The Roaring Twenties and The Great Depression
Terms in this set (73)
an investment that is very risky but could yield great profits
Buying on Margin
Purching stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future
the political and social force in the U.S. that opposed the increase of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, Africa and Asia; a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Illegal bar that served liquor during Prohibition
women in the 1920's who bobbed their hair, wore short skirts, and defied the morals and restrictions of the earlier generations
person who smuggled liquor into the United States during Prohibition
abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations; American foreign policy
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
person who seeks to overturn the established government; advocate of abolishing authority
an area on the edge of a town where poor people live in very simply built houses
Unemployed World War I veterans who came to Washington in the spring of 1932 to demand the immediate payment of the bonus congress had voted them in 1922. The veterans were forcibly removed from Anacostia Flats by federal troops under the command of Douglas MacArthur.
The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression
spending money raised by borrowing
arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services
the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof)
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
A payment plan that allows customers to make payments at set intervals over a period of time until the total debt is paid
Sacco and Venzetti
Nicola Sacco was a shoe-factory worker and Bartholomew Vanzetti was a fish peddler. They were both convicted of murdering a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard in 1921. They were supported by Liberals and Radicals. The case lasted 6 years and resulted in execution based on weak evidence. Mainly because Americans were zenophobic (afraid of foreigners).
a system that sets limits on how many immigrants from various countries a nation will admit each year
John L. Lewis
long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike
Warren G. Harding
Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov't land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over
A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding's reputation even though he wasn't involved.
Teapot Dome Scandal
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
Albert B. Fall
He was Secretery of the Interior during Harding's administration, and was a scheming anticonservationist. He was convicted of leasing naval oil reserves and collecting bribes, which was called the Tea Pot Dome scandal.
Fordney McCumber Tariff
This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade.
Charles Evans Hughes
United States jurist who served on the Supreme Court (1862-1948)
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
Charles A. Lindbergh
Celebrity hero who was the first to fly solo across the Atlantic in a small single engine plane. He success gripped the public's imagination.
United States composer who incorporated jazz into classical forms and composed scores for musical comedies (1898-1937)
F. Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda Fitzgerald
F. Scott was a Jazz Age novelist and is regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century, a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his novel THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
Zora Neale Hurston
Black writer who wanted to save African American folklore. She traveled all across the South collecting folk tales, songs & prayers of Black southerners. Her book was called Mules and Men.
United States bass singer and an outspoken critic of racism and proponent of socialism (1898-1976)
Price set by government above free-market level and maintatined by governmental purchases of excess supply
Alfred E. Smith
He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate., Former governor of New York who ran for President against Herbert Hoover. He was against Prohibition.
Dow Jones Industrial Age
the most widely used barometer of the stock market's health
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act
established highest tariff in history to help farmers protect their goods against foreign competition. It actually reduced flow of goods/wealth
a place where food is dispensed to the needy
line of people waiting for food handouts from charities or public agencies
western Kansas and Oklahoma, northern Texas, and eastern Colorado and New Mexico; long periods of drought and destructive farming methods ruined farming in the region
cash payments or food provided by the government to the poor.
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Hoover Dam; A dam on the Colorado River built during the Great Depression as part of a public-works program indented to stimulate buisness and provide jobs
Federal Home Loan Bank Act
lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and allowed farmers to refinance their farm loans and avoid foreclosure
Reconsruction Finance Corporation
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
the 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.
established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation.; were both reactions of the U.S. government to cope with the economic problems which followed the Stock Market Crash of 1929.
Federal Securities Act
(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
1933 sought to help raise commodity prices by paying farmers to cut back production; the money for the benefit payments made to farmers would be raised from a "processing tax" levied on the businesses
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
employed about 3 million men to work on projects that benefited the public, planting trees to reforest areas, building levees for flood control, and improving national parks. This program gave jobs to men but it also benefited the public.
National Industrial Act (NIRA)
1933; National recovery admin. implemented all aspects of the recovery act. codes for fair dealing developed by business and labor leaders in order to deal fairly with one another. max. hours/min wages determined by the NRA; decided what goods would be produced, how much produced, and what price they sold at.
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
National Youth Administration
(FDR) , (NYA)1935, provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in h.s. college and grad school. part time jobs for drop outs
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
(born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 - May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition
Mary Mcleod Bethune
Mary McLeod Bethune was a leader in the struggle for women's and black equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
social worker who observed the poor living conditions of the American Indian communities
New Deal Coalition
coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
Congress of Industrial Organization
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.
Gone with the Wind
a romantic drama and the only novel written by Margaret Mitchell. The story is set in Jonesboro and Atlanta, Georgia during the American Civil War and Reconstruction and follows the life of Scarlett O'Hara, the daughter of an Irish immigrant plantation owner.
an actor, director, producer, writer. Created one of the most renowned radio broadcasts of all time ' The War of The Worlds"
U.S. painter noted for works based on life in the midwest (1892-1942); his most famous painting is American Gothic.
United States writer whose work is concerned with the oppression of African Americans (1908-1960)
The Grapes of Wrath
Federal Deposit and Insurance Corporation
1933, Insured savings accounts in gov. approved banks
Securities and Exchange Comission
an independent agency of the government that regulates financial markets and investment companies
National Labor Relations board
Created by the National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act it was created in the 1930's by congressman Wagner who was sympathetic to labor unions. The National Labor Relation Board was an administrative board that gave laborers the rights of self-organization and collective bargaining.
equality, as in amount, status, or value
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
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