440 terms

STAARS Flash Cards (people and terms)

(1860-1935) Founder of Hull House in Chicago, She was the most prominent reformer of the Progressive Era
Jane Addams
(1919-2010) received the Congressional Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism during World War II while fighting in Italy. Medal of Honor presented to him by President Bill Clinton in 1997.
Vernon Baker
(1820-1906) She was a prominent American civil rights activist and leader during the women's suffrage movement.
Susan B. Anthony
(1878-1930) He was an American aviation pioneer and a founder of the U.S. aircraft industry. He developed a seaplane that was the first to take off and land on the deck of a ship.
Glenn Curtiss
(1835-1919) He built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company. creating the U.S. Steel Corporation
Andrew Carnegie
(1935- 1998) He was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his heroic actions in the Vietnam War
Roy Benavidez
President from 1993-2001 (2 terms)- impeachment - vote went along party lines
Bill Clinton
Leader of Chicano Movement to
eliminate racism against Mexican Americans. Organized farm workers in California. Demanded increased wages and better working conditions
Cesar Chavez
World War II general selected by Eisenhower to lead U.S. forces into France after Normandy invasion
Commander during Battle of the Bulge
Omar Bradley
Leader in Women's Liberation Movement. Helped form NOW (National Organization of Women). Became central voice of Women's Movement. Wrote The Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan
Supreme commander of D-Day & allied invasion of Europe in WWII. President from 1953-1961 (2 terms). Created the Interstate Highway
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1835 - published Democracy in America; identified five values he found critical to America's success:
• Egalitarianism (equality)
• Individualism
• Laissez-faire (hands off)
• Liberty
• Populism (popular sovereignty)
Alexis de Tocqueville
President from 1961-1963 Supported Space Race, Created Alliance for Progress & Peace
Corp. Avoided nuclear showdown during Cuban Missile Crisis
John F. Kennedy
President from 1921-1923 Called for a "return to normalcy." less foreign involvement; emphasis on prosperity at home
Warren G. Harding
Mexican American physician & surgeon during WWII. Human rights advocate. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom (highest civilian honor) in 1984
Hector P. Garcia
Army Chief of Staff and adviser to Roosevelt during WWII.
Created Marshall Plan designed to rebuild the economies and spirits of Europe
George Marshall
Commander of U.S. army in the Pacific during WWII. Commander of U.S. forces in Korean Conflict
Douglas MacArthur
Clergyman, activist & leader in the Civil Rights Movement. Advanced civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience (influenced by Gandhi)
• Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
• Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963)
• March on Washington (1963
Martin Luther King Jr
President from 1969-1974 Normalized (reopened) relations with Red China (1972). Introduced détente with Soviet Union (relaxing of tension and de-escalating arms race).
Resigned office to avoid impeachment after Watergate scandal
Richard Nixon
"Red Scare" Conducted hearings to identify Communists he claimed infiltrated U.S. Government
Joseph McCarthy
Commander of Pacific Fleet during WWII. Commander at Battle of Midway victory
Chester W. Nimitz
Arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a white person. Her actions led to Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56)
Rosa Parks
1st African American to be elected President.
Supported health care reforms & banking reforms
Barack Obama
Appointed to Supreme Court in 1981 First female Justice
Sandra Day O'Conner
President from 1981-1989. Reduced taxes & regulations to encourage business activity - Reaganomics
Ronald Reagan
Named Commander of American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during WWI. Led forces at Battle of Argonne Forest
John J. Pershing
Commander of U.S. forces in North Africa and Sicily. Led Third Army across Europe
George S. Patton
Conservative activist. Founder of Eagle Forum - opposes modern feminism. Campaigned against Equal Rights Amendment
Phyllis Schlafly
President from 1945-1953. Used atomic weapons against Japan to bring WWII to an end. Assisted in the founding of the United Nations. Executed policy to contain communism (Truman Doctrine)
Harry S. Truman
President from 1932-1945 (elected to 4 terms). Pulled country out of Great Depression with New Deal. Declared war on Japan after bombing of Pearl Harbor
Franklin D. Roosevelt
was a Scottish-American industrialist & Philanthropists of his era. Using the Bessemer process, he built Carnegie Steel Company. "Gospel of Wealth" doctrine.
Andrew Carnegie
was a leading politician from the 1890s until his death in 1925. He was a force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party. He ran three times for President, 1896, 1900, and 1908. Prosecuted biology teacher John Scopes for teaching evolution. Socialist
William Jennings Bryan
President from 1913-1921. Advocate for women's suffrage . President during WWI. Proposed Fourteen Points.
Woodrow Wilson
was an American aviation pioneer and a founder of the U.S. aircraft industry. He earned the title, fastest man in the world, when his motorcycle reached a speed of 136.3 mph. Made the first long-distance flight in the United States.
Glenn Curtiss
American politician and diplomat. She served as the 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, appointed by President Barack Obama. She served as a United States Senator representing New York from 2001 to 2009.
Hillary Clinton
Elected president in 1992. Six years later, in 1998, he was impeached by the House of Representatives, but was acquitted by the Senate in 1999
Bill Clinton
May 17, 1954, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren delivered the unanimous ruling in the landmark civil rights case_______. This historic decision marked the end of the "separate but equal" Plessy v. Ferguson.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
District Judge Ben Rice agreed that segregation of Mexican American students was not authorized by Texas law and therefore violated the equal protection of the law clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Delgado v. Bastrop ISD (1948)
He was the first pilot to complete a nonstop, solo trans-Atlantic flight. He flew his plane, The Spirit of St. Louis from New York to Paris, France..
Charles A. Lindbergh
Socialist ___ _ ___ against charges of criminal conspiracy in the Pullman strikes against the railroad industry.
Eugene V. Debs
He was the first African American to speak openly and publicly about African nationalism. He believed the only way African Americans were going to achieve equality was to return to Africa and build a great nation of their own.
