BIOLOGY cell reproduction, chromosomes, meiosis, meitosis

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Growth
Change in size
Development
Change in form
Chromosome
Threadlike structures in a cell that contain genetic info that is passed on from one generation of cells to the next
Where are chromosomes located
Cell's nucleus
How many chromosomes does the human body have
46 or 23 pairs (half from each parent)
Somatic
Normal body cells
Gametes
Reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
Chromatin
Genetic material that makes up chromosomes
What is chromatin made of
DNA and proteins
Structure of chromatin
DNA is super coiled into a very compact structure during cell division
Histones
Proteins that help maintain shape of chromosomes and aods in tight packaging of DNA
Nonhistone
Don't participate in the packing of DNA. Involved in controlling activities of DNA.
Chromosome formation
During cellular division chromatin condenses or coils to form rod like chromosomes
DNA double helix
Begins to coil and wrap tightly around histones to form nucleosomes.
Nucleosome
DNA which is tightly wrapped around histones
Super coils
Large coils of nucleosome coils which make up chromosomes
Chromatid
Half of a chromosome
Centromere
Comstricted area of each chromatid. Helps hold two chromatids together. Aids in movement of chromosomes during cell division
Homologous chromosomes
Pair of chromosomes from different gametes (parents) with genes for the same kinds of characteristics on each
Chromosomenumber
Species number of chromosomes in each cell. Does not indicate species complexity.
Prokaryote DNA
Bacterial DNA. Simpler. Usually only one chromosome. Consists of a circular DNA molecule and associated proteins.
Sex chromosomes
Chromosomes that determine sex of an organism. May carry genes for other characteristics.
Female chromosomes
XX
Male chromosomes
XY
Autosome
All of the other Chromosomes in an organism
How many autosomes does a human have
44
karyotype
Photomicrograph of the chromosomes in r dividing cell
Homologous chromosomes
Every cell of an organism produced by sexual reproduction has two copies of each autosome. One from each parent.
Where do homologous chromosomes occur
Meiosis diploid cells
Sister chromatids
Each duplicated Chromosome is made up of two halves. Each half is a sister chromatid
When are sister chromatids formed
When DNA is copied during interphase
Down syndrome
Three chromosomes instead of two
Diploid cells
Cells having two sets of chromosomes. Have both chromosomes from each homologous pair.
What cells are diploid
All normal human cells except reproductive cells are 2n
Haploid cells
Contain only one set of chromosomes. Have only half the number of chromosomes that are present in diploid cells.
What cells are haploid
Sperm and egg cells. 1n
Fertilization
Whena sperm cell and an egg cell combine to create the first cell of a new organism and it becomes 2n.
Binary fission
Division of prokaryotic cells into two different offspring cells
Form of asexual reproduction
Cell division in eukaryotes
Mitosis and cytokinesis
The cell cycle
Repeating set of events that make up the life cycle of a cell from cytokinesis to cytokinesis
Cell cycle steps
IPMATC
Cell division
One stage of the cell cycle. Includes both mitosis and cytokinesis
Interphase
Time between cell divisions. G1 phase and S phase.
G one phase
Cell growth
S phase
DNA is copied
G two phase
Growth and preparation for cell division
M phase
PMAT
G zero phase
Nerve cells exit cell cycle
Mitosis
Division of the nucleus (PMAT)
Prophase
Shortening and tight coiling of DNA.
Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear.
Centioles
Only animal cells.
Cylinder in centrosome.
Spindle fibers
Radiate from centrioles. Help equally divide chromatids between two offspring cells.
Metaphase
Spindle fibers move chromosomes to the center of dividing cell.
Anaphase
Chromatids of each chromosome seperate at the centromere and slowly move apart to opposite poles of dividing cells
Telophase
Spindle fibers disassemble and chromosomes return to a less tightly coiled state. Nuclear envelope reforms. Opposite of prophase.
Cytokinesis
End of telophase. Division of cytoplasm and organelle. Animal=clevage furrow.
Plant= cell plate.
Meiosis
Formation of gametes
Stages of Meiosis
G1,S, g2, of interphase, Meiosis I(IPMATC) and meiosis ii (prophase ii, metaphase ii, anaphase ii, telophaseii.)
Meiosis ends with...
Four new cells
Prophse I processes
Synapsis or crossing over
Synapsis
Chromosomes line up next to its homologue.
Tetrad
Each pair of homologous chromosomes
Crossing over
Portions of a chromatid twist around another and break off. And attatch to adjacent chromatids.
Genetic recombination
Exchange of genetic material between maternal and paternal chromosomes.
Metaphase I
Tetrads line up randomly along midline of the dividing cell.
Spindle fibers from each pole attach to the centromere of one homologous chromosome in each tetrad.
Anaphase I
Each homologous chromosome of a tetrad moves to an opposite pole
Independent assortment
Random separation of homologous chromosomes
Telophase I
Chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell and cytokinesis begins
Meiosis occurs
Only in reproductive organs on humans
Oogenesis
Creation of ootids or egg cells. Here a diploid reproductive cell divides meitotically to produce one mature egg cell and three polar bodies
Asexual reproduction
Without sex. Without mixing of genes
Asex. Pro
Can reproduce
Asex. Con
Offspring gets same diseases
Binary fission
Unicellular organisms reproduce
Cancer
Uncontrolled cell growth