Bio Chapters 15 & 16
Terms in this set (54)
change over time; the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms
process of changing a gene to treat a medical disease or disorder. An absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal working gene.
glass slide or silicon chip that carries thousands of different kinds of single-stranded DNA fragments arranged in a grid. A DNA microarray is used to detect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time.
tool used by biologists that analyzes an individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments; used to determine whether two samples of genetic material are from the same person
scientific study of crime scene evidence
method of breeding that allows only those organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the derived characteristics of a kind of organism=
process of manipulating organisms, cells, or molecules to produce specific products
polymerase chain reaction
the technique used by biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria
alleles that produce detectable phenotypic differences useful in genetic analysis
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
study of past and present distribution of organisms
body parts that share a common function, but not structure
structures that are similar in different species of common ancestry
structure that is inherited from ancestors but has lost much or all of its original function
heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
how well an organism can survive and reproduce
a research technique for finding specific DNA sequences, among dozens. A labeled piece of nucleic acid serves as a probe.
Humans use ________ ________ to produce animals with certain desired traits
- Allows only those animals with wanted characteristics to produce the next generation
There are two common methods of selective breeding—
_________ and ________
the individuals produced by such crosses are often _______ than either of the parents
To maintain desirable characteristics in a line of organisms, breeders often use
are the ultimate source of genetic diversity
mutations occur spontaneously, but breeders can increase the mutation rate of an organism by using:
________ or ________
The extracted DNA can be cut into fragments of manageable size using _______ _______
Recombinant-DNA technology—joining together DNA from two or more sources—makes it possible to change the _______ ________ of living organisms.
alleles that produce detectable phenotypic differences useful in genetic analysis. Tells what does and does not have a plasmid.
Uses a single cell from an adult to grow an entirely new individual that is genetically identical to the organism from which the cell was taken
Animal cloning uses a procedure called _______ ________.
a legal tool giving an individual or company exclusive rights to profit from its innovations for a number of years
Three distinctive patterns of biological diversity Darwin noticed:
Species vary ______, _______, and _____ _____
species vary locally
Close to one another, yet they have different ecological conditions
species vary over time
Darwin noticed that some fossils of extinct animals were similar to living species.
species are not ______ and that they could change by some ______ _______.
Hutton & Lyell
1.) Earth is extremely old
2.) Processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present.
Hutton & Lyell concluded that:
1.) Earth is extremely ___
2.) _______ that changed Earth in the past are the same that operate in the present.
the idea that the geological processes we see in action today must be the same ones that shaped Earth millions of years ago.
Organisms could change during their lifetimes by selectively using or not using various parts of their bodies
Individuals could pass these acquired traits on to their offspring, enabling species to change over time.
Lamark proposed that:
Organisms could change during their lifetimes by ______ using or not using _____ _____.
Individuals could pass these ____ traits on to their offspring, enabling species to ____ over time.
proposed that organisms want to become more complex and perfect, and acquire features that help them live more successfully in their environments.
Traits altered by an individual organism during its life
Lamarck hypotheses was ______
reasoned that if the human population grew unchecked, there wouldn't be enough living space and food for everyone.
struggle for existence/variation & adaptation/survival of the fittest
conditions under which natural selection occurs:
Darwin realized that if more individuals are produced than can survive:
members of a population must ______!
Any heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in its environment
survival of the fittest
difference in rates of survival and reproduction
the process by which organisms with variations most suited to their local environment survive and leave more offspring