contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Arranged into amino acids linked in a chain. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.
building blocks of protein. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group, all attached to a central carbon atom. amino - containing nitrogen
Conditionally essential amino acid
an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it.
bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another forming a link in a protein chain
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body. hemo-blood, globin- globular protein
the change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents.
a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. Secreted inactively called pepsinogen. Activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Sickle cell anemia
a hereditary anemia characterized by crescent shaped red blood cells. Interferes with oxygen transport and blood flow.
a protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made.
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process. Protein catalysts.
maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluid in each compartment of the body fluids
swelling of the body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in tissue. seen in protein deficiency
abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen to kill it
the degration and synthesis of protein. when proteins break down they free amino acids.
Amino acid pool
the supply of amino acids derived from food proteins or body proteins that collect in cells and blood. Ready to incorporate with proteins for energy.
chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites
High quality proteins
dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require. They may also contain nonessential amino acids.
Limited amino acid
the amino acid is the acid in the smallest supply relative to amount needed by body for protein synthesis.
two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other
protein energy malnutrition caused by recent severe food restrictions. thin waist. acute= small
results from severe deprivation or impaired absorption of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. "dry"
a by-product of cheese production; falsely promoted as increasing muscle mass. Whey is the watery part of milk that separates from the curds.