Sociology 1000 Mizzou Exam 1 Edwards
Exam one Curtis Edwards
Terms in this set (100)
the capacity for people to act to change their own lives and to influence others.
(capitalist) - those owning the means of production, including land, raw materials, forests, factories, and machines
an organization based on rationality, having a clear division of labor, written rules and regulations, impersonality, hierarchical lines of authority, and selection and promotion based on competence.
the shared norms, values, and beliefs of a society.
definition of the situation
a statement or action that explicitly or implicitly suggest the meaning the actor would like others to attribute to their actors.
a process of change over time based on the clash of historical forces characterized by a thesis, a conflicting antithesis, and finally their resolution in a new synthesis.
the negative consequence of a social structure.
important characteristics of groups that cannot be reduced to some simple combination of characteristics of the individuals.
a combination of beliefs and attitudes held by a social class that fails to recognize the objective social position of that class and fails to perceive the causes of social conditions related to stratification.
the consequence or effect of a social structure for the society as a whole.
was marked by a dramatic change in the nature of production in which machines replace tools, steam and other energy sources replace human or animal power, skilled workers were replaced with mostly unskilled workers.
the less obvious and often unintended consequences.
the obvious and usually intended consequences of actions.
means of production
the technologies and resources required for producing goods or services in an economy, such as factories, raw materials, and machines.
research focusing on individuals, thoughts, actions, and individual behaviors.
sociological research that focuses on individual, thoughts, actions, and individual behaviors.
a shared meaning for the situation agreed upon by all participants.
an approach to sociology that assumes the methods of the natural sciences such as physics can be applied successfully to the study of social life and the scientific principles learned can be applied to solving social problems.
(workers) - people who sell their labor to capitalist for wages.
Protestant work ethic
a disciplined work ethic, rational approach to life, and an emphasis on this world.
rationalization of society
the transition from a society dominated by tradition to one dominated by rationality.
regular patterns of behavior characterizing a society that exists independent of individuals and are beyond the control of individuals.
enduring, relatively stable patterns of social behavior.
the capacity for individuals to understand the relationship between their individual lives and broad social forces that influence them.
the difference between what manufacturers are paid for goods or services and what they pay workers to produce them
an organized set of of concepts and relationships among those concepts offered as an explanation or account of some phenomenon.
the subjective understanding of individual participants anchored in a context of shared cultural ideas
results that are systematically different from those of the population in a specific direction.
an alternative casual model that might account for the findings of a study
an abstract idea or theoretical construct usually represented by a word or brief phrase summarizing some meaningful aspect of the real world.
a variable kept constant to remove its effect in a study.
a sample of people who were selected because they were easy to find
empirically obtained information often used to test theories
a variable in a casual relationship whose value tends to change as a consequence of some change in the value of one or more independent variables.
a detailed descriptive account summarizing and interpreting a culture or a collection of people studied.
the unintended effects on behavior produced when people are aware they are being studied.
a testable assertion about the relationship between two or more variables which is not known to be true but can be tested in research.
a type used as a model for how something might be, but is not necessarily something which exists or is commonly found
a variable in a casual relationship thought to affect or cause one or more dependent variables to change whenever its own value changes
a study that takes advantage of natural events to study their effects on people
a description of procedures used to measure a concept in sufficient detail so that someone else could perform the same procedure and get a similar result
a sample for which each case in the population has some known probability of being included in the sample and all segment of the population are represented in the sample
a sample including specific numbers ("quotas") of cases falling in various subcategories.
assigning people to groups randomly (with the same probability of being assigned to each group)
is the extent to which humans being studied respond to the research process or the researcher by changing their behavior, either unintentionally or intentionally.
the extent to which a measure or scale produces consistent results
the proportion of people asked to participate in the study who actually did so
a subset of members of the population rather than the entire population
a study in which the subjects do not know the purpose of the study, but the experimenters do
social desirability bias
a tendency for respondents to answer questions in ways that make them appear to have socially desirable traits such as being truthful, smart, and fair
two variables are related and appear to have a direct causal connection, but actually both of the variables are affected by a third variable.
