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96 terms

CHapter 2: Ancient Middle East and Egypt

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fertile crescent
a region of the middle east named for its rich soils and golden wheat fields , civilizations arose here
mesopotamia
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
sumer
An ancient region of southern Mesopotamia which rose around 3300 B.C. The first empire that ruled in Mesopotamia and is credited with inventing writing. World's first civilization
flood
the Mesopotamian poem, The Epic of Gilgamesh, describes a ______ that destroys the world
natural resources
sumerian cities had few ______ _______
12
within a few 100 years, sumer included __ seperate city-states
1
how many rulers were there in sumerian government?
hierarchy
system of ranking groups
peasent farmers
majority of sumerians were ___ ____ (lowest level)
slaves
sumerains owned _______
polytheistic
sumerians were ______, worshiped many gods
ziggurat
a large, stepped platform topped by a temple
afterlife
sumerians believed in the _______, life after death
cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets, sumerian invented the first known writing in 3200 B.C.
mesopotamia
in 2500 B.C. armies swept across ________
number system
sumerian scholars developed ______ ______
greeks romans
sumerian knowledge passed on to the ______ and ______
colonies
Phoenicians set up ___ around the Mediterranean to promote trade
Sargon
The world's first empire was set up by ________ (ruler of Akkad)
Zoroaster
A Persian religion developed by _______ focused on the battle between god and evil
Hammurabi
The ruler who wanted to make sure everyone in his kingdom knew the laws was ________
Babylon
The king Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the great city of ______. (he built the hanging walls too)
civil
Hammurabi's code addressed both _____ and criminal law
iron
Hittites developed the technology to make _____
Persian
______ rulers encouraged religious unity across the empire
currency
Darius set up a ________
Phoenicians
_________ developed an alphabet and a trading network
Babylon
Hammurabi was the king of _________
Marduk
the patron god of Babylon that Hammurabi promoted
Asia Minor
Where did the Hittites come from?
weapons
The hittites made better ____
Tigris
Assyrians lived on the _______
Assyrians
most feared warriors in history
libraries
King Assurbanipal, found one of the first _________
Babylon
Nebuchadnezzar revives _______
Cyrus the Great
In 539 B.C., Babylon fell to the Persian armies of _____________
Cyrus
Who built the largest empire ever seen?
bureaucracy
Darius set up this, is a system of government through departments and subdivisions
satrapy
an individual province
barter economy
when ppl exchanged goods or services for another
money economy
goods and services are for through the exchange of a token
Ahura
Zoroaster thought that a singe wise god, ____, ruled the world
Phoenicians
the ____________ expanded trade and manufacturing; made glass and dye
alphabet
Phoenicians invented the _______
cataract
a waterfall
delta
a triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouths of rivers
dynasty
ruling family
vizier
chief minister; supervised the gov.
Nile
Egyptian civilizations developed on the _____
pyramids
______ provided everything a pharaoh needed in the afterlife
Egypt
during Egypt's Middle Kingdom, foreign invaders occupied ____
flax
a plant whose fibers were used for clothing
floods
yearly _____ brought benefits to the Nile
S N
two regions: upper egypt in __, lower egypt in __
Menes
the king of upper egypt
memphis
egypt's capitol
old kingdom
egypt became a centralized state during the _____ ______
Giza
pyramids were built in the Old Kingdom, built in ______
drainage
the large ______ project in the middle kingdom created vast new stretches of farmable land
nubia
a gold-rich land to the south
hyksos
_____ invaded egypt for 100 years
new kingdom
the ____ _________ brought communication to ppl in sw asia and africa
female
hatshepsut- egypts first ___ ruler; encouraged trade
expanded
Thutmose II, her stepson, ______ egypt's borders
Ramses II
became pharaoh of the New Kingdom
Hittities
_____ signed a peace treaty in the new kingdom
egypt
In 1100 bc, ____ power declined
Amon-Re
the chief god or sun god
Re
old kingdom ppl worshiped __
Amon-Re
middle kingdom ppl worshiped ______
underworld
Osiris ruled over the __________, he was the god of the nile
monotheistic
the pharaoh, Akhenaton, wanted to incorparate a ________ religion. Aton was the god
mummification
drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy
valley of the kings
in the new kingdom, many pharaohs were buried in the _________________
King Tut
Howard Carter found the 18 year old, _________
conquests
foreign ____________ brought riches to egypt
women
______ could inherit property
hieratic
_____ writing; a simpler form for everyday use... cursive
papyrus
paper-like writing material
rosetta stone
stone monument
magic
egyptian physicians believed in ______
hebrews
israelians are known as ____
monotheistic
israelians were ______; one god
Torah
most sacred text (Israel)
Moses
he renewed god's covenant with the israelians,the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
David
______ was the 2nd king of Israel
Solomon
David's son who was a great king. He built massive project in Israel including the Great Temple. His project cost the people a lot of money in taxes causing a division in Israel.
N S
solomon's building projects caused the kingdom to split into israel in the __ and Judah in the __
Assyrians
in 722 bc, the ______ conqured israel
babylon
in 589 bc, _____ captured Judah
Cyrus the Great
___________________ freed the israelities
patriarchal
relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority
babylon captivity
King Nebuchadnezzar forced many into exile and destroyed the temple
europe
jews moved to _____
prophets
______, Isaiah and Jeremiah, reminded jews of their duties
diaspora
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel