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515 terms

Applied Behavior Analysis Cooper

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A-B Design
a two phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B).
A-B-A Design
An experiment entailing one reversal
A-B-A-B Design
an experiment reintroducing the B condition enables the replication of treatment effects, which strengthens the demonstration of experimental control
abative effect
A decrease in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation
ABC recording
The preferred method to use for behavioral assessment to determine which behavior to target for change is:
Abolishing operation
A motivating operation that decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event.
Accuracy
The extent to which observed values, the data produced by measuring an event, match the true state, or true values, of the event as it exists in nature
Adjunctive Behavior
behavior that occurs as a collateral effect of a schedule of periodic reinforcement for other behavior: time-filling or interim activities that are induced by schedules of reinforcement during times when reinforcement is unlikely to be derived-aka schedule-induced behavior
Affirmation of the Consequent
the predictive power of steady state responding enables the behavior analyst to employ a kind of inductive logic
Alternating Treatments Design
the rapid alternation of two or more distinct treatments while their effects on the target behavior are measured
Alternative schedule
provides positive reinforcement whenever the requirement of either a ratio schedule or interval schedule is met, regardless of which of the component schedule's requirement is met first.
anecdotal observation
a form of direct, continuous observation in which the observer records a descriptive, temporally sequenced account of all behavior(s) of interest and the antecedent conditions and consequences for those behaviors as those events occur in the client's natural environment
antecedent
An environmental condition or stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
antecedent intervention
A behavior change strategy that manipulates contingency-independent antecedent stimuli (motivating operation).
artifact
an outcome or result that appears to exist because of the way it is measured but in fact does not correspond to what actually occurred
Artifacts
Measurement ______________are data that given unwarranted or misleading picture of the behavior because of the way measurement was conducted.
Ascending Baseline
shows an increasing trend in the behavior overtime
Ascending baseline
a data path that shows and increasing trend in the response measure over time.
audience
Anyone who functions as a discriminative stimulus evoking verbal behavior.
autoclitic
an SD or an MO for additional speaker verbal behavior.
automatic punishment
Punishment that occurs independent of the social mediation by others (i.e., a response product serves as a punisher independent of the social environment).
Automatic reinforcement
reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others
automatic reinforcement
Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others (e.g., scratching an insect bite relieves the itch).
automaticity of reinforcement
behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness. Person doesn't have to know that a consequence has occurred.
aversive stimulus
an unpleasant or noxious stimulus
avoidance contingency
a response prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus.
Avoidance contingency
contingency in which a response prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus- compare with escape contingency
B-A-B design
begins with application of the independent variable: the treatment
backup reinforcer
Tangible objects, activities, or privileges that serve as reinforcers and that can be purchased with tokens.
Bar Graph
histogram, is a simple and versatile format for graphically summarizing behavioral data
Bar Graph
The participant either engages in a behavior or does not. Therefore your data collection is limited to yes or no,
Baseline
original date that serves against any observed changes in behavior when the independent variable is applied and is compared
Baseline Logic
entails three elements-prediction, verification, and replication
Baseline logic
a term sometimes used to refer to the experimental reasoning inherent in single subject experimental designs; entails three elements: prediction, verification, and replication.
Baseline
A condition of an experiment in which the independent variable is not present; data obtained during baseline are the basis for determining the effects of the independent variable; a control condition that does not necessarily mean the absence of instruction or treatment, only the absence of a specific independent variable of experimental interest.
behavior
the activity of living organisms, includes everything that people do.
behavior change tactic
a consistent method for changing behavior derived from one or more principles of behavior.
Behavior
changes that last over time appear in different settings, environments, and with different people. (hint:Characteristics of ABA) Generality
behavior checklist
a checklist that provides descriptions of specific skills and the conditions under which each skill should be observed
behavior trap
An interrelated community of contingencies of reinforcement that can be especially powerful, producing substantial and long-lasting behavior changes.
behavior-altering effect
An alteration in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is altered in effectiveness by the same motivating operation.
behavioral contract
Another term for contingency contract.
behavioral contrast
The phenomenon in which a change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases the rate of responding on that component is accompanied by a change in the response rate in the opposite direction on the other, unaltered component of the schedule.
behavioral cusp
a behavior that has sudden and dramatic consequences that extend well beyond the idiosyncratic change itself because it exposes the person to new environments, reinforcers, contingencies, responses, and stimulus controls
behavioral momentum
A metaphor to describe a rate of responding and its resistance to change following an alteration in reinforcement conditions.
believability
The extent to which the researcher convinces herself and others that the data are trustworthy and deserve interpretation
bonus response cost
A procedure for implementing response cost in which the person is provided a reservoir of reinforcers that are removed in predetermined amounts contingent on the occurrence of the target behavior
calibration
Any procedure used to evaluate the accuracy of a measurement system and, when sources of error are found, to use that information to correct or improve the measuring system
celeration
the change (acceleration or deceleration) in rate of responding over time
celeration time period
a unit of time (e.g., per week, per month) in which celeration is plotted on a Standard Celeration Chart
celeration trend line
this is measured as a factor by which rate multiplies or divides across the celeration time periods
Changed schedule of reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the response requirements of 2 or more basic schedules must be met in a specified sequence before reinforcement is delivered: discriminative stimulus is correlated with each component of the schedule
Changing Criterion Design
An experimental Design in which an initial baseline phase is followed by a series of treatment phases consisting of successive and gradually changing criteria for reinforcement or punishment. Experimental control is evidenced by the extent the level of responding changes to conform to each new criterion.
Cognitive variables
Can cognitive variables be identified as cause of a science? Why or why not?
Component Analysis
Experimental designs that combine multiple baseline, reversal, and/or alternating treatment tactics can also provide the basis for comparing the effects of two or more independent variables
Compound schedule of reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement consisting of 2 or more elements of continuous reinforcement, the 4 intermittent schedules of reinforcement of various rates of responding, and extinction
Concurrent schedule
schedule of reinforcement in which 2 or more contingencies of reinforcement operates independently and simultaneously for 2 or more behaviors
conditional probability
the likelihood that a target behavior will occur in a given circumstance
conditioned motivating operation
A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history.
conditioned negative reinforcer
previously neutral events that acquire their effects through pairing with an existing (unconditioned or conditioned) negative reinforcer.
conditioned negative reinforcer
previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a negative reinforcer b/c of prior pairing with one or more negative reinforcers- see negative reinforcer; compare with unconditioned negative reinforcer
conditioned punisher
A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher
conditioned punisher
A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers.
conditioned punisher
Sometimes called secondary or learned punishers.
conditioned reflex
A learned stimulus-response functional relation
Conditioned reinforcer
stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer b/c of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers - aka secondary or learned reinforcer
conditioned stimulus
Stimulus component of a conditioned reflex: a formerly neutral stimulus
confidentiality
Describes a situation of trust insofar as any information regarding a person receiving or having received services may not be discussed with or otherwise made available to another person or group, unless that person has provided explicit authorization for release of such information.
conflict of interest
A situation in which a person in a position of responsibility or trust has competing professional or personal interests that make it difficult to fulfill his or her duties impartially.
Confounding variable
A Student changing level of interest and background knowledge in algebra, during a study on the effects of response card quiz reviews on the next-day quiz performance is a potential_______________ _________________to the investigation and should be monitored.
Confounding variable
An uncontrolled factor known or suspected to exert influence on the dependent variable.
Confounding Variables
Uncontrolled variables known or suspected to exert an influence one dependent variable
Conjunctive schedule
reinforcement follows the completion of response requirements for both a ratio and interval schedule of reinforcement
consequence
A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest.
contingency
Refers to dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables.
contingency contract
A mutually agreed upon document between parties (e.g., parent and child) that specifies a contingent relationship between the completion of specified behavior(s) and access to specified reinforcer(s).
contingency reversal
exchanging the reinforcement contingencies for two topographically different responses
contingent
Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred.
contingent attention, contingent escape, alone, and control
the four conditions typically tested in a functional analysis
contingent observation
A procedure for implementing time-out in which the person is repositioned within an existing setting such that observation of ongoing activities remains, but access to reinforcement is lost.
continuous measurement
Measurement conducted in a manner such that all instances of the response class(es) of interest are detected during the observation period
continuous reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for each occurrence of the target behavior
contrived contingency
Any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) designed and implemented by a behavior analyst or practitioner to achieve the acquisition, maintenance, and/or generalization of a targeted behavior change.
contrived mediating stimulus
Any stimulus made functional for the target behavior in the instructional setting that later prompts or aids the learner in performing the target behavior in a generalization setting.
convergent and divergent
The two types of multiple control.
convergent multiple control
Occurs when a single verbal response is a function of more than one variable and what is said has more than one antecedent source of control.
copying a text
An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a nonvocal verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the controlling response.
Correlation
can be used to predict the probability that one event will occur
count
a simple tally of the number of occurrences of a behavior
Cumulative Record
(Or graph) was developed by Skinner as the primary means of data collection in the experimental analysis
Cumulative Recorder
a devise that automatically draws cumulative records that show the rate of response in real time
Data
the results of measurements, usually in quantified form
Data Path
represents the level and trend of behavior between successive data points, and it is a primary focus of attention the interpretation and analysis of graphed data
Delayed Multiple Baseline Design
is an experimental tactic in which an initial baseline and intervention are begun, and subsequent baselines are added in a staggered or delayed fashion.
dependent group contingency
A contingency in which reinforcement for all members of a group is dependent on the behavior of one member of the group or the behavior of a select group of members within the larger group.
Dependent Variable
the points on a line graph that shows the level of some quantifiable dimension of the target behavior
Dependent Variable
the target behavior in applied behavior analysis experiment, or more precisely a measurable dimensional quantity of that behavior
Dependent variable
the variable in an experiment measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the independent variable; in applied behavior analysis, it represents some measure of a socially significant behavior.
deprivation
The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer: also refers to a procedure for increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer.
Descending Baseline
shows a decreasing trend in the behavior overtime
Descending baseline
a data path that shows a decreasing trend in the response measure over time.
descriptive functional behavior assessment
direct observation of problem behavior and the antecedent and consequent events under naturally occurring conditions
Functional definition of behavior
Designated responses as members of the targeted response class only by their common effect on the environment (function)
Determinism
the kind of information that should be gathered on the phenomena of interest
Positive Punishment
Devon is driving car, sees red light and hits the gas. His car is hit. Devin's fine, but new car dented. In future Devon will not "speed up" when there is a red light. (is this an example of: Positive R., Positive P., Negative R, Negative P.?)
Differential reinforcement of diminishing rates
schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined interval contingent on the number of responses emitted during the interval being fewer than a gradual decreasing criterion based on the individual's performance in previous intervals.
Differential reinforcement of high rates
schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined interval contingent on the number of responses emitted during the interval being greater than a gradually increasing criterion based on the individual's performance in precious intervals.
Differential reinforcement of low rates
schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcement a) follows each occurrence of the target behavior that is separated from the previous response by a minimum interresponse time or b) is contingent on the number of responses within a period of time not exceeding a predetermined criterion
direct measurement
Occurs when the behavior that is measured is the same as the behavior that is the focus of the investigation
Direct observation
_____________ measurement facilitates data collection for IOA and treatment integrity
Direct Replication
An experiment in which the researcher attempts to duplicate exactly the conditions of an earlier experiment (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
discontinuous measurement
measurement conducted in a manner such that some instances of the response class(es) of interest may not be detected
discrete trial
any operant whose response rate is controlled by a given opportunity to emit the response
discriminated avoidance
contingency in which responding in the presence of a signal prevents the onset of a stimulus from which escape is a reinforcer- see also discriminative stimulus, discriminated operant, free operant avoidance, and stimulus control.
discriminated avoidance
responding in the presence of a signal prevents the onset of a stimulus from which escape is a reinforcer.
discriminated operant
An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
discriminative stimulus
A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced.
discriminative stimulus for punishment
a stimulus condition in the presence of which a response has a lower probability of occurrence than it does in its absence as a result of response-contingent punishment delivery in the presence of the stimulus.
discriminative stimulus related to punishment
A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced.
divergent multiple control
Occurs when a single antecedent variable affects the strength of more than one responses.
Does not specify the behaviors required to achieve goal.
Improving academic grades is not a good behavior to target because?
Double Blind Control
an experimental technique in which biased expectations of experimenters are eliminated by keeping both participants and experimental assistants unaware of which participants have received which treatment
DRI/DRA reversal technique
occurrences of a specified behavior that is either incompatible with the target behavior or an alternative to the target behavior are immediately followed by the same consequence previously delivered as contingent reinforcement for the target behavior
DRO reversal technique
the control condition consists of delivering the event suspected of functioning as reinforcement following the emission of any behavior other than the target behavior
duration
a measure of the total extent of time in which a behavior occurs
the consistency of responding the rate of responding and performance during extinction.
Each basic schedule of reinforcement has unique response characteristics that determine what?
echoic
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response.
ecological assessment
an assessment protocol that acknowledges complex interrelationships between environment and behavior - a method for obtaining data across multiple settings and persons
Empiricism
the way questions about the workings of nature are most effectively examined
environment
The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists; behavior cannot occur in the absence of environment.
escape contingency
a response terminates an ongoing stimulus.
escape contingency
contingency in which a response terminates (produces escape from) an ongoing stimulus-compare with avoidance contingency
establishing operation
A motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer.
ethical codes of behavior
Statements that provide guidelines for members of professional associations when deciding a course of action or conducting professional duties; standards by which graduated sanctions (e.g., reprimand, censure, expulsion) can be imposed for deviating from the code.
ethics
Behaviors, practices, and decisions that address such basic and fundamental questions as: What is the right thing to do? What's worth doing? What does it mean to be a good behavior analytic practitioner?
event recording
measurement procedure for obtaining a tally or count of the number of times a behavior occurs
exact count-per-interval IOA
The percentage of total intervals in which two observers recorded the same count
exclusion time-out
A procedure for implementing time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of a target behavior, the person is removed physically from the current environment for a specified period.
Experimental Control
a predictable change in behavior can be reliably and repeatedly produced by the systematic manipulation of some aspect of the subject's environment
Experimental Control
a predictable change in behavior can be reliably produced by the systematic manipulation of some aspect of the person's environment
Experimental control
Two meanings: (a) the outcome of an experiment that demonstrates convincingly a functional relations, meaning that experimental control is achieved when a predictable change in behavior (the dependent variable_ can be reliably produced by manipulating a specific aspect of the environment (the independent variable); and (b) the extent to which a researcher maintains precise control of the independent variable by presenting it, with drawing it, and/or varying its value, and also by eliminating or holding constant all confounding and extraneous variables.
