chap 9 english
Terms in this set (47)
Established by Clovis. Was only Germanic state on the European continent that proved to be long lasting.
Strong military leader who around 500 became first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity. At first he refused the pleas of his Christian wife to adopt Christianity as his religion. When his army faced certain destruction in a battle w/another Germanic tribe, he said that if they won, he would get baptized. They won, he became a Christian. His conversion won him the support of the Roman Catholic Church. By 510, he had made a powerful new Frankish Kingdom that stretched from Pyrenees in the southwest to German lands in the east, modern day France and western Germany.
Clovis and his successors, who were generally weak Frankish rulers who left the job of governing to palace officials.
Germanic people who had settled in northern Italy and were pushing south, threatening Rome; crushed by Charlemagne, earning him the papacy's gratitude
The surrounding territories of Rome.
located in Italy and is home of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church
IN BOOK PAGE 304
Bishops of Rome, viewed as Peter's successors, came to be known as popes of the Catholic Church. (from Latin word "papa," meaning father)
Pope Gregory I
AKA Gregory the Great. Strengthened power of papacy and church. Also was leader of city of Rome and its surrounding territories (later called Papal States), giving papacy a source of political power. He increased his spiritual authority over the Church in the West, and was especially active in converting non-Christians peoples of Germanic Europe to Christianity through the monastic movement.
Monks & Monasticism
A monk is a man who separates himself from ordinary society to dedicate himself to God. The practice of living the life of a monk is known as monasticism.
One who led an isolated spiritual life.
Simeon the Stylite
was a Christian ascetic monk who achieved fame because he lived for 37 years on a small platform on top of a pillar near Aleppo in Syria.
Rule of Benedict
leader of a monastery
The lives that monks led... simple. Grow own food, make own clothes.
Where monks studied ancient texts
Nuns & Convents
Nuns lived in a convent under leadership of abbess.
Pepin the Short
During 600's and 700's, Frankish kings gradually lost their power to the mayors of the palace, chief officers of the king's household. Assumed kingship for himself and his family. Son of Charles Martel, the leader who defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732. Pepin took over as king.
"Charles the Great". Upon Pepin's death, his son became the new Frankish king in 768. Fierce warrior, strong statesman, and pious Christian. Possibly unable to write. Supporter of learning. During his long rule, he greatly expanded the Frankish Kingdom and created the Carolingian Empire. Established missi dominici (messengers of the Lord king). In 1800, he acquired title of Emperor of the Romans. Coronation symbolized the joining of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements.
Charlemagne's empire; covered much of western and central Europe; largest empire until Napoleon in 19th century.
Counts, members of the Aristocracy. Were the kings, dukes, counts, barons, and even bishops and archbishops who had large estates.
Holy Roman Empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne
Clergy & Laity
priests and ordained people to spread religion
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection, had to pay rend, Could not be bought or sold but their labor belonged to the lord.
A Germanic people. Invaded Carolingian Empire. Loved adventure, searched for spoils of War, and new avenues of trade.
A people from western Asia moved into central Europe at the end of the ninth century, settled on plains of Hungary, and invaded western Europe.
Feudalism & Feudal System
Political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service.
Feudalism came to be characterized by a set of unwritten rules known as this
Ideal of civilized behavior, an unwritten ethical code
High Middle Ages
the period from 1000 to 1300 in which the church had a key role shaping the new world
William of Normandy
landed on coast of England and defeated king harold at the battle of hastings. made noble swear oath making him sole ruler; gave fiefs to knights (land); developed taxation & royal courts, took a census known as domesday book, became king of england
Battle of Hastings
William defeated King Harold and his foot soldiers.
Henry II & the Plantagenet Dynasty
Power of English monarchy was enlarged during his reign. He increased the number of criminal cases tried in the king's court and devised means for taking property cases from local courts to the royal courts. By expanding the powers of the royal courts, Henry expanded the king's power. He had four knights kill archbishop of Canterbury Thomas a Becket. Faced w/public outrage, he backed down in his struggle with the Church.
Because the royal courts were now found throughout England, a body of common law-law that was common to the whole kingdom-began to replace law codes that varied from place to place
Archbishop Thomas a Becket of Canterbury
Highest-ranking English cleric, c;aimed that only Roman Catholic Church courts could try clerics. Opposed Henry II's plan. Was killed by Henry's 4 knights.
The Magna Carta
the "Great Charter" of rights, which king John was forced to sign by the English nobles at Runnymede in 1215. Gave written recognition and was used in later years to strengthen the idea that a monarch's power was limited, not absolute. Didn't protect serfs.
The English Parliament, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons
An important institution in the development of representative government. Composed of 2 knights from every county, 2 people from every town, and all nobles and bishops throughout England. Eventually, nobles and church lords formed the House of Lords; knights and townspeople, the House of Commons. The parliaments of Edward I granted taxes, discussed politics, and passed laws.
Philip II Augustus
his reign was a turning point in the French monarchy, expanding its income and power. He fought English to take control of the French territories of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine.
Much of 13th century was dominated by him. Deeply religious. Later made a saint by the Catholic Church. Known for trying to bring justice to his people by hearing their complaints in person.
Philip IV (Philip the Fair) and the Estates General
He made the monarchy stronger by expanding the royal bureaucracy. Also created a French Parliament by meeting with members of the 3 estates or classes. 1st state: clergy. 2nd state: nobles. 3rd state: townspeople and peasants. The Estates General was the first French Parliament.
The Slavs (Czechs, Poles, Croats, Serbs, Bulgars)
Originally a single people in Central Europe, they gradually developed into 3 major groups: the western, eastern, and southern Slavs. German monks converted the Czechs om Bohemia and the Slavs in Poland to Christianity by the tenth century. The Poles, Czechs, and Hungarians (Magyars) all accepted Western Christianity and became part of the Roman Catholic Church and its Latin culture. The eastern Slavic people were converted to Orthodox Christianity by 2 missionary brothers. The southern Slavic peoples included the Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians. Most of them embraced Eastern Orthodoxy, although Croats came to accept the Roman Catholic Church.
first organized Russian state created by the descendents of the Vikings and the Slavs. Was brought to an end in 1169 by civil wars and new invasions.
Vladimir the Great
A Rus ruler. Married the Byzantine emperor's sister and officially accepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity for himself and his people. This created cultural unification in the East and and separation from Western Europe.
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
The Justinian Code
"The Body of Civil Law" , made by Justinian. included the twelve tables and 160 new laws mainly pertaining to personal conduct and economic matters
Eastern Orthodox Church
Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia
in 1054 this severing of relations divided medieval Christianity into the already distinct Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively. Relations between East and West had long been embittered by political and ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes. EOC did not accept the pope as the sole head of Christianity. the pope and the Byzantine patriarch excommunicated each other. This created a schism, or separation, between the 2 great branches of Christianity that has still, to this day, not been resolved.