
Ferryman who led the recently deceased across the river Styx into the underworld. (Greek mythology).
Hercules
Greek Hero. Son of Zeus. Completed the famous "labors." Freed Prometheus.
Perseus
Greek Hero. Son of Zeus. Slew the Medusa. Married Andromeda.
Jason
Greek Hero. Captured the Golden Fleece. Married princess Medea, who later murdered their two children.
Odysseus
Greek Hero. Fought in war with Troy. Killed a son of Poseidon and was thus cursed with misfortune while attempting to return home.
Cerberus
Three-headed hellhound who guarded the underworld (Greek Mythology).
Medusa
A hag with serpents for hair. One look from her would turn mortals to stone.
Hydra
A multi-headed, reptilian creature. When one head was severed, two more would spring up in its place.
Cyclops
A large, one-eyed giant. Sons of Poseidon.