95 terms

World Civ 1 CP - Byzantine, Early Russia, Feudal Europe

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Constantinople
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul
Justinians code
A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system.
autocrat
ruling with absolute authority; extremely bossy
Great Schism
The split between the East and the West Christian churches.
icons
Holy images
Kiev
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century.
Cyrillic alphabet
An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Saints Cyril and Methodius
golden horde
A famous horde of the Mongol Empire that conquered the region of modern-day Russia.
tsar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)
balkan peninsula
A large peninsula in southern Europe bounded by the Black, Aegean, and Adriatic seas.
ethnic group
Group of people who share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics
golden bull of 1222
hungarian king forced to sign, recognizing nobles' power, limited royal power
medieval era
The Middle Ages. Usually refers to the late or High Middle Ages, which were from around the year 1000 A.D. up to about 1450 A.D.
battle of tours (732)
battle where Frankish armies under Charles Martel held back the Muslim invaders
magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
vikings
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
feudalism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
vassal
(n.) a person under the protection of a feudal lord to whom he or she owes allegiance; a subordinate or dependent; a servant; (adj.) subservient
feudal contract
Exchange of pledges between lords and vassals
fief
An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty
knight
A mounted warrior
tournaments
contest where knights could fight; useful in helping knights train for warm Mock battles
chivalry
A code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
troubadours
wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women
manor
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
serfs
A person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
sacraments
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
Benedictine Rule
A collection of rules or guidelines for monks and monasteries; named for Benedict of Nursia; widely used in Europe in the Middle Ages
secular
Non-religious
papal supremacy
The claim of medieval popes that they had authority over all secular rulers
canon law
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
excommunication
Banishment from the church
interdict
An official act of banning a group of people from religious ceremonies
friars
people who belonged to religious orders but lived and worked among the general public
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Theodora
the wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantine Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constantinople and fight the Nika Revolt.
Belisarius
One of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of Western Europe; commended in North Africa and Italy
Mehmet II
7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire) first Ottoman ruler to claim the title of Caesar of the Roman Empire (supreme ruler of all Christians)
Procopius
Historian of the Byzantine Empire who in his "Secret History" revealed the cruelty of the autocratic system in which the emperor ruled by divine providence., Wrote two histories of Byzantine Emperor Justinian's rule. One good and sponsored by Justinian, one bad and secret.
Anna Comnena
The western world's first important female historian who analyzed the reign of her father, Emperor Alexis I. Much bias
Rurik
Legendary Scandinavian regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.
Vladimir
Russian ruler who chose Byzantine Christianity as the official religion of the Russian state
Yaroslav (the Wise)
Vladimir's son who arranged political marriages, trading alliances, legal code, and built churches, and built the first library. Divided Kiev among his three sons, which led to the downfall of Kiev at the hands of the Mongols.
Ivan the Great (III)
(1462-1505) Grand Duke of Moscow, ended Mongol domination of his dukedom, extended territories, subdued nobles, and attained absolute power; made Moscow the center of a new Russian state with a central government.
Ivan the Terrible (IV)
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.
Stefan Dusan
Serb leader who encouraged Byzantine culture, even modeling his law code on that Justinian.
Lost to muslims
Clovis
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
Charles Martel
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
Pepin III (the Short)
Sole ruler of France and 'king by the grace of god'. Helped the Pope fight against lombards, and gave the land to the Pope establishing the Papal states
Charlemagne
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival. (250) Conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800
Odin
The supreme Norse god, who was lord of warriors and poets.
Gregory VII
11th-century pope who attempted to free church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishops.
Hildegard of Bingen
Abbess of a religious house in Western Germany; one of first important women composers and contributor to Gregorian chant; had visions and was mystic and prophet to kings, popes, emperors, priests
Eleanor of Aquitaine
powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him
St. Francis of Assisi
Italian saint who founded the Franciscan order of friars; treated all creatures, including animals, as spiritual brothers and sisters; born to wealthy merchant family and willingly gave up a life of comfort
Byzantine Empire
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Hippodrome
An ancient Greek stadium used for horse and chariot racing
Nika Revolt
People revolted against Justinian. His wife tells him not to run away and he sends army and 30,000 people are killed.
Hagia Sophia
Church rebuilt under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Greek Fire
Byzantine weapon made of liquid with petroleum that would ignite when on contact, and its fire couldn't be put out with water.
Bezant
a gold coin of the Byzantine Empire
patriarch
Highest Church official in Constantinople
Orthodox Christianity
Branch of Christianity based in the Greek-speaking eastern portions of ancient Europe. Split from the Roman Catholic Church in the 11th Century based on traditions and ritual differences as well as who was to lead the church, it is today the dominant form of Christianity in places such as Greece, Balkans Europe and Russia.
Fourth Crusade
Venetian merchants persuaded knights to attack Constantinople. City was burned and plundered for 3 days sending much treasure westward.
Steppe
A large area of flat unforested grassland in southeastern Europe or Siberia.
Pravda Russkaia
The first set of laws in Russia introduced by Yaroslav the Wise. It contains elements or Roman, Orthodox Christian Church and tribal law.
Kulikovo
The site of a battle In 1380, where the Russian princes of Moscow took control from the Mongols by defeating the Golden Horde
Boyars
Land owning nobles in early Russia.
Oprichniki
Agents of terror who enforced the tsar's will. Dressed in black robes and were mounted on black horses.
Jewish Expulsions
started in 1290, Jews were made to leave, largest one was from Spain
Diet
An assembly in Poland where the vote of a single noble could block the passage of a law.
Liberum veto
"free veto", that single noble could use to block passage of a law.
Dark Ages
A period of political, social and economic decline after the collapse of Rome. Western Europe was politically divided and cut off from advanced civilizations. Trade slowed, towns emptied and classical learning came to a stop.
Franks
Germanic tribe that conquered parts of the Roman empire. Mostly farmers and herders.
Battle of Tours
Christian warriors fought off Muslim invaders in France
Christendom
United Christian community
Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle)
Charlemagne's court (palace)
Missi dominici
officials sent by Charmelagne to check on roads, listen to grievances and see justice done in his local regions
Scandinavia
Northern region of Europe that now includes Norway, Sweden and Denmark
Longships
Viking raiding ships
Valhalla
The great feasting hall where brave Vikings go after they die.
primogeniture
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land.
Nobility
A class of people that has a high rank in a society because they were born into a specific family.
coat of arms
a shield marked with designs of a particular family or group
pilgrimage
religious journeys
tithe
tax paid by Christians to the Church (weekly offerings collected in baskets at Mass)
Clergy
Church leaders
cathedrals
Larger churches
Bishop
Supervised parish priests
Monastery
Places where monks lived, prayed, studied and worked.
Abbot
Head of a monastery
Truce of God
Period of temporary peace declared by the Church to try and end warfare among nobles
Althing
The national parliament of Iceland. Icelandic Assembly set up in 930 to deal with major disputes and common laws. In 1000 made Christianity official religion. Oldest parliament in the world. CURRENT EVENTS CONNECTION:
Pontifical Swiss Guard
Small army that protects the Pope. Guards must be Catholic, single male with Swiss citizenship. Current Events Connection: Pope Francis fired the head of the Guard last December because he was seen as a dictator by his employees.
Besa (from Kanun)
a moral pledge to protect and shelter any "guest in need" in their home. CURRENT EVENTS CONNECTION: