1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
(1) moderate labor organization founded in 1869 by Terence Powderly, one of the first such organizations in the US; (2) this all-inclusive organization grew quickly but fell into decline after one of its leaders was executed for killing a policeman in the Haymarket Riot
(1886); people were rallying for the workers who were striking in Chicago. The police came and someone threw a bomb; people killed, trial followed, and some men sentenced to death.
bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers' unions
A Chicago protest that was peaceful until a policemen was ordered to have the meeting dispersed and a pipe bomb was set off. Four were killed as police fire broke out, seven anarchists were arrested and sentenced to death.
May 3, 1886 - Chicago strikers and police clash, May 4 - meeting to protest killings, bomb exploded, police fired on the crowd. 16 killed, 100 wounded. Knights of Labor membership declined after this
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
(GC2) , Samuel Gompers, a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
1886 founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, willing to let unskilled fend for themselves, small minority
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
(GC) 1894, , Strike of 1894. Eugene V. Debs organized the American Railway Union (150000 members). Maintained a company town, and when the Depression hit, wages were cut one third, but the rent and living expenses remained the same. Strikers overturned Pullman cars, paralyzed railway traffic from Chicago to Pacific Coast. Eventually, bayonet militia came in from Washington from Cleveland himself. Strikers were imprisoned without jury trials. He was charged since he interfered with mailing service, The beginning of the end of company towns. People who helped keep law and order was Mayor Hopkins and Governor Altgeld