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141 terms

Latin Roots 1-15

STUDY
PLAY
abrupt
1. broken off; lacking in continuity; steep (ant. sloping)
2. sudden; quick and unexpected (ant. leisurely, deliberate, gradual)
corrupt (adj.)
changed ("broken to pieces") from good to bad; vicious
corrupt (v.)
change ("break into pieces") from good to bad; debase; pervert; falsify
disrupt
break apart; cause disorder
erupt
burst or break out
incorruptible
inflexibly honest; incapable of being corrupted or bribed
interrupt
break into or between; hinder; stop
rupture
1. break; breaking
2. hostility
bactericide
substance that kills bacteria
biocide
substance that destroys many different organisms
fratricide
act of killing (or killer of) one's brother
fungicide
substance that kills fungi or inhibits their growth
genocide
deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
germicide
substance that kills germs
herbicide
substance that kills plants
homicide
killing of one human by another
infanticide
act or killing (or killer of) an infant
insecticide
substance that kills insects
matricide
act of killing (or killer of) one's mother
patricide
act of killing (or killer of) one's father
pesticide
substance that kills rats, insects, bacteria, etc.
regicide
act of killing (or killer of) a king
sororicide
act of killing (or killer of) one's sister
suicide
act of killing (or killer of) one's self
tyrannicide
act of killing (or killer of) a tyrant
astringent (adj.)
1. drawing (the tissues) tightly together (e.g. to check bleeding)
2. stern; austere
astringent (n.)
substance that shrinks the tissues and checks flow of blood
boa constrictor
snake that "constricts" or crushes its prey in its coils
constrict
draw together; render narrower; shrink (ant. expand)
restrict
keep within limits (literally, "keep back"); confine
stricture
1. adverse criticism (literally, "tightening"); censure
2. restriction
stringent
strict (literally, "binding tight"); rigid; severe
unrestricted
1. not confined within bounds; free
2. open to all
carnivore
flesh-eating animal
carnivorous
flesh-eating
devour
1. eat greedily or ravenously
2. seize upon and destroy
frugivorous
feeding on fruit
herbivore
plant-eating animal
herbivorous
dependent on (literally, "eating") plants as food
insectivorous
dependent on (literally, "eating") insects as food
omnivore
person or animal that eats everything (both flesh and plants)
omnivorous
1. eating everything, bot plant and animal substances
2. avidly taking in everything
voracious
1. greedy in eating
2. insatiable
convivial
fond of eating and drinking with friends; sociable; jovial; hospitable
taciturn
inclined to silence
stolid
unemotional
revive
bring back to life; restore
survive
outlive; remain alive after
vivacious
lively in temper or conduct
vivacity
liveliness of spirit
vivid
1. (used with things) having the vigor and spirit of life
2. sharp and clear; graphic
vivify
enliven; make vivid
vivisection
operation on a living animal for scientific investigation
contortionist
a person who can twist his or her body into odd postures
distort
1. twist out of shape; contort
2. twist out of the true meaning; misrepresent; pervert; falsify
extort
wrest (money, promises, etc.) from a person by force (literally, "twist out")
retort (v.)
to reply quickly or sharply
retort (n.)
quickly, witty, or cutting reply
torsion
act of twisting; stress due to twisting forces exerted on a body
tortuous
1. full of twists or curves; winding
2. tricky; crooked; circuitous
torture (v.)
