Patho Test 2 Ch. 7
Terms in this set (62)
Cancer is a disorder of altered cell ____ and ____.
The process of cell division results in cellular ____.
____ is the process of specialization where by new cells acquire the structure and function of the cells they replace.
Proteins called ____ control entry and progression of cells through the cell cycle.
Kinases are enzymes that ____ proteins.
Continually renewing cell populations rely on ____ cells of the same lineage that have not yet differentiated to the extent that they have lost their ability to divide.
____ cells remain incompletely undifferentiated throughout life.
____ stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the embryo.
The term ____ refers to an abnormal mass of tissue in which the growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues.
____ do not usually cause death unless the location interferes with a vital organs function.
Malignant neoplasms are less well ____ and have the ability to break loose, enter the circulatory or lymphatic systems, and form secondary malignant tumors at other sites.
Tumors usually are named by adding the suffix ____ to the parenchymal tissue type from which the growth originated.
A ____ is growth that projects from a mucosal surface.
The term ____ is used to designate a malignant tumor of epithelial tissue origin.
There are two categories of malignant neoplasms: ____ tumors and ____ cancers.
The term ____ is used to describe the loss of cell differentiation in cancerous tissue.
A characteristic of cancer cells is the ability to proliferate even in the absence of ____.
With homologous loss of ____ gene activity, DNA damage foes unrepaired and mutations occur in dividing cells, leading to malignant transformations.
The types of genes involved in cancer are numerous, with two main categories being the ____, which control cell growth and replication, and tumor ____ genes, which are growth-inhibiting regulatory genes.
____ is the only known retrovirus to cause cancer in humans.
Human T-cell leukemia virus-1
Tumor cells must double ____ times before there will be a palpable mass.
A common manifestation of solid tumors is the cancer ____ syndrome and is associated with weight loss and wasting of body fat and muscle.
As cancers grow, they compress and erode blood vessels, causing ____ and ____ along with frank bleeding and sometimes hemorrhage.
____ is a common side effect of many cancers. It is related to blood loss, hemolysis, impaired red cell production, or treatment effects.
A tissue ____ involves the removal of a tissue specimen for microscopic study.
____ therapy uses high-energy particles or waves to destroy or damage cancer cells.
____ is a systemic treatment that enable drugs to reach the site of the tumor as well as other distant sites.
Associated with embryological tissue as the origin of cancer
Undefined or less-differentiated cellular mass
Mass of cells due to overgrowth
Process that removes senescent and/or damaged cells
Stem cells undergoing numerous mitotic divisions while maintaining an undifferentiated state
Cancer stem cells
Process of cell specialization
Well-differentiated mass of cells
Study of tumors and their treatment
Process of cell division
Loss of cell differentiation
Changes in gene expression without DNA mutation
Normal gene that can cause cancer if mutated
Promote cancer when less active
Tumor suppressor gene
Ratio of dividing cells to resting cells
Tumor supressor gene
Marked by chromosomal aberrations
Epithelial cells must be anchored to either neighboring cells or the underlying extracellular matrix to live and grow
Time it takes for the total mass of cells in a tumor to double
Cellular potency in order from lest differentiated to most differentiated
The nurse has provided an educational session with a 56-year-old man newly diagnosed with a benign tumor of the colon. The nurse knowns that the patient needs further teaching when he makes which remark?
"This tumor I have, will I die from it?"
The nurse in the oncology unit has just admitted a patient with metastatic cancer. The patient asks how cancer moves from one place to another in the body. What would the nurse answer?
Cancer cells enter the body's lymph system and thereby spread to other parts of the body.
It is well known that cancer is not a single disease. It follows then that cancer does not have a single cause. It seems more likely that the occurrence of cancer is triggered by the interactions of multiple risk factors. What are some identified rick factors for cancer? (3)
Several cancers have been identified as in heritable through an autosomal dominant gene. People who inherit these genes are generally only at increased rick for developing the cancer. There is one type of cancer, however, that is almost certain to develop in someone who inherits the dominant gene. Which cancer carries the highest risk of developing in someone who carries the gene?
One group of chemical carcinogens is called indirect-reacting agents. Another term for these agents is pro carcinogens, which become vatic only after metabolic conversion. One of the most potent pro carcinogens is a group of dietary carcinogens called:
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
In some cancers, the presenting factors is an effusion, or fluid, in the pleural, pericardial, or peritoneal spaces. Research has found that almost 50% of undiagnosed effusions in people not known to have cancer turn out to be malignant. Which cancers are often found because of effusions?
Lung and ovarian cancers
Tumor markers are used for screening, establishing prognosis, monitoring treatment, and establishing prognosis, monitoring treatment, and detecting recurrent disease. Which serum tumor markers have been proven to be among the most useful in clinical practice?
Alpha- fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin
Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been used to treat brain tumors, ALL, head and neck soft tissue tumors, and retinoblastoma in children. Childhood cancer survivors who had CRT as therapy for their cancers are prone to growth hormone deficiency. In adults, what is growth hormone deficiency associated with?
A big difference in the treatment of childhood cancer as opposed to adult cancer is that chemotherapy is the most widely used treatment therapy for childhood cancer. What is the reason for this?
Pediatric tumors are more responsive to chemotherapy than adult cancers
Therapeutic radiation can be delivered in which ways? (3)
Which is an abnormal mass of tissue in which the growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues?
A woman diagnosed with breast cancer asks the nurse how a malignant tumor in her breast could spread to other parts of her body. The nurse answers that a malignant neoplasm is made of up less well-differentiated cells that have which abilities? (3)
Enter the circulatory or lymphatic system
Form secondary malignant tumors at other sites
Cancer cells differ from normal cells in many ways. They have lost the ability to accurately communicate with other cells, and they do not have to be anchored to other cells to survive. How else are they different from other cells?(3)
Cancer cells have an unlimited life span
Cancer cells have lost contact inhibition
Cancer cells are termed genetically unstable
Which screening test is used to detect prostate cancer?
Childhood cancers are often diagnosed late in the disease process because the signs and symptoms mimic other childhood diseases. However, with the huge strides in treatment methods more and more children survive childhood cancer. These survivors face the uncertainty of what the life-saving treatment they received during their childhood may produce what late effects?(3)
Cardiomyopathy and pulmonary fibrosis
Cognitive dysfunction and hormonal dysfunction
Impaired growth and second malignancies