Marcus Garvey
American industrialist & the developer of the assembly line technique of mass production. He revolutionized transportation and American industry. By 1932, he was manufacturing one third of all the world's automobiles.
Henry Ford
he was an American author who wrote, The Jungle. Exposed conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry. The Jungle caused such an outcry that it led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Upton Sinclair
was appointed as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in August 2009 by President Barrack Obama. Court's first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice.
Sonia Sotomayor
Former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world's largest personal-computer software company. He created the MS- DOS system.
Bill Gates
He was one of the most decorated soldiers in World War I. As a soldier in World War I, he gained notoriety by his performance in the Battle of Argonne. Congressional Medal of Honor
Alvin York
Longest-serving first lady of the United States. She boldly fought for civil rights for African Americans and women. During World War II she visited American soldiers all over the world.
Eleanor Roosevelt
Governor of Alabama during the civil rights movement of the 60s and 70s. In June of 1963, he stood in the door of the University of Alabama to block the admission of two African American students.
George Wallace
was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor, suffragist and sociologist. She documented lynching, showing how it was often used to control or punish blacks who competed with whites.
Ida Wells-Barnett
American businessman and entrepreneur born in Kingfisher, Oklahoma. Best known for founding Walmart and Sam's Club.
Sam Walton
1949- Organization formed for "collective security." Formed in response to Cold War by U.S., Canada and Western European countries.
Pledged to protect member nations from aggression
North Atlantic Treaty
1948-proposed by Secretary of State, George C Marshall Plan to help rebuild Europe
after WWII with economic aid. Helped reduce the appeal of Communism. Very successful
Marshall Plan
1947-proposed by Pres. Truman to fight the spread of Communism. Started with Greece & Turkey. Promised assistance (usually
economic & military aid) to all free countries
Truman Plan
1950-56-Accusations of disloyalty, subversion &
treason made with little Evidence during Second Red Scare. Fueled by fear of Communism. Named for Sen. Joseph McCarthy
1962-13-day standoff between Cuba & the Soviet Union against the U.S. Major confrontation in Cold War that almost turned into a nuclear conflict. Led to agreement to ban further nuclear testing except underground
Cuban Missile Crisis
1948-Soviets closed all access into West Berlin (blockade). Western Allies airlifted supplies into West Berlin. Demonstrated the U.S. and their allies commitment to stopping Soviet aggression. Soviets ended the blockade
Berlin Airlift
1950-1953-U.S. opposed Communist North Korean invasion of South Korea. U.N. resolution passes - sent troops (mostly U.S.). MacArthur led troops. War ended in a stalemate (no change in borders)
Korean War
Secret efforts of U.S. & Great Britain to decode Soviet communications. Identified some Soviet spies in the United States. Led to the conviction & execution of the Rosenbergs
Venona Papers
set up after World War II to insure loyalty to
United States. Established in response to fear of Communism. Accused often unable to defend themselves & their civil rights often violated
"House Un-American Activities Committee
Viet Cong attack U.S. strongholds in South Vietnam. Helped convince U.S. public that the
war would not be easily won. Ends up a U. S. victory. Caused LBJ problems.
Tet Offensive
1954-1973-Began when Vietcong (North Vietnam) attacked South Vietnam; U.S. took action to keep South Vietnam from falling Major events: Gulf of Tonkin; Tet Offensive; Fall of Saigon Deeply divided U.S. support
Heavy U.S. casualties Led to War Powers Resolution
Vietnam War
1950's-1980's-Idea that if one Southeast Asia country fell, the surrounding countries would follow (suggested by Eisenhower) Heavily influenced Pres. Kennedy's thinking about
Domino Theory
Extended voting rights to 18 year old Lowered voting age from 21 to 18. Spurred by Vietnam War - old enough to die for country, but not old enough to vote
26th Amendment
1975-South Vietnamese Army unable to prevent the advance of North Vietnamese army after U.S. removed troops. Saigon fell. Marked the end of the War. 1000's of Vietnamese refugees
evacuated in multiple efforts
Fall of Saigon
Nixon policy to "expand, equip, & train South
Vietnam's forces." Allowed withdrawal of U. S. forces Included bombing of North Vietnam & military aid to South Vietnam
Outlawed discriminatory voting practices.
Especially targeted practice of administering literacy tests. Established federal monitoring of elections. Signed by LBJ
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Major civil rights legislation Outlawed discrimination in public facilities, in employment & voting registration.
Government withhold federal funding to states who continued segregation. Signed by LBJ
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Passed under President Eisenhower to increase
African-American voting in the South. Formed a Civil Rights Division in the Justice Department. Not very effective; but raised awareness and helped support social change
Civil Rights Act of 1957
1978-Agreement between Israel & Egypt that led to a peace treaty. 1st such treaty between Israel & any of its Arab neighbors. Brokered by Pres. Carter between Menachem Begin & Anwar Sadat
Camp David Accords
Reagan wanted enemies to believe U. S. had the ability & the will to stop aggression by any necessary means. "Let he who desires peace
prepare for war." -Ronald Reagan
Peace Through Strength
"Supply-side economics" policy promoted by Reagan
1. reduce government spending
2. reduce federal taxes
3. reduce government regulation
4. control the money supply
Reversed trend of large government
A conservative "think-tank" based in Washington D.C. Influenced Reagan's policies
on free enterprise, limited government, individual freedoms, personal values and national defense. Non-profit lobbying group
Heritage Foundation
U.S. political action group composed of conservative, fundamentalist Christians.
Founded and led by evangelist Rev. Jerry Falwell. Played significant role in the
1980 elections through support of conservative candidates. Dissolved in 1989
Moral Majority
1994-Before midterm elections, Republicans proposed a series of reforms: tax cuts, welfare
reform & requirement that laws that apply to American public also apply to Congress. Propelled GOP to win control of the House (1st time since 1950s
Contract with America
1990-U.N. forces launched attack to keep Iraq & Saddam Hussein from invading Kuwait. U.S. took the leading role. Iraq forced to remove all troops from occupied territories & pay war damages. Huge foreign policy success for Pres. Bush
Persian Gulf War
1945-1990-Conflict between U.S. & Soviet Union. 2 super powers with different economic & political systems. Never fought each other in "open warfare", but led to crisis & conflict on every continent
Cold War
After assassinations of MLK, JFK and Robert Kennedy a Gun Control Act was passed.
NRA became more politically active to protect 2nd Amendment Rights. Endorsed Ronald Reagan for presidency in 1980 election
National Rifle Association
Global "War on ____" vowed by President George W Bush after 9-11 attacks. Ground & air assaults against nations that harbor terrorists. Included creation of Department of Homeland Security, Transportation Security Administration & USA Patriot Act
Al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked & crashed commercial aircraft into the World Trade Center in New York City & the Pentagon in Washington D.C.
G.W. Bush declared "War on Terrorism
History of conflict in the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe. End of Cold War renewed ethnic tensions between Muslim Bosnian & Christian Serbs. Fearful of genocide, President Clinton negotiated a peace; supported NATO bombings against Serbia to stop attacks on Kosovo
Balkans Crisis
1972-Group working for Nixon's re-election broke into Democratic Party headquarters.
Nixon claimed executive privilege when committee wanted to question him. Tapes revealed Nixon lied and he Resigned from presidency
Any "race" or competition to develop better weapons Ex: Nuclear Arms Race - between Soviet Union & U.S. to develop most powerful nuclear bombs during the Cold War (After WW II)
Arms Race
President Johnson's social legislation designed to transform American society in the 60's. Included Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, Affirmative Action, War on Poverty, Economic
Opportunity Act, Job Corp, Medicare Act and Aid to Cities
Great Society
1986-Secret operation during Reagan's presidency U.S. sold arms to Iran in exchange for hostages held in Lebanon. Funds then used to support anticommunist rebels in Nicaragua.
Tarnished U. S. reputation, but Pres. Reagan remained popular
Iran Contra Affair
Congress reclaimed its constitutional power to limit presidential power. Congress must issue a
declaration of war. President must inform Congress within 48 hours of sending troops; must be approved by Congress or withdrawn
War Powers Act of 1973
1964-North Vietnamese attacked U.S. ships in international water in Gulf of Tonkin. President Johnson uses this to escalate war. Congress gave President Johnson full military powers to stop North Vietnam (almost a blank check)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1919- banned the sale of alcohol. Started Prohibition. AKA Volstead Act
18TH Amendment
1913- established direct election of United States
Senators by popular vote
17th Amendment
1913-gave Congress the power to tax personal income
16th Amendment
Great Britain, France, Soviet Union; U.S. joined in 1941 after bombing of Pearl Harbor. Nations allied in opposition to the Axis Powers during WWII
Allied Powers
sent to Europe. President Wilson placed Gen. Pershing in command of AEF By 1918. AEF numbered over a million men
American Expeditionary Force
1920 - established that no state could denie a citizen the right to vote based on gender
19th Amendment
1942 - forced march of prisoners through the jungle. 5000 Americans, almost ½ of prisoners died from starvation, disease, exposure and no
water; many were shot, beheaded or left to die
Bataan Death March
Germany, Italy, Japan Opposed the Allied Powers in World War II. Grew out of a German- Japanese Anti-Communist Pact
Axis Powers
Belief that a world power requires colonies. supported expansion. Industrial U. S. needed markets & raw materials. Missionaries spread "Anglo-Saxon" supremacy. Showed other nations the U. S. was powerful. Promoted strong navy
American Expansionism
1882 - first federal law restricting immigration to the U.S. Reflected prejudices of the time against Asians. Californian politicians blamed unemployment and a decline in wages on Chinese workers
Chinese Exclusion Act
Turning point of the war in the Pacific. U. S. defeated Japanese Navy. Admiral Chester Nimitz commanded Pacific Fleet
Battle of Midway
1918 - AEF shattered well constructed defense to defeat Germany - 117,000 American killed or
York received Medal of Honor for his brave actions
Battle of Argonne Forrest
1913 - Created the Federal Reserve Board.
Purpose is to reduce swings in the economy by controlling the ability of banks to lend money.
Regulates the amount of money in circulation and sets interest rates
Federal Reserve Act
1942-Permitted military to require Japanese Americans to relocate to interior internment camps. Led to loss of Japanese property and businesses. Supreme Court ruled that constitutional liberties may be limited in wartime
Executive Order 9066
Belief that the human race could be improved by breeding. Supposed that superior parents would birth even better children. Impacted immigration policy - reduce "inferior races" in U.S.
1932-39 - devastating economic downturn that saw stock prices fall, businesses fail & large scale unemployment in Europe & U.S.
In United States, FDR implemented a "New Deal" plan to put many back to work
Great Depression
1918 - President Wilson's WW I war "aims" for the U.S. Demanded creation of states for each nationality
• an independent Poland
• creation of a League of Nations
Fourteen Points
Volunteer American fighter pilots to send supplies to China. Engaged in combat with
Japanese pilots. Destroyed over 300 Japanese planes
Flying Tigers
1887-prohibited unfair practices by railroads such as charging higher raters for shorter routes.
1st time Congress attempted to regular business in U.S.
Interstate Commerce Act
1910-1930 - over two million African American left the South to go to the "Promised Land" of
the Northeast and Midwest, looking for jobs in the industrial cities to escape sharecropping.
African Americans still faced racism and unfair treatment
Great Migration
FDR's programs for national recovery from the Great Depression.
Reforms - measures to remedy problems: FDIC, SEC, Social Security Act
Relief - short-term actions to assist people: CCC, WPA, PWA
Recovery - restore incentives to produce: NRA, AAA
New Deal
Played a key role in the Pacific campaign.
