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54 terms

Understanding nutrition chapter 6

Protein - amino acids
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Proteins
contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Arranged into amino acids linked in a chain. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.
Amino Acids
building blocks of protein. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group, all attached to a central carbon atom. amino - containing nitrogen
Nonessential amino acid
amino acids that the body can make
Conditionally essential amino acid
an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it.
Peptide bond
bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another forming a link in a protein chain
Dipeptide
two amino acids formed together. di- two, peptide- amino acid
Tripeptide
three amino acids bonded together. tri-three
Polypeptide
many (10 or more) amino acids bonded together. poly-many
Hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body. hemo-blood, globin- globular protein
Denaturation
the change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents.
Proenzyme
inactive enzyme
Pepsin
a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. Secreted inactively called pepsinogen. Activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Peptidase
a digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds.
Proteomics
study of the bodys proteins
Transcription
process of DNA being made into mRNA
Translation
process of mRNA directing the sequence of amino acids and synthesis of proteins
Sickle cell anemia
a hereditary anemia characterized by crescent shaped red blood cells. Interferes with oxygen transport and blood flow.
Hemolytic anemia
red blood cells affected with sickle cell anemia burst
Gene expression
the process by which a cell converts the genetic code into RNA and protein
Epigenetics
switching genes on and off without changing the genetic sequence
Catabolic
breaking down reactions
Anabolic
building up reactions
Matrix
a surrounding substance within which something else originates or is contained
Collagen
a protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made.
Enzymes
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process. Protein catalysts.
Fluid Balance
maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluid in each compartment of the body fluids
Buffers
compounds that keeps a solutions acidity or alkalinity constant
Edema
swelling of the body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in tissue. seen in protein deficiency
Acids
compounds that release hydrogen ions
Bases
compounds that accept hydrogen ions
Acidosis
abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
Alkalosis
abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
Antigens
foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
Antibodies
protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen to kill it
Immunity
the body's ability to defend itself against diseases
Protein turnover
the degration and synthesis of protein. when proteins break down they free amino acids.
Amino acid pool
the supply of amino acids derived from food proteins or body proteins that collect in cells and blood. Ready to incorporate with proteins for energy.
Nitrogen Balance
amount of N consumed compared to N out.
Positive Nitrogen
N in > (greater than) N out
Negative Nitrogen
N in < (less than) N out
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites
Deamination
removal of the amino (NH2) group from a compound such as an amino acid
High quality proteins
dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require. They may also contain nonessential amino acids.
Protein digestibility
a measure of the amount of amino acids absorbed from a given protein intake.
Limited amino acid
the amino acid is the acid in the smallest supply relative to amount needed by body for protein synthesis.
Reference Protein
a standard to measure the quality of other proteins
Complementary proteins
two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
a deficiency of protein or energy or both.
Acute PEM
protein energy malnutrition caused by recent severe food restrictions. thin waist. acute= small
Chronic PEM
caused by long term food deprivation. short height for age
Marasmus
results from severe deprivation or impaired absorption of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. "dry"
Kwashiorkor
results either from inadequate protein intake or from infection. "wet"
Whey protein
a by-product of cheese production; falsely promoted as increasing muscle mass. Whey is the watery part of milk that separates from the curds.
Branched chain amino acid
essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Present in large amounts in skeletal muscle tissue.