Experimental design
_________________________refers to the arrangement of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects of the independent variable can be made.
Experimental Design
refers to the particular arrangement of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects for the presence, absence, or different values of the independent variable can be made
formal similarity
A situation that occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response or response product (a) share the same sense mode (e.g., both stimulus and response are visual, auditory, or tactile) and (b) physically resemble each other.
free operant
any operant behavior that results in minimal displacement of the participant in time and space
free operant
can be emitted at nearly any time; is discrete, it requires minimal time for completion, and it can produce a wide range of response rates
free-operant avoidance
avoidance behavior is "free to occur" at any time
free-operant avoidance
contingency in which responses at any time during an interval prior to the onset of an aversive stimulus delays the presentation of the aversive stimulus-compare with discriminated avoidance
frequency
a ratio of count per observation time
Function
An applied analysis of behavior requires that the target behavior be __________________of an environmental event that can be practically and ethically manipulated.
function-altering effect
A relatively permanent change in an organism's repertoire of MO, stimulus, and response relations, caused by reinforcement, punishment, an extinction procedure, or a recovery from punishment procedure.
function-based definition
designates responses as members of the targeted response class solely in terms of their common effect on the environment
functional analysis
an analysis of the purposes (functions) of problem behavior, wherein antecedents and consequences representing those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured
functional behavior assessment (FBA)
a systematic method of assessment for obtaining information about the purposes (functions) a problem behavior serves for a person
functional communication training
An antecedent intervention in which an appropriate communicative behavior is taught as a replacement behavior for problem behavior usually evoked by an establishing operation (EO).
functional, descriptive, and indirect
FBA methods can be classified into three types:
functionally equivalent
serving the same function or purpose, producing the same consequences
future
Consequence can only effect "new" or "future" behavior?
general case analysis
A systematic process for identifying and selecting teaching examples that represent the full range of stimulus variations and response requirements in the generalization setting(s).
generalization
A generic term for a variety of behavioral processes and behavior change outcomes.
generalization across subjects
Changes in the behavior of people not directly treated by an intervention as a function of treatment contingencies applied to other people.
generalization probe
Any measurement of a learner's performance of a target behavior in a setting and/or stimulus situation in which direct training has not been provided.
generalization setting
Any place or stimulus situation that differs in some meaningful way from the instructional setting and in which performance of the target behavior is desired.
generalized conditioned punisher
A stimulus change that, as a result of having been paired with many other punishers, functions as punishment under most conditions because it is free from the control of motivating conditions for specific types of punishment.
Generalized conditioned reinforcer
conditioned reinforcer that as a result of having been paired with many other reinforcers does not depend on an established operation for any particular form of reinforcement for its effectiveness
generic (tact) extension
A tact evoked by a novel stimulus that shares all of the relevant or defining features associated with the original stimulus.
Graphs
relatively simple formats for visually displaying relationships among and between a series of measurements and relevant variables-help people make sense of of quantitative information
group contingency
A contingency in which reinforcement for all members of a group is dependent on the behavior of (a) a person within the group, (b) a select group of members within the larger group, or (c) each member of the group meeting a performance criterion.
habilitation
(adjustment) occurs when a person's repertoire has been changed such that short- and long-term reinforcers are maximized and short- and long-term punishers are minimized
habit reversal
A multiple-component treatment package for reducing unwanted habits such as fingernail biting and muscle tics; treatment typically includes self-awareness training involving response detection and procedures for identifying events that precede and trigger the response; competing response training; and motivation techniques including self-administered consequences, social support systems, and procedures for promoting the generalization and maintenance of treatment gains.
habituation
A decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentations of a stimulus; most often used to describe a reduction of respondent behavior as a function of repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus over a short span of time.
hallway time-out
A procedure for implementing time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of an inappropriate behavior, the student is removed from the classroom to a hallway location near the room for a specified period of time.
hero procedure
Another term for a dependent group contingency (i.e., a person earns a reward for the group).
high-probability (high-p) request sequence
An antecedent intervention in which two to five easy tasks with a known history of learner compliance (the high-p requests) are presented in quick succession immediately before requesting the target task, the low-p request.
higher order conditioning
Development of a conditioned reflex by pairing of a neutral stimulus (NS) with a conditioned stimulus (CS). Also known as secondary conditioning.
history of reinforcement
An inclusive term referring in general to all of a person's learning experiences and more specifically to past conditioning .
Human Error
______________is the biggest threat to accuracy and reliability of data.
impure tact
A verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by both an MO and a nonverbal stimulus; thus, the response is part mand and part tact.
independent group contingency
A contingency in which reinforcement for each member of a group is dependent on that person's meeting a performance criterion that is in effect for all members of the group.
Independent Variable
a specified point in time and/or environmental condition
Independent Variable
the particular aspect of the environment that the experimenter manipulates to find out whether it affects the subject's behavior
Independent variable
the variable that is systematically manipulated by the researcher in an experiment to see whether changes in the independent variable produce reliable changes in the dependent variable. In applied behavior analysis, it is usually an environmental even or condition antecedent or consequent to the dependent variable. Sometimes called the intervention or treatment variable
indirect functional assessment
structured interviews, checklists, rating scales, or questionnaires used to obtain information from people who are familiar with the person exhibiting the problem behavior
indirect measurement
Occurs when the behavior that is measured is in some way different from the behavior of interest
indiscriminable contingency
A contingency that makes it difficult for the learner to discriminate whether the next response will produce reinforcement.
informed consent
When the potential recipient of services or participant in a research study gives his explicit permission before any assessment or treatment is provided. Full disclosure of effects and side effects must be provided. To give consent, the person must (a) demonstrate the capacity to decide, (b) do so voluntarily, and (c) have adequate knowledge of all salient aspects of the treatment.
instructional setting
The environment where instruction occurs; includes all aspects of the environment, planned and unplanned, that may influence the learner's acquisition and generalization of the target behavior.
interdependent group contingency
A contingency in which reinforcement for all members of a group is dependent on each member of the group meeting a performance criterion that is in effect for all members of the group.
Intermittent schedule of reinforcement
contingency of reinforcement in which some, but not all, occurrences of the behavior produce reinforcement
intermittent schedules of reinforcement and delayed rewards
Two forms of indiscriminable contingencies.
Internal Validity
An experimenter has a high degree of ____________ _________________when it shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not the result of unknown variables.
Internal Validity
Experiments that have a high degree of convincing changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and are not the result of uncontrolled or unknown variables
Internal validity
the extent to which an experiment shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not the result of uncontrolled or unknown variables.
interobserver agreement
The degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events
interresponse time (IRT)
the elapsed time between two successive responses
interresponse time and response latency
2 measures of temporal locus
interval-by-interval IOA
= (number of intervals of agreement / total number of intervals) * 100%
intraverbal
An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus and that does not have point-to-point correspondence with that verbal stimulus.
Irreversibility
a situation that occurs when the level of responding observed in a previous phase cannot be reproduced even though the experimental conditions are the same as they were during the earlier phase
lag reinforcement schedule
A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is contingent on a response being different in some specified way from the previous response or a specified number of previous responses.
Level
the value on the vertical axis scale around which a set of behavioral measures converge
level system
A component of some token economy systems in which participants advance up (or down) through a succession of levels contingent on their behavior at the current level. The performance criterion and sophistication or difficulty of the behaviors required at each level are higher than those of preceding levels; as participants advance to higher levels, they gain access to more desirable reinforcers, increased privileges, and greater independence.
Limited hold
situation in which reinforcement is available only for a finite time following the lapse of an FI or VI interval--if the target response does not occur within the time limit, reinforcement is withheld and new interval begins
Line
The ________graph is the most common graphic formant for displaying data in applied behavior analysis.
Line Graph
You are interested in looking at behavior under different and alternating experimental conditions, what type of graphic display is used?
Listener
Someone who provides reinforcement for verbal behavior.
Local Response Rate
refers to the rate of response during periods of time smaller than that for which an overall rate has been given
magnitude
The force or intensity of the behavioral response.
magnitude
the force or intensity with which a response is emitted
mand
An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by an MO and followed by specific reinforcement.
massed practice
A self-directed behavior change technique in which the person forces himself to perform an undesired behavior (e.g., a compulsive ritual) repeatedly, which sometimes decreases the future frequency of the behavior.
Matching law
allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement; rates of responding across choices are distributed in proportions that match the rates of reinforcement received from each choice alternative
mean count-per-interval IOA
The average percentage of agreement between the counts reported by two observers in a measurement period comprised of a series of smaller counting times
mean duration-per-occurrence IOA
equals average percentage of agreement of the durations reported by two observers for each occurrence of the target behavior
measurement bias
a form of inaccurate measurement in which the data consistently overestimate or underestimate the true value of an event
measurement by permanent product
a method of measuring behavior after it has occurred by recording the effects that the behavior produced on the environment
metaphorical (tact) extension
A tact evoked by a novel stimulus that shares some, but not all, of the relevant features of the original stimulus.
metonymical (tact) extension
A tact evoked by a novel stimulus that shares none of the relevant features of the original stimulus configuration, but some irrelevant yet related feature has acquired stimulus control.
Mixed schedule
compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of 2 or more basic schedules of reinforcement that occur in an alternating, usually random sequence
Momentary time sampling
a measurement method in which the presence or absence of behaviors are recorded at precisely specified time intervals
Motivating operation
An environmental variable that (a) alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event; and (b) alters (increases or decreases) the current frequency of all behavior that have been reinforced by that stimulus, object, or event.
motivating operation
An environmental variable that alters the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object or event.
Positive reinforcement
Molly is asked to get her book and start reading; Molly gets her book and starts reading. Molly's teacher ignores her. Molly continues to read her book, In the future, under similar conditions; she will continue to get her book. (is this an example of: Positive R., Positive P., Negative R, Negative P.?)
Multielement design
the treatment design provides an experimentally sound and efficient method for comparing the effects of two or more treatments
Multiple Baseline across Behaviors Design
begins with the concurrent measurement of two or more behaviors of a single participant
Multiple Baseline across Settings Design
a single behavior of a person (or group) is targeted in two or more different settings or conditions (e.g. locations, times of day).
Multiple Baseline across Subjects Design
one target behavior is selected for two or more subjects (or groups) in the same setting.
Multiple Baseline Design
An Experimental design that begins with the concurrent measurement of two or more behaviors in a baseline condition, followed by the application of the treatment variable to one of the behaviors while baseline conditions remain in effect for the other behavior(s). After maximum change has been noted in the first behavior, the treatment variable is applied in sequential fashion to each of the other behaviors in the design.
multiple exemplar training
Instruction that provides the learner with practice with a variety of stimulus conditions, response variations, and response topographies to ensure the acquisition of desired stimulus controls response forms; used to promote both setting/situation generalization and response generalization.
Multiple Probe Design
a method of analyzing the relation between the independent variable and the acquisition of a successive approximation or task sequence.
multiple schedule
compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of 2 or more basic schedules of reinforcement that occur in an alternating, usually random sequence
Multiple treatment interference
the effects of one treatment on a subject's behavior being confounding by the influence of another treatment administered in the same study
Multiple treatment reversal design
experiments that use the reversal design to compare the effects of two or more experimental conditions to baseline and/or to one another
Naive
Measurement bias cause by observer expectations can be avoided by using_____________ observer.
Naive observer
An observer who is unaware of the study's purpose and/or the experimental conditions in effect during a given phase or observation period
Naturally existing contingency
Any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) that operates independent of the behavior analyst's or practitioner's efforts; includes socially mediated contingencies contrived by other people and already in effect in the relevant setting.
NCR Reversal Design
a higher level of responding during the reinforcement condition demonstrates that the changes in behavior are the result of contingent reinforcement, not simply the presentation of or contact with the stimulus event
Negative punishment
A response behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of the stimulus), that decreases the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions.
negative punishment
Sometimes called Type II punishment
negative reinforcement
A procedure in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are presented on fixed or variable-time schedules completely independent of behavior. Used as an antecedent intervention to reduce problem behavior.
negative reinforcement
contingency in which the occurrence of a response produces the removal, termination, reduction or postponement of a stimulus, which lead to an increase in the future occurrence of that response.
negative reinforcement
the occurrence of a response produces the removal, termination, reduction, or postponement of a stimulus, which leads to an increase in the future occurrence of that response.
neutral stimulus
A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior.
Non-Parametric Study
Independent Variable is either presented or absent during a time period or phase of the study
noncontingent reinforcement
A procedure in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are presented on a fixed-time (FT) or variable-time (VT) schedules completely independent of behavior; often used as an antecedent intervention to reduce problem behavior.
nonexclusion time-out
A procedure for implementing time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of the target behavior, the person remains within the setting, but does not have access to reinforcement, for a specified period.
normalization
the belief that people with disabilities should be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability
objective, clear, complete
three characteristics of a "good definition"
observation period
this should always be noted when reporting count measures
observed value
A measure produced by an observation an measurement system
observer drift
Any unintended change in the way an observer uses a measurement system over the course of an investigation that results in measurement error
observer reactivity
influence on the data reported by an observer that results from the observer's awareness that others are evaluating the data he reports
ontogeny
The history of development of an individual organism during its lifetime.
operant behavior
Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences; each person's repertoire of operant behavior is a product of his history of interactions with the environment.
operant conditioning
The basic process by which operant learning occurs; consequences (stimulus changes immediately following responses) result in an increased (reinforcement) or decreased (punishment)frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational conditions in the future.
Overall Response Rate
the average rate of response over a given time period, such as during a specific session, phase, or condition of an experiment
Overcorrection
A behavior change tactic based on positive punishment in which, contingent on the problem behavior, the learner is required to engage in effortful behavior directly or logically related to fixing the damage caused by the behavior
Parametric Analysis
seeks to discover the differential effects of a range of values of the independent variable
Parametric analysis
an experiment designed to discover the differential effects of a range of values of an independent variable.
Parsimony
The idea that simple, logical explanations must be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.