Used their Navajo language to transmit messages. Japanese never figured out the code (language)
Navajo Code Talkers
Those born in the U. S. identified themselves as Natives. Believe that white Protestants were superior. Other races, religions and nationalities were inferior. Led to dislike of foreigners
1891-1896 - 3rd Party "common man" movement: workers & farmers against big business. Women had an important voice.
Established importance of 3rd parties in American politics: special issues & new ideas; puts pressure on major parties
Dec. 7, 1941 - surprise attack by the Japanese on the U. S. fleet at Pearl Harbor. Brought U.S. into WWII. "A date which will live in infamy..."-Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
June 6, 1944 __ __ invasion. Allied troops landed in Normandy, France. Largest amphibious assault in history. Turned war in favor of allies
Fear of spread of communism. Series of strikes in U. S. in 1919 caused fear that this was the start of a Communist Revolution. Created an atmosphere of panic
Red Scare
1919-18th amendment banned alcoholic drinks.
Ban failed; repealed by 21st amendment
1900-1920 - goal was to correct injustices caused by industrialization. Ideas grew from Social Gospel. Movement; called on Christians to help their fellow man. Led to many social reforms
Progressive Era
Late 1800's Protestant leaders challenged their followers to help their fellow man. Crusaded for abolition of child labor & improved working conditions for all, and supported Temperance Movement
Social Gospel
Belief that different human races compete for survival just as plants and animals do in nature.
Allowed some groups to be seen as "inferior races"
Social Darwinism
Warren Harding campaign slogan for 1920 election. Called for a return to the way things were before WWI. Less ambitious foreign policy; greater emphasis on prosperity at home
Return to Normalcy
African American fighter group in the Air Corps.
Performed so well in combat that bomber groups often requested their support
Tuskegee Airmen
Oil-rich government lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming leased in exchange for bribes paid to Secretary of Interior. Harding had appointed personal friends, "Ohio Gang" to government positions. Left a stain on Harding's presidency
Tea Pot Dome
1898 Turning point in history: emergence of U.S. as world power. Ended Spain's colonial empire. Causes: Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine,
Yellow Journalism. U. S. gains Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam. Cuba becomes a U.S.
Spanish American War
1939-1945, world wide conflict between Axis (Italy, Germany, Japan) & Allied Powers (Britain, U.S., Russia), launched when Hitler invaded Poland. U.S. entered after bombing of
Pearl harbor Most destructive conflict in
World War II
1914-1918 - Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand ignited the war. Nationalism, Imperialism, the system of Alliances & Militarism were contributing factors. U.S. at 1st remained neutral but entered war after Germany used unrestricted submarine warfare.
World War I
1919 - Treaty between Allied Powers & Germany ending WWI. Dealt harshly with Germany (some say this harsh treatment directly contributed to WWII). Germany lost all of its colonies
Treaty of Versailles
a sustained, long term downturn in
economic activity
economic system in which capital assets are privately owned and items are brought to
market for profit
Home front effort to grow vegetables. More of the food raised by farmers available to ship to troops
Victory Gardens
a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time
the creation of a single and global economy and community
person who organizes & manages any enterprise (usually takes the risk)
more goods produced & grown than could be purchased
the costs to pursue a certain action
opportunity cost
the total amount of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time
money supply
farming that provides for the farm family's needs with little surplus to sell
subsistence agriculture
buying high risk stocks (for as little as 10% of cost); led to false high prices & sell-off of stocks & crash
fees placed on imported goods to protect goods
produced within a country
Assimilation of immigrants into America by
educating them in speech, ideals, traditions, and ways of life
a tax on imports or exports
price determined by the market
supply and demand
to overlay or thinly cover with gold
Thickly populated slum area, inhabited
predominantly by members of an ethnic or minority group
ethnic ghetto
Economic systems that create an environment
for business: legal, economic, political,
social, cultural and technological systems
an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer
labor union
a general and progressive increase in prices
social and economic change from a pre-industrial Society into an industrial one
belief that native born Americans are superior and the foreign born are inferior and a threat
to the US
a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
"to let alone"; refers to no governmental
regulation or interference in the economy
reformers who wanted to improve American life
People's party organized in 1890 to secure political and economic reform
person who helps others, especially by donating money to good causes
the right or privilege of voting
refusing to work as a form of protest
businessmen and bankers who dominated U.S.
industries during the 19th century
robber baron
a monopoly that controls goods and services, often in combinations that reduce competition
large, old building which is divided into a number of individual flats
no drinking of alcoholic beverages
to incorporate territory into a political region
(country or state)
a close association of nations formed to support each other
the social process where cities grow and societies become more urban
draft; forced to serve in the military
system of equal distribution of wealth and end of private ownership of property
peace agreement
stronger countries take over countries to build an empire and world dominance
a policy of expanding a country's economy or territory
management of relationships between nations by government employees
to prepare armed forces for war
the building of military strength within a country
foreign policy to stay out of the affairs of other
economic system where production is owned by the public and operates for the welfare of all
payment by the losing country in a war for war damage
loyalty to a nation and its best interests
policies that consider race, color, religion,
gender or national origin into consideration to
benefit an underrepresented group
Affirmative action
war involving many large nations from all over the world
world war
government control over every aspect
of public & private life
social and economic idea that encourages
the purchase of goods and services in
ever-greater amounts
basic freedoms and privileges belonging to
citizens of the U.S.
