PSYCH N110 Final Review (Substance Abuse: Depressants)

Psychedelics is another term for ____________
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All addictive drugs stimulate the release of dopamine in what brain structure (structure that plays an important role in reinforcement)?Nucleus AccumbensTrue or False: Addictive drugs may also produce negative reinforcement.Truenegative reinforcementthe removal or reduction of an aversive stimulus that is contingent on a particular response, with an attendant increase in the frequency of that responseIf a person is unhappy or anxious, a drug that reduces those feelings can reinforce drug-taking behavior. This is an example of what type of reinforcement of addictive drugs?negative reinforcementTrue of False: Reduction of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms by a dose of the drug also plays a role in drug addictions, though it is not the main cause of addictionTrueWhat is a craving?The urge to take a drug to which one has become addicted toWhat can occur even after an addict has refrained from taking the drug for a long time?CravingsWhat is associated with an increased sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons and increased activity of the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate?cravingsResearch has found that the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate of abusers were found to be less or more active than that of normal participants during abstinence?Less activeWhat can stressful stimuli increase an animal's susceptibility to?a drug addictionAfter being defeated by dominant rats, socially stressed rats became more sensitive to the effects of __________ and self-administered larger amounts of the drug when given the opportunity.After being defeated by dominant rats, socially stressed rats became more sensitive to the effects of COCAINE and self-administered larger amounts of the drug when given the opportunity.Infant rats that were stressed by removal from mother and littermates for an hour a day, later self-administered more of what drug than control rats?cocaineWhat is the term used for chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood?psychoactive drugsWhat are the 3 main subclasses of pyschoactive drugs?Depressants Stimulants HallucinogensWhat subclass of psychoactive drugs calms neural activity and slows body functions?depressantsWhat subclass of psychoactive drugs temporarily excites neural activity and arouses body functions?stimulantsWhat subclass of psychoactive drugs distorts perceptions and evokes sensory images in absence of sensory input?HallucinogensWhat are the odds of becoming addicted after trying various drugs from least to greatest? Marijuana, Alcohol, Cocaine, Heroin, TobaccoOdds of becoming addicted: Marijuana - 9% Alcohol - 15 % Cocaine - 17% Heroin - 23 % Tobacco - 32%Alcohol is classified as a _______.depressantWhat is the most commonly abused substance?alcoholWhat are the percentages of lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse or dependence for men and women?4.6% for women 24% for menWhat is the drug action of alcohol?Alcohol serves as an indirect antagonist at NMDA receptors and an indirect agonist at GABA receptors. Activation of opiate receptors also seems to play a role.What are the reinforcing effects of alcohol?Initial mild euphoria, followed by relaxation and disinhibitionTrue or False: Alcohol produces both positive (euphoric effects) and negative (anxiolytic effects) reinforcementTrueApproximately what percent of all occupied beds in American hospitals are filled by people with ailments linked to alcohol consumption?50%Slowing brain activity that controls judgment and inhibitions and having greater costs to society than any other drug are negative side effects of what?alcoholTrue or False: People who had been drinking commit 4 in 10 violent crimes and 3 in 4 acts of spousal abuseTrueTrue or False: On college campuses, alcohol is involved in more than two-thirds of suicides, 90% of rapes and sexual assaults, and 95% of violent crimesTrueWhat depressant slows reactions and impairs skill performance: increases risk of car accidents?AlcoholWhat depressant impairs memory: "blackouts" due to antagonistic effects on NMDA receptors and disruption of REM?AlcoholWhat type of depressant can cause/exacerbate depression: increases risk of suicide 100 times?AlcoholWhat type of depressant can cause permanent brain shrinkage (especially in women), Korsakoff-Wernicke encephalopathy, cirrhosis of the liver (inflammation that causes scarring), and increased rate of heart disease and strokes?AlcoholWhat is the #1 killer among alcoholics?Heart DiseaseTrue or False: Research indicates that frontal lobe damage caused by alcohol is not as severe in teen brains as in adult brainsResearch indicates that frontal lobe damage caused by alcohol is TWICE as severe in teen brains as in adult brainsAt lower consumption levels of alcohol, who is more at rick for lung, brain, and liver damage at lower consumption levels?Girls and womenTrue or False: The good news is most alcoholics show improvement in cognitive functioning and brain structure within a year of abstinence, although some people take much longer.True (image comparison of two brains shows regrowth of gray matter over the brain after becoming sober for 1 year)Tremors, weakness, sweating, nausea, seizures are all possible severe and potentially fatal withdrawal symptoms of what substance?alcoholWhat is the term used to describe experiences