Partial-interval recording
a time sampling method in which the observer records whether the target behavior occurred at any time during the interval
partition time-out
An exclusion procedure for implementing time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of the target behavior, the person remains within the time-in setting, but stays behind a wall, shield, or barrier that restricts the view.
percentage
a ratio formed by combining the same dimensional quantities
Percentage of Agreement
__________________ __ ___________________between observers is the most common convention for reporting IOA in ABA.
phylogeny
The history of the natural evolution of a species
pivotal behavior
a behavior that, when learned, produces corresponding modifications or co-variation in other untrained behaviors
Placebo Control
A procedure that prevents a subject from detecting the presence or absence of the treatment variable. To the subject the placebo condition appears the same as the treatment condition: e.g., a placebo pill contains an inert substance but looks, feels, and tastes exactly like a pill that contains the treatment drug (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
planned activity check (PLACHECK)
a variation of momentary time sampling in which the observer records whether each person in a group is engaged in the target behavior at specific points in time; provides a measure of "group behavior"
Planned ignoring
A procedure for implementing time-out in which social reinforcers - usually attention, physical contact, and verbal interaction - are withheld for a brief period contingent on the occurrence of the target behavior.
Point-to-point correspondence
A relation between the stimulus and response or response product that occurs when the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal stimulus matches the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal response.
positive practice overcorrection
A form of overcorrection in which, contingent on an occurrence of the target behavior, the learner is required to repeat a correct form of the behavior, or a behavior incompatible with the problem behavior, a specified number of times; entails an educative component.
positive punishment
Sometimes called Type I punishment
Positive punishment
A behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior
Positive reinforcement
occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions- contrast with negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
positive reinforcer
stimulus whose presentation or onset functions as reinforcement-contrast with negative reinforcer
Positive reinforcement
When the behavior is immediately followed by the presentation of stimulus which will increase behavior in future.
post reinforcement pause
absence of responding for a period of time following reinforcement
Practice Effects
refers to improvements in performance resulting from repeated opportunities to emit the behavior so that baseline measurements can be obtained
Practice effects
improvement in performance resulting from opportunities to perform a behavior repeatedly so that baseline measures can be obtained.
Prediction
the anticipated outcome of a presently unknown or future measurement
Prediction, Description, Control
What are the three levels of understanding of science?
Prediction, Functional Relation, Mentalism
The following are neither attitude of science and ABA
prediction, verification, replication
List 3 components of experimental reasoning used in single-subject research design?
Prediction
a statement of the anticipated outcome of a presently unknown or future measurement/on of three components of the experimental reasoning, or baseline logic, used in single-subject research designs
Premack Principle
principle that states that making the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior contingent on the occurrence of a low-frequency behavior will function as reinforcement for the low-frequency behavior. See also response-deprivation hypothesis
principle of behavior
A statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables with generality across organisms, species, settings, behaviors, and time.
Procedural Fidelity
AKA treatment integrity (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
Programming common stimuli
A tactic for promoting setting/situation generalization by making the instructional setting similar to the generalization setting; the two-step process involves (1) identifying salient stimuli that characterize the generalization setting and (2) incorporating those stimuli into the instructional setting.
Progressive schedule reinforcement
schedule that systematically thins each successive reinforcement opportunity independent of the individual's behavior
punisher
A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
punisher
A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
punishment
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
punishment
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
rate
a ratio of count per observation time
ratio strain
behavioral effect associated with abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules
reactivity
effects of an observation and measurement procedure on the behavior being measured
Recovery from punishment procedure
The occurrence of a previously punished type of response without its punishment procedure. This procedure is analogous to the extinction of previously reinforced behavior and has the effect of undoing the effect of the punishment.
Reflex
A stimulus-response relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits (bright light-pupil contraction).
Reflexive conditioned motivating operation
A stimulus that acquires MO effectiveness by preceding some form of worsening or improvement. It is exemplified by the warning stimulus in a typical escape-avoidance procedure, which establishes its own offset as reinforcement and evokes all behavior that has accomplished that offset.
Reinforcement
Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
Reinforcer
A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
Reinforcer Assessment
refers to a variety of direct, empirical methods for representing one or more stimuli contingent on a target response and measuring their effectiveness as reinforcers
Reinforcer-abolishing effect
A decrease in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event caused by a motivating operation.
Reinforcer-establishing effect
An increase in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event caused by a motivating operation.
relevance of behavior rule
holds that only behaviors likely to produce reinforcement in the person's natural environment should be targeted for change
Reliability
Refers to the consistency of measurement, specifically, the extent to which repeated measurement of the same event yields the same values
Reliable
Measurement is ____________ when it yields the same values across repeated measures of the same event.
Repeatability
refers to the fact that a behavior can occur repeatedly through time
Repeatability, temporal extent, temporal locus
the three fundamental properties, or dimensional quantities, that behavior analysts can measure
Repertoire
All of the behaviors a person can do; or a set of behaviors relevant to a particular setting or task.
Replication
repeating the independent variable manipulations conducted previously in the study and obtaining similar outcomes
Replication
the context of repeating a previous experiment
Replication
(a) repeating conditions within an experiment to determine the reliability of effects and increase internal validity. (b) Repeating whole experiments to determine the generality of findings of previous experiments to other subjects, settings, and /or behaviors.
Respondent behavior
The response component of a reflex; behavior that is elicited, or induced, by antecedent stimuli.
Respondent conditioning
A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus (NS) is presented with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response.
respondent extinction
The repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus; the CS gradually loses its ability to elicit the conditioned response until the conditioned reflex no longer appears in the individual's repertoire.
Response
A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior.
response blocking
A procedure in which the therapist physically intervenes as soon as the learner begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent completion of the targeted behavior.
response class
A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment.
response class
A group of responses of varying topography, all off which produce the same effect on the environment.
response cost
The contingent loss of reinforcers (e.g. a fine), producing a decre.ase of the frequency of behavior; a form of negative punishment
Response Deprivation hypothesis
model for predicting whether contingent access to one behavior will function as reinforcement for engaging in another behavior based on whether the access to the contingent behavior represents a restriction of the activity compared to the baseline level of engagement- See Premack principle
Response generalization
The extent to which a learner emits untrained responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained target behavior.
Response latency
If you are interested in the amount of time it takes a student to begin a task after the teacher has given an instruction you would measure:
Response latency
the elapsed time from the onset of a stimulus (e.g., task direction, cue) to the initiation of a response
response maintenance
The extent to which a learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention responsible for the behavior's initial appearance in the learner's repertoire has been terminated.
Response-deprivation hypothesis
The model for predicting whether contingent access to one behavior will function as a reinforcement for engaging in another behavior based on whether access to the contingent behavior represents a restriction of the activity being compared to the baseline level of engagement refers to this
restitutional overcorrection
A form of overcorrection in which, contingent on the problem behavior, the learner is required to repair the damage or return the environment to its original state and then to engage in additional behavior to bring the environment to a condition vastly better than it was in prior to the misbehavior.
restitutional overcorrection and positive practice overcorrection
Two forms of overcorrection
Reversal Design
any experimental design in which the researcher attempts to verify the effect of the independent variable by "reversing" responding to a level obtained in a previous condition: encompasses experimental designs in which the independent variable is withdrawn
satiation
A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior.
schedule of reinforcement
rule specifying the environmental arrangements and response requirements for reinforcement
schedule thinning
changing a contingency reinforcement by gradually increasing the response ratio or the extent of the time interval
scored-interval IOA
= (number of intervals of agreement) / (intervals in which either or both observers recorded occurrence) * 100%
scored-interval IOA
IOA index recommended for behaviors that occur at low rates
selection by consequences
The fundamental principle underlying operant conditioning; all forms of operant behavior, from simple to complex, are selected, shaped, and maintained by their consequences during an individual's lifetime.
self-assessment
Another term for self-evaluation.
self-contract
Contingency contract that a person makes with himself, incorporating a self-selected task and reward as well as personal monitoring of task completions and self-delivery of the reward.
self-control
One of two meanings: A person's ability to "delay gratification" by emitting a response that will produce a larger (or higher quality) delayed reward over a response that produces a smaller but immediate reward (sometimes considered impulse control).
self-control
One of two meanings: A person's behaving in a certain way so as to change a subsequent behavior (i.e., to self-manage her own behavior).
self-evaluation
A procedure in which a person compares his performance of a target behavior with a predetermined goal or standard; often a component of self-management.
self-instruction
Self-generated verbal responses, covert or overt, that function as rules or response prompts for a desired behavior.
self-management
The personal application of behavior change tactics that produces a desired change in behavior.
self-monitoring
A procedure whereby a person systematically observes his behavior and records the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a target behavior.