civil rights
voluntarily stop using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an
expression of protest
an easing of strained relations and tensions in a
political situation
a subculture whose values and behavior
deviate from those of mainstream society,
often in opposition to mainstream ideas
U.S. policy to prevent the spread of communism
separating of people into racial groups for common activities
numeral goals assigned to a group: an assigned
a person who moves regularly to find work especially in harvesting crops
a diplomatic policy of making political or
material concessions to a dictatorial power
(or powers) in order to avoid a threatened
prejudice, hatred of, or discrimination
against Jews
residential area around a major city
a political philosophy that exalts nation and often race above the individual; stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a
dictatorial leader, severe economic and social
regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition
a ruler who has absolute, unrestricted control
in a government
a swift, sudden military offensive, usually by combined air and mobile land forces; "lightning
war" in German
the German form of fascism; especially the policy of racist nationalism, national
expansion, and state control of the economy
imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial
systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group
form of government in which the political
authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life
a sovereign state which declares itself to not support either of the warring countries
The most recognized signature on the Declaration of Independence
John Hancock
1st written government of the United states. Replaced in 1787 by our Constitution
Articles of Confederation
Refers to a society of equals
Participation of common man in political life
Individuals are free to produce and sell whatever they wish
Free Enterprise System
Businessmen sometimes used ruthless tactics to destroy competition and to keep workers wages low
Robber Barons
Labor Union that represented skilled workers. Founded by Samuel Gompers
American Federation of Labor
Immigrants learn to speak, act, and behave like Americans
Political leaders who helped immigrants but stole from city governments also called
Political Machine
They came from Southern and Eastern Europe. Mostly Catholics and Jewish
New immigrants
Formed by farmers who wanted economic and political reforms.
Grange Movement
Act passed in order to regulate railroads
Interstate Commerce Commission
Political party. Supported unlimited coinage of silver, direct election of senators, immigration restrictions and income tax. Williams Jennings Bryan was their choice for president
Populist Party
Spearheaded by Protestant clergymen. Called for Christians to help reform society and their fellow man
Social Gospel Movement
African American leader who helped form the NAACP. He wanted equality immediately. Not Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. DuBois
Muckraker and African American leader who worked to end lynching
Ida B. Wells
Created to regulate the amount of money in circulation
Federal Reserve
He wrote The Influence od Sea Power Upon History. Argued the US needed a large navy to become a world power
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Reasons for? Need of raw materials and new markets. Place to have new bases for military and refueling stations. Spread Christianity to people who are not Christian
Colonial or nation's Expansion
He became the 1st president of Hawaii
Sandford Dole
Created by John Hay. Its purpose was to keep trade with China open to all nations
Open Door Policy
1900 They were a secrete society that wanted all white people out of China. They rebelled and China charged with the cost of crushing the rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
Commodore Perry opened trade with this Asian nation. Gave letter from our president promising to return if trade was not open.
Took 10 years to construct. Many people died from yellow fever. Ends need for 2 ocean navy for USA. Connects Atlantic and Pacific
Panama canal
Extension of the Monroe doctrine. The US would be the Police Power in Western hemisphere. AKA the Big Stick Policy. Roosevelt would use our military to intervene in Latin America to protect American Interests
Roosevelt Corollary
Taft policy with Latin America. American investment in Latin America. Our military used to make sure they paid loans
Dollar Diplomacy
Proposed by Wilson at end of WWI. New nation states. Break up Austria - Hungary. Freedom of the seas, League of Nations
14 Points
Treaty that ended WWI. Punished Germany for the war. Germany lost colonies and had to pay war reparations.
Treaty of Versailles
Created after WWI. Nations come together to protect each other from attack. USA not a member
League of Nations
His death sparked WWI
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Major battle of WWI. Germany defeated. Sgt. York was a hero
Battle of Argonne Forest
U.S. president during WWI. He favored US as part of League of Nations
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. Senator who led the fight against the USA joining the League of Nations
Henry Cabot Lodge
President at start of the Great Depression. Dam built with is name
Herbert Hoover
President who wanted to return to normalcy after WWI. Teapot Dome and other scandals in his term
Warren Harding
18th Amendment to Constitution. AKA Volstead Act. Banned alcoholic beverages. Rise in crime (Al Capone) Amendment void with 21st Amendment. Era known as
1919 Attorney General who led raids to rid the country of anarchists. Red Scare I
Mitchell Palmer
This group returns in 1915. They disliked African Americans, Catholics and Jews.
Ku Klux Klan
Harding administration. Secretary of Interior leased oil rich lands to friends in exchange for bribes
Teapot Dome Scandal
He used the assembly line to make automobiles
Henry Ford
He built and flew a hydroplane 1911. Marked the beginning of naval aviation
Glenn Curtiss
During the 1920's these women wore short dresses, went dancing, smoked and drank alcohol
He said people had id, ego and superego. Linked sexuality to many problems
Sigmund Freud
A section of New York City, song writers and musical ideas mixed together to form popular American Music
Tin Pan Alley
New group of writers after WWI. After the horrors of WWI they believed America had become materialistic and lacked spiritualism
Lost Generation
1910 - 1930 about 2 million African Americans leave the South to Northeast or Midwest
Great Migration
1902-1967 Poet and writer. One of Americas' best poets. Drew from his personal experiences as an African American
Langston Hughes
He was the 1st to fly his airplane (The Spirit of St. Louis) from New York to Paris
Charles Lindbergh
He started a back to Africa movement. He wanted to liberate Africans around the world and band together and create a new nation in Liberia
Marcus Garvey
He wrote the Great Gatsby
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Period after FDR took office during Great Depression. Closed banks and opened only strong ones. Had congress pass New Deal legislation
100 Days
Roosevelt used radio to speak directly to the American people
Fireside Chats
1930's heavy winds carried top soil away, buried homes and destroyed farms
Dust Bowl
Political activist. Tried to promote African American equality. Influenced her husband FDR
Eleanor Roosevelt
African American who later received the Congressional Medal of Honor for braver in WWII
Vernon Baker
Signed by 62 nation renouncing war
Kellogg Briand Peace Pact
1921 world powers agreed to limit the size of their navy
Washington Naval Conference
Leader of the Soviet Union in WWII
Joseph Stalin
Policy of the France and England as they let Hitler take over Austria and later part of Czechoslovakia
Germany - Lightning fast war
Sell, lend, or lease war materials to our allies in WWII
Lend-Lease Act
African American fighter group in the Air Corps. They provided escorts for bombers. They performed so well they were often requested
Tuskegee Airmen
Attempted genocide to the Jews and others. 10 million killed Jews, Slavs, gypsies, old, mentally ill and others
Hitler's plan to rid Germany of Jews and other people he considered inferior
Final Solution
German counter attack on December 1944 as Allies crossed the Rhine River. Allie's line bent but did not break. Germany failed attack allowed for the Allied invasion of Germany
Battle of the Bulge
Philippines WWII. American prisoners of war were forced to walk 60 miles through the jungle. About ½ died from starvation, exposure to the sun, no water or by being bayoneted by Japanese soldiers
Bataan Death March
Dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Led to the end of WWII in Pacific
Atomic bomb
Order permitted to put Japanese Americans into internment camps
Executive Order 9066
Supreme Court upheld the order placing Japanese Americans into internment camps
Korematsu v. U.S.