1. wrench; twist
2. inflict severe pain upon
torture (n.)
anguish of body or mind; agony
convict (v.)
prove guilty; show conclusively to be guilty
convict (n.)
person serving a prison sentence
conviction
1. state of being judged guilty of an offense
2. strong belief
convince
persuade or show conclusively by argument or proof
evict
1. expel out of legal process;
2. oust
evince
show clearly; disclose; reveal
invincible
incapable of being conquered
vanquish
overcome in battle; conquer; defeat
victor
winner; conqueror
fraction
one or more of the equal parts of a whole; fragment
fractious
apt to break out into a passion; cross; irritable (ant. peaceable)
fracture
1. break or crack
2. breaking of a bone
fragile
easily broken; frail; delicate (ant. tough; durable)
fragment
a part broken off
infraction
act of breaking; a breach; a violation;
refract
bend (literally, "break back") from a straight path
refractory
resisting; intractable; hard to manage (ant. malleable; tractable; adaptable)
omnibus
covering many things at once
omnibus
1. bus
2. book containing a variety of works by one author
omnifarious
of all varieties, forms, or kinds
omnific
all-creating
omnipotent
unlimited in power; almighty
omnipresent
present everywhere at the same time; ubiquitous
omniscient
all-knowing
deflect
turn ("bend") aside
flex
to bend
flexible
pliable ("capable of being bent"); not rigid; tractable (ant. inflexible)
flexor
muscle that serves to bend a limb
genuflect
to bend the knee; to touch the right knee to the ground, as in worship
inflection
change ("bend") in the pitch or tone of a person's voice
inflexibility
rigidity; firmness
reflect
1. throw ("bend") back light rays, as from a mirror (but /not/ from a prism, which /refracts/ rays)
2. to think
reflex
involuntary response to a stimulus; for example, sneezing
detention
act of keeping back or detaining
impertinent
1. irrelevant; not pertinent; inappropriate
2. rude
pertinacious
adhering ("holding") firmly to a purpose or opinion; very persistent
pertinent
having to do with the matter at hand; relevant
retentive
tenacious; able to retain or remember
retinue
group of followers or assistants attending a distinguished person
tenacity
firmness in holding fast; persistence
tenancy
period of a tenant's temporary holding of a real estate
tenet
principle, belief, or doctrine generally held to be true
tenure
1. period for which an office or position is held (ex. U.S. Supreme Court Justices are Justices for life)
2. status assuring an employee a permanent position
untenable
incapable of being held or defended
admonish
warn of a fault; reprove; rebuke (ant. commend)
admonition
gentle reproof ("warning"); counseling against a fault or error
admonitory
conveying of a gentle reproof
monitor (n.)
person or device that keeps track of, checks, or warns
monitor (v.)
to keep track of, regulate, or control the operation of a machine or process
monument
means of reminding us of a person or event (e.g. a statue or a tomb)
premonition
forewarning; intuitive anticipation of a coming event
premonitory
conveying a forewarning
countermand
to issue a contrary order
mandate
1. authoritative command
2. territory administered by a trustee (supervisory nation)
mandatory
obligatory; required by command (ant. optional)
remand
to send ("order") back; recommit, as to prison
writ of mandamus
written order form from a court to enforce the performance of some public duty
accredited
officially authorized or recognized; provided with credentials
credence
belief as to the truth of something
credentials
documents, letters, references, etc., that inspire belief or trust
credible
believable
credit
belief; faith; trust
credulous
too ready to believe; easily deceived (ant. skeptical)
creed
summary of principles believed in or adhered to
discredit (v.)
1. to cast doubt on; refuse to believe
2. to take trust or credit away from; disgrace
discredit (n.)
loss of belief or trust; damage to one's reputation; disgrace
incredible
not believable
incredulity
disbelief
affidavit
sworn written statement made before an authorized official
bona fide
made or carried out in good faith; genuine
confidant
one to whom secrets are entrusted
confident
having faith in oneself; self-reliant; sure (ant. apprehensive)
confidential
communicated in trust; secret; private
diffident
lacking self-confidence; unduly timid; shy
fidelity
1. faithfulness to a trust or vow (ant. perfidy)
2. accuracy; faithfulness of a sound reproduction
fiduciary
1. held in trust (such as property)
2. confidential (such as duties of a trustee)
infidel
one who does not accept a particular faith; unbeliever
perfidious
false to a trust; faithfulness; treacherous
perfidy
violation of a trust; treachery; faithfulness; disloyalty (ant. fealty)