Semi-Logarithmic Chart
refers to graphs in which only one axis is scaled proportionally
Sequence Effects
the effects on a subject's experience with a prior condition
setting/situation generalization
The extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that is different from the instructional setting.
Single-subject design
A wide variety of research designs that use a form of experimental reasoning called baseline logic to demonstrate the effects of the independent variable on the behavior of individual subjects.
Single-Subject Designs
a wide variety of research designs that use a form of experimental reasoning called baseline logic to demonstrate the effects of the independent variable on the behavior of individual subjects
Skinners Publication: The Behavior of Organism
What formally began the experimental branch of behavior analysis?
social validity
refers to the extent to which target behaviors are appropriate, intervention procedures are acceptable, and important and significant changes in target and collateral behaviors are produced
solistic (tact) extension
A verbal response evoked by a stimulus property that is only indirectly related to the proper tact relation.
solistic (tact) extension
Yogi Berra's classic malapropism: "Baseball is ninety percent mental; the other half is physical." is an example of...
speaker
Someone who engages in verbal behavior by emitting mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, and so on.
Split-Middle Line of Progress
a method calculating and drawing lines of progress that is more reliable than the freehand method and much less time-consuming than linear regression methods
Stable Baseline
the data shows no evidence of an upward or downward trend, and all of the measures fall within a small range of values
stable baseline
data that show no evidence of an upward or downward trend; all of the measures fall within a relatively small range of values.
Standard Celeration Chart
to provide standardized means of charting and analyzing how frequency of behavior changes over time
Steady or Stable State Responding
a pattern of responding that exhibits relatively little variation in its measured dimensional quantities over a period of time
Steady state responding
a pattern of responding that exhibits relatively little variation in its measured dimensional quantities over a period of time.
Steady State Strategy
entails repeatedly exposing a subject to a given condition while trying to eliminate or control any extraneous influences on the behavior and obtaining a stable pattern of responding before introducing the next condition
Steady state strategy
repeatedly exposing a subject to a given condition while trying to eliminate or control extraneous influences on the behavior and obtaining a stable pattern of responding before introducing the next condition.
stimulus
An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
stimulus class
A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal, temporal and functional dimensions.
stimulus control
A situation in which the frequency, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus.
Stimulus preference assessment
variety of procedures used to determine the stimuli that a person prefers, the relative preference vale (high v low) of those stimuli, the conditions under which those preference value remain in effect, and their presumed value as reinforcers.
Stimulus Response
A reflex, consistent of an antecedent stimulus and the response behavior that ELICITS. (hint: Knee jerk when taped on the knee.
stimulus-stimulus pairing
A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the function of the other stimulus.
surrogate conditioned motivating operation
A stimulus that acquires its MO effectiveness by being paired with another MO and has the same value-altering and behavior-altering effects as the MO with which it was paired.
systematic desensitization
A behavior therapy treatment for anxieties, fears, and phobias that involves substituting one response, generally muscle relaxation, for the unwanted behavior - the fear and anxiety. The client practices relaxing while imagining anxiety-producing situations in a sequence from the least fearful to the most fearful.
Systematic observation
___________________ _______________ enhances the understanding of natural phenomenon by enabling scientist to describe behavior accurately.
Systematic Replication
the researcher purposefully varies one or more aspects of an earlier experiment
tact
An elementary verbal operant evoked by a nonverbal discriminative stimulus and followed by generalized conditioned reinforcement.
tandem schedule
schedule of reinforcement identical to the chained schedule except, like the mixed schedule, the tandem schedule does not use discriminative stimuli with the elements in the chain
target behavior
the response class selected for intervention; can be defined either functionally or topographically
teaching loosely
Randomly varying functionally irrelevant stimuli within and across teaching sessions; promotes setting/situation generalization by reducing the likelihood that (a) a single or small group of noncritical stimuli will acquire exclusive control over the target behavior and (2) the learner's performance of the target behavior will be impeded or "thrown off" should he encounter any of the "loose" stimuli in the generalization setting.
teaching sufficient examples
A strategy for promoting generalized behavior change that consists of teaching the learner to respond to a subset of all of the relevant stimulus and response examples and then assessing the learner's performance on untrained examples.
temporal extent
refers to the fact that every instance of behavior occurs during some amount of time
temporal locus
refers to the fact that every instance of behavior occurs at a certain point in time with respect to other events
textual
An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence, but not formal similarity, between the stimulus and the response product.
the "why" question.
When interviewing a significant other about the clients behavior, behavior analyst should ask a variation of questions except:
Behavioral
The behavior must be observable, measurable, and must be behavior that will positively affect the person's life. We also must ask ourselves, who's behavior is being changes. (hint:Characteristics of ABA)
Applied
The behavior targeted for change must be socially significant behavior that will improve the person's life.
Topographical
The behaviors shape or form
Defign Determinism
the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which all phenomenon occur as the result of other events.
Analytic
There is a functional relationship between the independent and dependant variable. (hint:Characteristics of ABA)
Reinforcement
This term is one of the most important principle of behavior and a key element of most behavior change programs.
time sampling
a measurement of the presence or absence of behavior within specific time intervals
time sampling
a method of measurement that is most useful with continuous and high-rate behaviors
time sampling
The procedure of observing and recording behavior during intervals or at specific moments
time-out from positive reinforcement
The contingent withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a specified time; a form of negative punishment.
time-out ribbon
A procedure for implementing nonexclusion time-out in which a child wears a ribbon or wristband that becomes discriminative for receiving reinforcement. Contingent on misbehavior, the ribbon is removed and access to social and other reinforcers are unavailable for a specified period. When time-out ends, the ribbon or band is returned to the child and time-in begins.
token
An object that is awarded contingent on appropriate behavior and that serves as the medium of exchange for backup reinforcers.
token economy
A system whereby participants earn generalized conditioned reinforcers (e.g., tokens, chips, points) as an immediate consequence for specific behaviors; participants accumulate tokens and exchange them for items and activities from a menu of backup reinforcers.
topography
the physical form or shape of a behavior
topography-based definition
defines instances of the targeted response class by the shape or form of the behavior
total count IOA
= (smaller of two observers' counts / larger of counts) * 100%
total duration IOA
= (shorter of two durations reported by observers / longer duration) * 100%
transcription
An elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written, typed, or finger-spelled response. There is point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response product, but no formal similarity.
transitive conditioned motivating operation
An environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolishes) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.