German leadership put on trial for war crimes after WWII
Nuremberg Trials
Commander of the U.S. Army in the Pacific. Later in charge of the occupation of Japan
General Douglas MacArthur
Created after WWII and replaced the League of Nations
United Nations
After WWII this was the conflict between the USA and Soviet Union. Led to massive arms and space race.
Cold War
The dividing line in Europe between communist Europe and non -communist Europe
Iron Curtain
Leader of the Communist Part in China after WWII. Defeated the Chinese government and was the first communist leader of China
Mao Zedong
1950 the North invaded the South. United Nation military led by Douglas MacArthur pushed the communist north back. War end in 1952. Country still divided
Signed by Eisenhower. Created highways throughout America. Stimulated economic growth and created evacuation path in case of atomic war
Interstate Highway Act 1956
High birthrate after WWII. It has become a burden today as this group is now the elderly
Baby Boom
Developed the first vaccine for polio
Jonas Salk
First African American to play baseball in the major league.
Jackie Robinson
1950 NAACP won a case involving Herman Sweatt, an African American who wanted to attend law school at the University of Texas
Sweatt v. Painter
Little Rock Arkansas African American students. They were denied protection by governor Faubus. Eisenhower sent federal troops they to protect these students.
Little Rock Nine
Prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or ethnic origins in hotels, restaurants and all places of employment
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1962 he became the first American to orbit the earth
John Glenn
1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed ?
On the moon
1961 Nikita Khrushchev had this built in Germany
Berlin Wall
President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a war on ____. Creating the Office of Economic Opportunity. Established Job Corps and head Start
War on Poverty
1965 Social Security was expanded to provide medical care, hospital insurance and nursing care for the elderly
Medicare Act
Sex education courses began to be taught, birth control pills , and women objected to being treated as sex objects
Sexual Revolution
Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique. Declared women as capable as men. Formed the national Organization of Women (NOW). This became the voice of ???
Women's Liberation Movement
1972 Part of the Educational Amendment Act, banned sexual discrimination in educational institutions. Guaranteed girls the same opportunities and boys.
Title IX (9)
Black ___ believed Islam should be the religion of African Americans
A leading Black Muslim, he believed African Americans should meet violence with violence. He was killed by fellow Black Muslims
Malcom X (Little
Group of African Americans founded in California. Had their own newspaper, carried guns and protected their neighborhoods.
Black Panthers
She helped Cesar Chavez form the national Farm Workers Association. In 2012 she was awarded the Medal of freedom
Delores Huerta
1960-s Mexican-American artists began copying artist like Diego Rivera and painting murals in ___ (ethnic Neighborhoods) throughout the Southwest
The ____ __ __ slogan was "Red Power". They introduced the term Native American. They fought against racial injustices
American Indian Movement
1954 Hernandez was convicted of murder by all white jury. He appealed that his rights under the 14th Amendment were violated. Texas argued that Mexicans where white and not a protected class. Supreme Court ruled that they were a separate class that was entitled to protection.
Hernandez v. Texas
1968 Vietnam War, he carried wounded members of his platoon to safety. He was critically wounded but continued to carry solders to safety. Saved 8 men. 1981 President Reagan awarded him the Congressional Medal of Honor. He died in 1981 in San Antonio
Roy Benavidez
Published in the New York Times in 1971. Showed that presidents before Nixon had lied to the American people about Vietnam
Pentagon Papers
1950's this group rebelled against conformity. Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac were leaders of this movement
Beat Generation
John Tinker and his sister were suspended from school for wearing "black" armbands. In protest of Vietnam War. Supreme Court ruled this violated their free speech
Tinker v. Des Moines
1972 the Amendment was approved by Congress but failed to be ratified by 3 states
Equal Rights Amendment
Conservative and former actor he became president 1981-1989
Ronald Reagan
1983 US Marines attacked Cuban military in this small Caribbean Island
Strategic defense Initiative also known as __ ___. Use lasers to shoot down missiles.
