Chapter 18 - Industry & Urban Growth 1865-1915
Terms in this set (69)
A New Industrial Revolution
MAIN IDEA: After the Civil War, the US experienced rapid industrial growth.
*The discovery of valuable resources fed a major growth in industry.
*Inventions such as the electric light, the telephone, and the automobile changed life.
- transportation & its economic effects
-The Grange and state reforms
Why Industry Boomed
Abundant resources, new technology, government aid to business, and a railroad boom all contributed to industrial growth.
Inventors developed the Bessemer process, a method to make stronger steel at a low cost. Steel quickly replaced iron as the basic building material of cities and industry. Pittsburgh, PA became the nation's steel-making capital.
First oil strike (or discovery) was made near Titusville, PA. As they drilled into ground, stream of dark liquid gushed upwards. Oil became so valuable that it became known as "Black Gold".
A Railroad Boom
Railroads fueled industrial growth by carrying people and goods to the West and raw materials back to eastern factories. As more line were built, railroads sought ways to limit competition and keep prices high. Some big lines combined and sought up smaller lines or forced them out of business. These big railroads controlled most railways and kept the rates high. These high rates angered farmers, who relied on railroads to get their goods to market. As a result, many farmers joined the Granger and Populist movements to try to control rates and get crop prices higher.
How did the government support business?
Congress gave generous land grants and other subsidies to railroads and other businesses. Also, government kept high tariffs on imports, making foreign goods more expensive so people would buy American-made goods.
Inventors & Inventions
Main idea: Thomas Edison & other inventors created hundreds of devices that made life easier. In fact, the govt issued more patents in 1897 alone than in the 10 years before the Civil War.
document giving someone sole right to make and sell an invention
Thomas Edison's Invention Factory
Produced light bulb, phonograph, the motion picture camera, and hundreds of other useful devices. But all these inventions would have been useless without a reliable source of energy. Edison opened up the first power plant in New York City. Other power plants sprang up around the country.
Why was Edison's power plant important?
Because all these inventions would have been useless without a reliable source of energy.
Improved communication was vital to growing American business.
1. Telegraph - dots & dashes. An underwater cable was eventually laid across Atlantic and improved communication b/t America & Europe.
2. Telephone - discovered by Alexander Graham Bell.
3. Type-Writer - some devices, like typewriter, made office work faster & cheaper.
Alexander Graham Bell
Discovered telephone. His first telephone message to his assistant in other room was, "Mr. Watson, come here. I want you." Bell's patent on the telephone was the most valuable patent ever issued. In time, Bell organized over 100 local phone companies into the giant American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T).
Invented a lightweight camera that replaced the big heavy expensive cameras. This invention affected individuals more than companies.
African American who revolutionized the shoe industry with a machine that sewed the tops to the soles.
The automobile and airplane launched an age of freer & faster transportation.
Made the automobile available to millions (were very expensive and few owned up to this time). Ford perfected a system to mass-produce cars and make them available at a lower price. He developed the assembly line, which sped up construction (cut construction time in half) and lowered costs to make the cars . . . therefore he could charge lower prices for the cars and they became available to more people.
a manufacturing method in which a product is put together as it moves along a belt.
How did cars change the nation's landscape?
A web of roads spread across the country and cities began sprawling into the countryside.
Invented airplane. Altered the world by making travel quicker and trade easier. First flight was 12 seconds.
Big Business Organized Labor
MAIN IDEA: As businesses grew in size and power, workers organized to demand better conditions.
*Industrial growth gave rise to new forms of business, such as corporations and trusts.
*Harsh working conditions led to the formation of labor unions.
-laissez-faire role of government (letting things go along without interfering)
-rise of banking & financial institutions
-increase in workforce; new labor markets
-corporations as form of business organization
-early attempts to unionize
Someone who sets up new businesses to make a profit.
New Ways of Doing Business
Main idea - business leaders developed new way to raise money needed for expansion, including . . .
(1) Corporations - many businesses became corporations or businesses owned by many investors. Investors would give the business $ for a share of stock (ownership) in the company.