Treatment Drift
An undesirable situation in which the independent variable of an experiment is applied differently during later stages than it was at the outset of the study (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
Treatment Integrity
The extent to which the independent variable is applied exactly as planned and described and no other unplanned variables are administered inadvertently along with the planned treatment (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
Trend
the overall direction taken by the data path
Trend
The overall direction taken by a data path is its_________________?
trial-by-trial IOA
An IOA index for discrete trial data based on comparing the observers' counts (0 or 1)
trials-to-criterion
a special form of event recording; a measure of the number of responses or practice opportunities needed for a person to achieve a pre-established level of accuracy or proficiency
TRUE
All EXPERIMENTS in ABA include at least one behavior and at least one treatment or intervention condition: TRUE/ FALSE
TRUE
Steady state strategy required repeatedly exposing a participant to a given condition while trying to eliminate or control extraneous influence on behavior and obtaining a stable pattern of responding before introducing the new condition. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The purpose of establishing baseline level, is that the subjects performance in the absence of the independent variable serves as an objective basis for detecting the effects of the independent variable when introduced in the future. TRUE/FALSE
true value
A measure accepted as a quantitative description of the true state of some dimensional quantity of an event as it exists in nature
Type I Error
An error that occurs when a researcher concludes that the independent variable had an effect on the dependent variable, when no such relation exists; a "false positive" (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
Type II Error
An error that occurs when a researcher concludes that the independent variable had no effect on the dependent variable, when in truth it did; a "false negative" (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).
unconditioned motivating operation
A motivating operation whose value-altering effect does not depend on a learning history.
unconditioned negative reinforcer
stimuli whose removal strengthens behavior in the absence of prior learning
Unconditioned negative reinforcer
stimulus that functions as a negative reinforcer as a result of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny); no prior learning involved
unconditioned punisher
A stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior tha immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus.
unconditioned punisher
An unlearned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus (e.g. food in mouth) that elicits the response (e.g. salivation); a product of the phylogenic evolution of a given species.
unconditioned reinforcer
A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus.
Unconditioned reinforcers
stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus. They are the product of the revolutionary development of the species (phylogeny)- aka primary or unlearned reinforcer; compare with conditioned reinforcer
unconditioned stimulus
The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.
unpairing
Two kinds: (a) the occurrence alone of a stimulus that acquired its function by being paired with an already effective stimulus, or (b) the occurrence of the stimulus in the absence as well as in the presence of the effective stimulus.
unscored-interval IOA
= (number of intervals of agreement on non-occurrence) / (intervals in which either or both observers recorded non-occurrence) * 100%
unscored-interval IOA
IOA index recommended for behaviors that occur at high rates
Valid, Accurate
Measurement that is ____________, ______________and Reliable yields the most trustworty and useful data for science and science based practices.
validity
The extent to which dta obtained from measurement are directly relevant to the target behavior of interest and to the reason(s) for measuring it
value-altering effect
An alteration in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a result of a motivating operation.
Variability
how often and the extent to which multiple measures of behavior yield different outcomes
Variable Baseline
the data points do not consistently fall within a narrow range of values, nor do they suggest any clear trend
Variable baseline
data points that do not consistently fall within a narrow range of values and do not suggest any clear trend.
variable interval
schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable duration of time occurring in a random or unpredictable order
variable ratio
schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses for reinforcement
variable-time schedule
A schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses for reinforcement.
verbal behavior
Behavior whose reinforcement is mediated by a listener. Encompasses the subject matter usually treated as language and topics such as thinking, grammar, composition, and understanding.
Verification
demonstrates that prior level of baseline responding would have remained unchanged had the independent variable not been introduced
Verification
one of three components of the experimental reasoning, or baseline logic, used in single-subject research designs; accomplished by demonstrating that the prior level of baseline responding would have remained unchanged had the independent variable not been introduced. Verifying the accuracy of the original prediction reduces the probability that some uncontrolled (confounding) variable was responsible for the observed change in behavior.
Visual Analysis
interpretation of graphically displayed data that is employed by behavior analysts in a systematic form of examination
Visual Graphic Analysis
Behavior analyst typically use________________?
Edible, sensory, tangible, activity, or social reinforcer
What are 5 ways that reinforcer can be described by their physical properties
Ratio strain
What event can result from abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from a denser to thinner reinforcement schedule?
stimulus preference assessment
Refers to a variety of procedures to determine a) stimulus that a person prefers b) the relative preference values (high v low) of those stimuli and c) the conditions under which those preferences value remain in effect.
whole interval
A procedure that can be used to measure a continuous behavior such as academic engagement.
Negative Reinforcement
When behavior increases because there is a withdrawal or termination of stimulus
antecedent stimulus class
a set of stimuli that share a common relationship. all stimuli in an _______________ evoke the same operant behavior, or elicit the same respondent behavior.
applied behavior analysis (ABA)
the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.
arbitrary stimulus class
antecedent stimuli that evoke the same response but do not resemble each other in physical form or share a relational aspect such as bigger or under (e.g., peanuts, cheese, coconut milk, and chicken breasts are members of this if they evoke the response "source of protein"
backward chaining
a teaching procedure in which a trainer completes all but the last behavior in a chain, which is performed by the learner, who the receives reinforcement fo completing the chain.
backward chaining with leaps ahead
a backward chaining procedure in which some steps in the task analysis are skipped; used to increase the efficiency of teaching long behavior chains when there is evidence that the skipped steps are in the learner's repertoire
behavior
the activity of living organisms; "that portion of an organism's interaction with its environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism and that results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment"
behavior chain
a sequence of responses in which each response prduces a stimulus change that functions as conditioned reinforcemnt for that response and as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the chain; reinforcement for the last response in a chain maintains the reinforcing effectiveness of the stimulus changes produced by all previous responses in the chain
behavior chain interruption strategy
an intervention that relies on the participant's skill in performing the critical elements of a chain independently; the chain is interrupted occasionally so that another behavior can be emitted
behavior chain with a limited hold
a contingency that specidies a time interval by which a behaivor chain must be completed for reinforcement to be delivered
behavioral assessment
a form of assessment that involves a full range of inquiry methods (observation, interview, testing, and the systematic manipulation of antecedent or consequence variables) to identity probable antecedent and consequent controlling variables.
behaviorism
the philosophy of a science of behaivor; there are various forms of __________________.
chaining
various procedures for teaching behavior ____________.
clicker training
a term popularized by Pryor (1999) for shaping behavior using conditioned reinforcement in the form of an auditory stimulus.
concept formation
a complex example of stimulus control that requires stimulus generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination between classes of stimuli
concurrent schedule (conc)
a schedule of reinforcement in which two or more contingencies of reinforcement (elements) operate independently and simultaneously for two or more behaviors
counting time
the period of time in which a count of the number of responses emitted was recorded.
differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA)
a procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered for a behavior that serves as a desirable alternative to the behavior targeted for reduction and withheld following instances of the problem behavior
differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)
a procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered for a behavior that is topographically incompatible with the behavior targeted for reduction and withheld following instances of the problem behavior
differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)
a procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is contingent on the absence of the problem behavior during or at specific times
escape extinction
behaviors maintained with negative reinforcement are placed on excape extinction when those behaviors are not followed by termination of the aversive stimulus; emitting the target behaivor does not enable the person to escape the aversive situation
experiment
a carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (the dependent varibale) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (the independent variable) differs from one condition to another
evocative effect
an increase in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation
experimental analysis of behavior (EAB)
a natural science approach to the study of behavior as a subject matter in its own right founded by B.F.Skinner; methodological features include rate of response as a basic dependent vairable, repeated or continuous measurement of clearly defined response classes, within-subject experimental comparisons instead of group design, visual analysis of graphed data instead of statistical inference, and an emphasis on describing functional relations between behavior and controlling variables in the environment over formal theory testing
experimental question
a statement of what the researcher seeks to learn by conducting the experiment; may be presented in question form and is most often found in a published account as a statement of the experiment's purpose.