Star Wars
1990, War in Iraq to stop Saddam Hussein's invasions of Kuwait
Gulf War
1980 Manuel Noriega was the leader of this country. Dictator and drug dealer the United States captured him and put him in prison in USA ( A canal runs through this country)
During Bush presidency 1989-1991. Communism collapsed in Soviet Union. Berlin wall was taken down and democratic nations replaced some old communist ones. This is the end of the ___ War
Cold War ends
President 1993-2001. Scandal involving female intern
Bill Clinton
Bush as governor of Texas promoted educational reform. As president he introduced __ __ __ __ requiring states to test all students in English and math
No Child Left Behind
Hurricane hit the Gulf Coast. The most costly hurricane in our history. 20,000 people were trapped in New Orleans
Hurricane Katrina
He ran against John McCain and elected president in 2008
Barack Obama
John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison write the ____ Papers. A series of essays supporting a strong central government
Federal Papers
Helped write the Federalist Papers, was the 1st Supreme Court Justice and he negotiated a treaty with England over boundary dispute
John Jay
He wrote Democracy in America. He said Americans had Liberty, Egalitarianism, Individualism, populism, and Laissez-faire. He was a Frenchman
Alex de Tocqueville
Led to a large increase in population west after 1860 and gave free land to settlers
Homestead Act
He wrote How the Other Half Lives
Jacob Riis
Something written by a witness of an event would be
Primary source
The Progressive Reform Era is also known as the
Gilded Age
1920 the mass production of ___ led to increased mobility and job creation. People could live away from place of employment
Master of the Steel Industry, author of the Gospel of Wealth, and philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie
Increased markets and facilitated growth of the west. Also fueled the Coal, Iron and Steel industries
This divided Indians lands and gave each Indian a part, Took Native children and forced them into schools where their dress and culture was forbidden
Dawes Act
Created a 3 branch government in the United States, Executive, Judicial and Legislative (Senate and House of Representatives) 1787
Motto of the United States is the oldest and symbolized the unity of the 13 colonies
E Pluribus Unum
Susan B. Anthony and other fought for and gained suffrage with
19th Amendment
Upton Sinclair wrote the Jungle. This led to
Pure Food and Drug Act
That all non-citizen Indians born within the United States be declared citizens provided that this does not impair their rights to tribal property
American Indian Citizenship Act 1924
She is identified with urban social reform and established Hull House
Jane Addams
Established direct election of U.S. Senators by popular vote
17th Amendment
Progressive Era reforms that made government more responsive to voters
Initiatives, referendums and recalls
Journalist who exposed corruption during the Progressive Era
Alfred Thayer Mahan supported ___ as a means of moving the United States towards a position as a world power
Naval dominance
The United States gained Guam, Puerto Rico and Philippines after winning the
Spanish American War
Telegram sent to Mexico trying to get them to attack the United States and in Return Germany would help them gain lands taken in Mexican American War
Zimmerman Note
The reason the United States entered WWI
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Weapon in WWI that caused Trench Warfare
Machine Gun
This was the final offensive in WWI and forced the Germans to sign an Armistice
Battle of the Argonne Forest
Graduated from West Point, fought in the Spanish American War, Pursued Poncho Villa in Mexico, and led the American Expeditionary Force in WWI
John J. Pershing (Black Jack)
Most decorated soldier of WWI, Medal of Honor recipient, and fought in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Alvin York
In 1898 after the sinking of the Maine, The United States went to war in?
Spanish American War
He was the prosecutor in the John Scopes trial and argued that evolution was against Christian teachings
William Jennings Bryan
He was the defense attorney in the John Scopes trial and believed religious interpretation of science has no place in public schools
Clarence Darrow
Anti-immigration sentiment in the United States following WWI I
Red Scare
African Americans celebrated their unique culture during the 1920's in an artistic movement called
Harlem Renaissance
It is an American novel by John Steinbeck that describes the difficulties of the Great Depression
Grapes of Wrath
Created during the Great Depression it provides retirement income to the elderly
Social Security
Created during the Great Depression this government agency protects people's investments into banks
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC
What event signaled the start of the Great Depression?
The Stock Market Crash in 1929
During the Great Depression and after the Dust Bowl people from these regions went to California and Arizona
Arkansas and Oklahoma
Programs created by Congress and supported by Franklin D. Roosevelt, in response to the Great Depression. Feed the poor, assist farmers and put people to work
New Deal Programs
To help finance WWII the people of the United states purchased
War Bonds
To conserve food in the United States during WWII, the people planted ____ Gardens
New process that took impurities out of steel. Carnegie used this.
Bessemer Process
When WWII broke out in Europe the United States played and Isolationist role but provided armaments to
England / Allies
Nazi Leader of Germany during WWII
Fascist dictator of Italy during WWII
Prime Minister in England during WWII
Winston Churchill
After the attack on Pearl Harbor who would have said "I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve."
Japanese Admiral
Who Said "Yesterday, December 7th, 1941 a date which will live in infamy "
Franklin D. Roosevelt
The reason the United States entered WWII
Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941
Hitler invades Poland on _____ and this starts WWII in Europe
September 1, 1939
What group of people was placed into internment camps in the United States during WWII?
Japanese Americans
How did the military in WWII encrypt their radio transitions to confuse the enemy?
Native Americans (Navajo Indians) used the radio with their native language
They were former pilots of the U.S. who volunteered for the Chinese Air force
Flying Tigers
Brash American (tanks) general during WWII. Led the 3rd Army on the final assault against Germany
General George S. Patton
Army Chief of Staff who coordinated the WWII effort from Washington D.C. His plan gave millions to European nations to rebuild after the war
General George Marshall
General who was commander of the Allied forces in WWII. Became president after Truman
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Japanese navy lost four large aircraft carriers. Turning point in the Pacific during WWII
Battle of Midway
Manhattan Project
Secrete project to develop
Atomic Bomb
D Day - Invasion of Normandy France
June 6 1944
How did WWII alter the position of the United States in the world?
United States became a super power
In response to a communist threat to Egypt and Turkey, it was a promise to aide any country being threatened by Communism
Truman Doctrine
This event started the Space Race
Soviet launch of Sputnik
He led a Congressional committee investigation communist in America after WWII
Joseph McCarthy
Plan to help rebuild Europe after WWII. Invested millions to help stabilize the countries
Marshall Plan
North America and Western Europe pledge to aid each other
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
United States transports supplies to a blockaded West Berlin
Berlin Airlift
U.S. government provides educational funding after WWII for returning soldiers.
G.I. Bill
McDonalds in China, American Rock and Roll popular in Germany, Redskins cheerleaders train India's cheerleaders, hip hop popular in Egypt, and coco cola has sponsored football in England.