(2) Loans from Banks - banks lent huge amounts of $ to businesses
Growth of Big Business
Main idea - by the late 1800s, many major industries were dominated by a few giant companies
a company that controls most or all business in a particular industry
A poor Scottish immigrant who worked his way up and gained a monopoly in the steel industry. Gained control of every step of making steel and combined all the companies into the giant Carnegie Steel Company. In business, he was ruthless, but believed rich had duty to improve society (called his philosophy the Gospel of Wealth) and donated hundred of millions of dollars support charities.
John D. Rockefeller
Also from humble beginnings, Rockefeller dominated the oil industry by buying up oil companies. Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history. He ended competition in the oil industry by crushing competitors and slashing prices to drive out rivals. Despite being a ruthless business man, he also donated much of his fortune to charities.
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors.
Were trusts (and therefore Big Business) good or bad?
Arguments on both sides:
-trusts were threat to free enterprise (ability for others to compete in that business)
-saw leaders like Carnegie & Rockefeller as "Robber Barons" who unfairly eliminated competition
-leaders used their wealth to influence politicians.
-they built up ecomomy and created jobs
-limiting competition allowed for lower prices and more people could afford the goods.
Economic system in which privately owned businesses compete freely
Concept of "Survival of the fittest" in business and other human affairs. Big business leaders used this theory to justify their efforts to limit competition.
Changes in the Workplace
Main idea - an industry grew, working conditions got worse. Women & children worked long hours for low pay in bad or dangerous conditions.
Dangerous Conditions in factories
Factors could be very dangerous places to work and employers were not required to pay for injuries. Dangers could be breathing in fiber or dust that cause lung disease or burns/death from molten metal. The Triangle Fire in NYC sweatshop caused New York and other states to approve safety laws to help protect factory workers. In the Triangle Fire, the boss had locked the doors to keep the workers at work. A fire broke out and they couldn't escape. 150 people, mostly young women, died.
A shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions
Main idea - despite many obstacles, organized labor (unions) began to grow in the late 1800s. Labor unions sought safer working conditions, higher wages, and shorter hours. Labor strikes often turned violent, which turned public opinion against unions.
Knights of Labor
Union established in Philidalphia by clothing workers. Ws small and secret at first, but became the biggest union in country. First union to allow all laborers, including women and African Americans etc. Leader did not believe in using strikes and instead tried to win support by holding public rallies. Union successes were undercut by a series of violent strikes, including one of the worst episodes in Haymarket Square in Chicago where bomb exploded and police sprayed crowd with bullets. After this incident, Knights of Labor lost much of their influence.
Rise of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
A union called the American Federation of Labor soon replaced the Knights of Labor as the leading union in the country. It was formed by Samuel Gompers and only admitted skilled workers. Gompers argued that skilled workers could create a powerful union because their skills made it costly and difficult to train replacements. He also believed the most effective way to win improvements was through collective bargaining. He believed in using strikes, but only if all else failed. However, didn't allow African-Americans, immigrants, or unskilled workers to join the union so only included a tiny fraction of American workers.
** AFL used collective bargaining to negotiate for what they wanted.
Mary Harris Jones
Labor organizer, known as Mother Jones. She fought for coal workers' rights by speaking in Appalachian mining towns, encouraging them to join unions. She also faught for child labor laws.
Unions negotiate with management for workers as a group
Pullman Railroad Strike
Employees of Pullman strike to protest cut wages and increased rent in company-owned housing where they lived. Angry workers struck the Pullman plant and railroad workers walked off their jobs in supports. Rail lines were shut down from coast to coast. President Grover Cleveland sent federal troops to end the strike.
Cities Grow & Change
MAIN IDEA: Cities grew rapidly, leading to new challenges and a new way of life.
*People migrated to cities to find jobs.
*Rapid urbanization created such problems as poor housing and sanitation.
-1865-1900- transportation and its economic effects
-growth and problems of cities
-communities grew in size and number
Rapid Growth of Cities
Main idea - industrialization, migration, and technology all contributed to the growth of American cities.
Growth of cities. Why? B/c cities attracted industry and industry attracted people. Many fast-growing cities were located near waterways b/c provided easy transport of goods.
New technology helped cities grow out & up
Elevated trains thru cities, subways, streetcars, and other public transportation gave rise to suburbs, living areas on outskirts of city (so people could work in one area of city and live in another). Also, elevators and skyscrapers helped cities build "up". As cities grew out, the poorest people tended to live in center/oldest sections of city with wealthier people on outskirts.