an organized set of interrelated assertions which seeks to account for some phenomenon
the extent to which a measure or scale measures what we think it measures.
a measurable trait or characteristic which can vary and which is used to measure a concept
a subculture that challenges important elements of the dominant culture such as beleifs, attitudes, or values and seeks to create an alternative lifestyle
the spread of cultural elements including objects and ideas from one culture to another
the coherence and consistency typically found among elements of a single culture.
cultural lag theory
a theory that argues technological change is the driving force much change and that changes in other elements of culture often lag behind technology.
the reduction of differences (both good and bad) between cultures in a loss of cultural uniqueness and the lose of cultural heritage.
a view which judges other cultures not by standards of the viewer's culture, but by the standards of the other culture itself.
cultural elements found in all cultures.
a combination of ideas, behaviors, and material objects that people have created and adopted for carrying out necessary task of daily life.
the culture that takes precedence over other culture in activities or events involving people from many categories of the population.
the view that your own culture is the standard against which other culture can be judged right or wrong
rules governing everyday conduct that are not considered to be morally important and are not strictly enforced
the artifacts, values, knowledge, beliefs, and other cultural elements that elites in a society use to distinguish themselves from the masses.
a change that began during the last half of the 20th century in which service jobs are becoming more common than jobs in manufacturing or agriculture.
an abstract system of symbols, and rules for their usage permitting people to represent abstract thoughts and experiences and communicate them to others
all the art, architecture, technological artifacts, and material objects created by a society.
mores ("mor-ays") or taboos
serious norms for important activities having a strong moral imperative and strictly enforced.
a perspective that recognizes the contributions of diverse groups to our society and holds that no single culture is any better than all the rest.
expectations for behavior
all the artifacts, values, knowledge, beliefs, and other cultural elements that appeal to the masses.
a society dominated by information, services, and high technology more than the production of goods.
argues that language shapes thought
a theoretical perspective that attempts to explain social life as the result of biological characteristics of individuals
negative, biased generalizations regarding all people in the same category.
a culture containing many elements of the dominant culture, but having unique features that distinguish its members from the rest of population.
words, gestures, pictures, in fact anything, that conveys meaning to people who share a culture.
standards of desirability, rightness, or importance in a society
a respect for an appreciation of people who work hard and a sense that hard work should be rewarded.
-"father of sociology"
-three stages in sociology
-interested in social statics and social dynamics
-Thought up positivism
- effected by the industrial revolution and inequality
- Wrote the Communist Manifesto
- proposed the idea of dialect
-1st to do any large scale study on suicide
-authored Division of Labor in Society, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Education and Society, and The Rules of Sociological Method
-verstehen (rational human action)
-rationality (goals achieved in the most efficiently)
Seen as an expression of the will of God and understanding social life required theological explanations
Human nature was often the basis for explaining him behavior, social life was the result of people acting in their own selfish interests
Key theoretical frameworks, concepts, and sociologists associated with them
- conflict theory
society consist of small groups competing for scarce resources, masking of the struggle for power
understanding how a person affects society or vice versa, proposed by C. wright Mills, relationship between private troubles and public issues
individuals, though constrained by social circumstances, can make decisions and take actions that influence their own lives and those of others, proposed by Weber
proposed by Erving Goffman, continuation of interactionist theory, front-stage, back-stage ,used theater as a metaphor
enduring, relatively stable patterns of social behavior, constrain social behavior
The standards of science
a. Empirically testable
Watch subjects to see how they behave in various circumstances
b. Use of systematic sets of codes
c. Reactivity must be considered
d. Technology often used for documenting behaviors
a. Researcher participates in and is directly involved in the lives of subjects
b. Observation and participation with study
asking questions, surveys,
Empirical studies in which subjects are assigned to two or more groups and the groups are treated differently and compared