American culture Influences the World
Movement of housing outside the cities after WWII
Found on U.S. coins since the 1860's, found on paper currency since 1956 and the official motto of the United States
In God We Trust
Eliminated pole tax in the United States
24th Amendment
Delgado v. Bastrop ISD challenged
Racial segregation in schools
Supreme Court decision that went against separate but equal (Plessy v. Ferguson). Led to desegregation
Brown v. Board of Education
Landmark case in Texas, Redistributed property taxes to poorer districts for schools. Led to "Robin Hood" legislation
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby
Group that fought for expanded opportunities for Latinos
LULAC - League of United Latin American Citizens
Group that fought for expanded opportunities for African Americans
He championed the economic rights of Migrant workers
Cesar Chavez
Spoke at the 1963 March on Washington. He was a civil Rights leader who won the Nobel Peace Prize
Martin Luther king Jr.
Gave women the right to vote
19th Amendment
Protected the rights of free expression for students in schools
Tinker v. Des Moines
It provided President Johnson congressional support for conducting acts of war if necessary against North Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Chicano mural movement included Jose Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera and David Alfaros. This increased awareness of?
Mexican heritage
Amendment facilitated by men fighting in the Vietnam War. 26th Amendment did what?
Voting age 18
Caused a drastic increase in oil prices in late 1970's
Oil embargo by OPEC
Ended slavery in the United States
13th Amendment
Gave former slaves citizenship
14th Amendment
US boats attacked by North Vietnam. Reason President Johnson used to bomb North Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
Vietnam. Incident when North Vietnam attacked US held positions throughout the country. US held their ground but showed the American people we were not winning the war as told.
Tet Offensive
The Great Society Programs, Title IX and Affirmative Action led to greater opportunities for?
Women, minorities and the poor
The cold war and Space War led to increased spending in what areas of education?
Math and science
He was a soldier from Texas, He saved the lives of several fellow soldiers during Vietnam War, and he received the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Roy Benavidez
What theory cited by President Johnson was why the United States was justified to intervene in Vietnam?
Domino Theory
First women appointed to the Supreme Court
Sandra Day O'Connor
What widely respected Christian evangelical preacher has served as a religious counselor to American presidents Since the Truman administration?
Billy Graham
1950- 1980's Spending for this caused: Expanded businesses and employment, growth of high tech industries, and new research and development
Cold War Defense Spending
Disease that emerged in the 1980's and led to a worldwide epidemic
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Nancy Reagan's nation campaign to stop drug use in America
Just Say No
Conservative political organization founded by Pastor Jerry Falwell
Moral Majority
1970's he established diplomacy with China and negotiated arms race with Soviet Union - relaxed tension called detante
Richard Nixon
Reduce government spending, reduce income taxes and capital gains taxes, reduce government regulations, and reduce inflation by controlling the money supply. Economic policy 1980's
Iranian Hostage crisis 1979-1981 What president issued economic sanctions, a failed military rescue, and failed to gain the release of the hostages?
Jimmy Carter
Political characteristic of the United States 1970's - 1980's
Resurgence of conservatism
What event in the 21st century caused the shifting of U.S. foreign policy to combating Terrorism?
9-11 attack on the Twin Towers in New York and the Pentagon in Washington D.C
Former 1st Lady of the United States, U.S. Senator for the State of New York, and U.S. Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton
Soviet Union and Satellite Countries formed the __ __ in response to NATO
This committee questioned actors, director, writers and others about their connections to communism
House Un-American Activities Committee
Designed to help law enforcement intercept terrorists but some people feel it leads to violations of our Constitutional rights
Patriot Act
New Deal Program. Created an army of young men that planted trees and cleaning up forests. They lived in camps and sent money home to families
CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal Program. Created jobs for artists
WPA - Works Progress Administration
New Deal Program. Paid farmers to plant less. Later the government bought farm surplus
AAA - Agriculture Adjustment Acts
New Deal Program. Built 21 dams in the Tennessee River bringing electricity to rural south
Tennessee Valley Authority
Also called the Wagner Act. (1935) Gave workers the right to form unions and bargain collectively
National Labor Relations Act
Nations controlled by the Soviet Union after WWII. Poland, East Germany, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. They were called ?
Satellite Countries
The United states, Canada and Mexico join in a trade treaty. Critics say we have lost jobs to Mexico where wages are lower
NAFTA North Atlantic Treaty Organization
With the invention of Air Conditioning large numbers of people move south after WWII. They moved to the region known as?
Sun Belt
One of the world's wealthiest women. African American and strong supporter of Barack Obama
Oprah Winfrey
Militant leader of the Black Civil Rights Movement. Member of the Nation of Islam. Murdered by his own group.
Malcolm X
After 9-11 the United states sent our military to ___ to fight against terrorism. We are still in this country fighting.
President Bush created a new department in response to 9-11
Department of Homeland Security
Housing market crashed in 2008 causing an economic recession
Financial Crisis of 2008
In 2005 Hurricane ___ hit New Orleans. Storm waters flooded the city after several levees broke.
An employee contacts his supervisor to request time off guaranteed to him after the birth of a child. This is allowed through the ___
Medical Leave Act.
This period in history was characterized by installment plans, Prohibition, rise in violent crime and flappers
Roaring Twenties
What military invention helped break the stalemate of trench warfare by busting through enemy lines.
In early 1900's it established jazz as a prominent musical form and focused on African American art.
Harlem Renaissance
U.S. president who authorized the dropping of the atomic bomb on Japan at the end of WWII.
Harry S. Truman
Alexis de Tocqueville in his visit to America was impressed by this value.
This was used by the government to break up monopolies
Sherman Antitrust Act?
The Populist Party wanted free coinage of ____ to increase the amount of money in circulation
One action that influenced the U.S.-Soviet signing of the SALT I treaty in 1972 was President Richard Nixon's opening of diplomatic relations with ___
Secrete project in the United States during WWII to build an atomic bomb
Manhattan Project.
U.S.-led military coalition's engagement in the__ __ War the nation of Kuwait was liberated.
Persian Gulf