Problems of Urban Life
Main idea - as cities grew, they faced a variety of problems, especially in poorest neighborhoods, including fires, overcrowding, disease, bad living conditions.
buildings divided into many tiny apartments and many people squeezed into one room to live.
How did cities begin to improve city life?
Installed streetlights and set up fire, sanitation, and police departments. Also set up hospitals and clinics to help against disease.
the founder of Hull House (a settlement house), which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
A center offering help to city poor people
The Excitement of City Life
Main idea - cities lured newcomers with a wide variety of attractions and leisure activities including department stores, leisure activities (museums, theaters, art galleries, circuses) and professional sports teams. First pro sports team was baseball's Cincinnati Red Stockings.
The New Immigrants
MAIN IDEA: Millions of new immigrants came to the US seeking freedom and opportunities.
*25 million immigrants entered the US b/t 1865 & 1915 (more than the population of the entire country in 1850!).
*The work of immigrants contributed to the growth of the American economy.
*A new wave of nativists sought to limit immigration.
-2 distinct waves of immigration
-national origin, culture, and religion of immigrants
-similar motivation and settlement of immigrants
-occupational and political experience of immigrants.
Why did so many immigrants leave their homelands for the U.S.
Immigrants saw the US as a "land of opportunity" where they could get cheap land and jobs. Many left their home countries due to political, economic, or religious reasons. Also, many of these immigrants were "new immigrants" from countries where they did not speak English or have democratic freedoms and they were Catholic or other religions. (In the early 1800s, most immigrants were Protestants from northern & western Europe who spoke English and had experience with democracy.)
What hardships did immigrants face?
Most came by boat with miserable conditions and disease. They were crammed below decks in steerage and many got sea sick. The voyages were painfully long.
large compartments below decks in boats that usually held cattle
Where did immigrants enter the US?
Most people from Europe entered thru Ellis Island and most from Asia entered thru Angel Island in San Francisco
immigrant (ethnic) neighborhoods
Once admitted to US, 2/3 settled in cities, near people from their own country (italians live together, the chinese live together) a way to speak native language, keep family traditions, and cultural differences (like China Town in NYC)
process of becoming part of another culture
How did immigrants assimilate into American society?
For many immigrants, the goal was to become part of American life and culture. They learned English, went to school if they were kids, played baseball, and dressed like native-born Americans. Fondest dream of immigrants was to educate their children so that the next generation could be better off.
An new wave of nativism
Many Americans distrusted immigrants and called for limited on immigration. In 1882, Congress passed a law to exclude Chinese laborers from the US and was called the Chinese Exclusion Act. In 1917, Congress passed law that denied entry to immigrants who could not read their own languages, which usually restricted entry to the wealthy (barred world's poor from immigrating). In the 1960s, Congress finally eased the restrictions on immigration.
Why did nativists oppose immigration?
Argued that new immigrants would not assimilate b/c their languages, religions, and customs were too different. Also said that immigrants took jobs away from Americans. Also associated immigrants with violence, crime, & anarchy.
a person who opposes all forms of government
Contribution of Immigrants
The labor provided by immigrants was essential to the new American economy. They took any job they could get and often worked long hours for low pay. Many immigrants (like Alexander Graham Bell & Andrew Carnegie) made major contributions with inventions and/or business.
Education & Culture
MAIN IDEA: American culture changed as education became more available.
*Education expanded in response to the needs of industry.
*As more people learned to read, popular books and newspapers boomed.
How did states expand public education?
States began to require children to attend school. Also built more public schools plus colleges & universities.
requirement that children attend school up to a certain age.
What was the effect of learning becoming more available to everyone?
More people were learning to read and a new wave of writers sprang up who wrote books, many of these authors were realists.
What kind of topics did realists write about?
Topics that described real life as it was, often emphasizing the harsh side.
Most popular author of time. His real name was Samual Clemens. His most popular book was "Huckleberry Finn"
Why did the newspaper industry grow?
B/c of the spread of education and more people learning how to read. Also, newspapers became cheaper and more available.
Created the first modern, mass-circulation newspaper - the "New York World". More people became informed about major news issues. He added crowd-pleasing features including sensationalized stories and color comics. The Yellow Kid, a tough but sweet slum boy, became the first popular comic strip character. Critics began calling this type of sensational reporting style "yellow journalism".
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