explanatory fiction
a fictitious or hypothetical variable that often takes form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothing to a functional account or understanding of the phenomenon, such as "intelligence" or "cognitive awareness" as explanations for why an organism puches the lever when the light is on and food is available but does not push the lever when the light is off and no food is available.
external validity
the degree to which a study's findings have generality ot other subjects, setting, and/or behaivors
extinction (operant)
the discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinfroced behavior ; the primary effect is a decrease in the frequency of the behavior until it reaches a prereinforced level or ultimately ceases to occur.
extinction burst
an increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented.
extraneous variable
any aspect of the experimetal setting that must be held constant to prevent unplanned environmental variation
fading
a procedure for transferring stimulus control in which features of an antecedent stimulus (e.g., shape, size, position, color) controlling a beahvior are gradually changed to a new stimulus while maintaining the current behavior; stimulus features can be faded in (enhanced) or out (reduced)
feature stimuls class
stimuli that share common physical forms or structures (e.g., made from wood, four legs, round, blue) or common relative relationships (e.g., bigger than, hotter than, higher than, next to)
fixed interval (FI)
a schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duraiton of time since the last response was reinforced
fixed interval DRO (FI-DRO)
a DRO procedure in which reinforcement is available at the end of intervals of fixed duration and delivered contingent on the absence of the problem behavior during each interval
fixed-momentary DRO (FM-DRO)
a DRO procudre in which reinfrocement is available at specific moments of time, which are separated by a fixed amount of time, and delivered contingent on the problem not occurring at those moments
fixed ratio (FR)
a schedule of reinforcement requiring a fixed number of responses for reinforcement
forward chaining
a method for teaching behavior chains that begins with the learner being prompted and taught to perform the fist behaivor in the task analysis; the trainer completed the remaining steps in the chian.
full session DRL
a procedure for impleneting DRL in which reinforcement is delivered at the end of the session if the total number of responses emitted during the session does not exceed a criterion limit
fucntional relation
a verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment (or group of related experiemts) that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more specified and controlled variable sin the experiment in which a specific change in one event canb e produced by manipulating another event, and that the change in the dependent variable was unlikely the result of other factors
generalized behavior change
a behavior change that ahs not been taught directly
hypothetical construct
a presumed but unobserved process or entity
imitaiton
a behavior controlled by any physical movement that serves as a novel model excludidng vocal0verbal behaivor, has formal similarity with the model, and immediately follows the occurrence of the model.
interval DRL
a procedure for implementing DRL in which the total session is divided into equal intervals and reinfrocement is provided at the end of each interval in which the number of responses during the interval is equal to or below a criterion limit
maintenance
two different meanings in applied behavior analysis: (a) the extent to which the lerner continues to perfom the target beahvior after a portion or all of the intervetnion has been termintated , a dependent variabl eor characteristic and (b) a condition in which treatment has been discontinued or partially withdrawn, an independen variable or experimetnal condition
matching-to-sample
a proceudre for investigating conditional relations and stimulus equivalence.
mentalism
an approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental, or "inner," dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and that phenomena in this dimension either directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behaivor, if not all
methodological behaviorism
a philosophical position that vies behavioral events that cannot be publicly observed as outside the realm of science
multiple-control (of verbal behavior)
there are two types of this (a) convergent_____ ____ occurs when a single verbal response is a fucntion of more than one variable (b) what is said has more than one antecedent source of control. Divergent _______ ________ occurs when a single antecedent variable affects the strength of more that one response
philosophic doubt
an attitude that the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge should be continually questioned.
radical behaviorim
a thoroughgoing form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior, including private events such as thoughts and feelings, terms of controlling variables in the history of the person (ontogeny) and the species (phylogeny)
reflexivity
a type of stimulus-to-stimulus relation in which the larner, without any prior training or reinforcement for doing so, selects a comparison stimulus that is the same as the sample stimulus
response differentiation
a behavior change produced by differential reinforcement: Reinforced members of the current respone class occur with greater frequency, and unreinforced members occur less frequently; the overall result is the emergence of a new response class
rule-governed behavior
behavior controlled bya rule; enables human beahvior to come under the indirect control of temporally remote or improbable but potentially significant consequences.
scatterplot
a two dimensional graph that shoes the relative distibution of individual measures in a data set with respect to the variables depicted by the x and y axes.
science
a systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its primary rule, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as a requirement for believability, parsimony as avalue, and philosophic doubt as its guiding conscience
sensory extinction
the process by which behaviors maintian by automatic reinforcement are placed on extinction by maskin gor removing the sensory consequence.
shaping
using differential reinforcement ot produce a series of gradually changing response classes; each response class is a successive approximation toward a terminal behavior.
spaced-responding DRL
a procedure for implementing DRL in which reinforcement follows each occurrence of the target behavior that is separated from the previous response by a minimum interresponse time (IRT)
spontaneous recovery
a behavioral effect associated with extinction in which the behavior suddenly begins to occur after its frequency has decreased to its prereinforcement level or stopped entirely
stimulus delts (S/_\)
a stimulus in the presence of which a given behavior has not produced reinforcement in the past.
stimulus discrimination training
the conventional procedure requires one beahvior and two antecedent stimulus conditions.
stimulus equivalence
the emergence of accurate responding to untrained and non reinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following th ereinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus realtions.
stimulus generalization
when an antecedent stimulus has a history of evoking a response that has been reinfroced in its presence, the same type of beahivor tends to be evoked by stimuli that share similar physical properties with the controlling antecedent stimulus
stimulus generalization gradient
a graphic depiction of the extent to which beahvior that has been reinfroced int he presenc eof a specific stimulus condition is emitted in the presence of other stimulus
successive approximations
the sequence of new response classes that emerge during the shaping process as the result of differential reinforcement; each successive response class is lcoser in form to the terminal behavior than the response class it replaces
task analysis
the process of breaking a complex skill or series of beahviors into smaller, teachable units; also refers to the results of this process
terminal behavior
the end product of shaping
three-term contingency
the basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant beahvior; encompasses the termporal and possible dependent realtions among an antecedent stimulus, behavior, and consequence.
transitivity
a derived stimulus-stimulus relation that emerges as a product of training two other stimulus-stimulus realtions.
unconditioned reflex
an unlearned stimulu-reponse fucntional realtion consisting of an antecedent stimulus that elicits the response ; a product of the phylogenic evolution of a given species; all biologically intact members of a species are born with similar repertoires of unconditioned reflexes
variable-interval DR) (VI-DRO)
a DRO procedure in which reinforcement is available at the end of intervals variable duration and delivered contingent on the absence of the problem behavior during the interval
variable-momentary DRO (VM-DRO)
a DRO procedure in which reinforcement is available at specific moments of time, which are separated by varialbe amounts of time in random sequence, and delivered if the problem is not occurring at those times
withdrawal design
a term used by some authors as a synonym for A-B-A-B design; also used to describe experiemnts in which an effective treatment is sequenctially or partially withdrawn to promote the maintenance of behavior changes.