that appears 2 to 10 days after withdrawal; characterized by confusion, sleeplessness, nightmares, excessive sweating, profound depression, drop in pulse rate, fever, alcoholic hallucinosis?Delirium tremensWhat can the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy result in for infants?Fetal Alcohol SyndromeWhat is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?The malformation of the head and brain, intellectual disability, antisocial behavior, and attention deficit caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancyWhat is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disability in the U.S.?FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome) - 1oz/day alcohol = 5 pt decrease in IQSplit in the upper lip and cleft palette are potential symptoms of what condition?FASDramatic effects of FAS can be observed in what internal structure of a 6-week old baby?Brain 6-w old baby with FAS have a much smaller, malformed brain than that of a normal 6-w old babyThe following treatments are for what condition? - Intravenous doses of vitamins, minerals, and fluids - Benzodiazepines may be prescribed for a few days - Antipsychotic drugs for alcoholic hallucinosis - Acetaminophen for feverTreatment for alcohol dependency during the acute phaseDisulfram (Antabuse): interferes with alcohol metabolism, causing acetaldehyde to build up - causes flushing, nausea, and vomiting if alcohol is consumed is treatment for what?alcohol addictionTrue or False: Similar effects of disulfram to treat alcoholism are produced in many Asians when they consume alcoholAbout 50% of East Asians lack the active form of the aldehyde dehydrogenase, and 85-90% have an atypical alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme that converts alcohol into acetaldehydeAdministration of ____________, a drug that blocks opiate receptors, blocks some of alcohol's reinforcing effectsnaltrexone_________________ have been shown to decrease craving for alcohol.Serotonin agonists (SSRIs)What reduces seizures during withdrawal, as well as cravings, by blocking NMDA receptors in brain?Acamprosate (Campral)What is the drug action of Barbiturates (Nembutal, Seconal) and benzodiazepines (Valium, Librium, Xanax)?serves as an indirect agonist at GABA receptorsWhat are the reinforcing effects of Barbiturates (Nembutal, Seconal) and benzodiazepines (Valium, Librium, Xanax)?reduces anxiety, induces sleepWhat are the negative effects of Barbiturates (Nembutal, Seconal) and benzodiazepines (Valium, Librium, Xanax)?- Like alcohol, can cause impairments in memory and judgment - Abrupt withdrawal can cause severe, frightening, and potentially life-threatening reactionsTrue or False: Mixing alcohol and barbiturates can be lethalTrueTrue or False: Among teens, rate of addiction to benzodiazepines is now higher than to opioidsTrueHeroin, morphine, codeine, Fentanyl, Vicodin, Percocet, OxyContin, and most prescriptions pain meds are examples of what type of depressant?OpioidsWhat is the drug action of opioids?stimulates opiate receptors in the periaqueductal gray matter (part of brainstem)What are the reinforcing effects of opioids?produces sedation, analgesia, euphoric rushWhat are the negative effects of opioids?- Brain stops producing endogenous opioids (endorphins) - Rapid development of tolerance and agonizing withdrawal symptoms, including agitation, mood swings, and muscle aches - Causes depressed physiology: lethargy and constipation - overdose - use of unsanitary needs can cause infection with hepatitis or AIDSOverdose of what type depressant can lead to suppression of respiration and death?opioidsTrue or False: Between 2013 and 2017, the U.S. rate of opioid overdose deaths increased almost ten times to 43,036TrueThe following describe treatment for what type of drug use? - Naltrexone and naloxone are used to counter the effects of opiate overdose - Methadone treatment programs - Buprenorphine (Suboxone, newly dev drop)Treatment for opioid useWhat the potent opiate that is drunk in the form of a liquid?MethadoneWhat is the "Flesh-eating drug" called?KrokidilHow does methadone treatment programs to treat opioid use work?Oral administration increases opiate level in the brain slowly, so drug does not produce euphoric effect also b/c methadone is long-lasting, patient's opiate receptors remain occupied for a long time - this means that an injection of heroin has little effectWhat newly dev drug is used to treat opioid use and has an even weaker opiate effect than methadone, much lower abuse potential, and is used for treatment of chronic pain?Buprenorphrine (Suboxone)airplane glue, spray paints, paint thinner, gasoline, "whippets," etc. are examples of what type of abuse?inhalant abuseWhat is the drug action of inhalant abuse?powerful CNS depressantsWhat are the reinforcing effects of inhalant abuse?causes relaxation, sedation, and disinhibitionWhat are the negative side effects of inhalant abuse?Can cause death from severely depressed breathing or irregular heartbeat and severe damage to brain, heart, kidney, liver, and lungsRecovery from what abuse is among the poorest for any mood-altering substance?inhalant abuse For example, Inhaling nitrous oxide (laughing gas) from whipped cream containers can cause numbness and weakness in the legs and arms - which may become permanent!What cab be used in small amounts to drug people, is very easy to overdose on in small amounts, and can be used to manipulate people to do whatever you tell them?Scoplamine (devil's breath)