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Advanced A & P

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Pulling away from a painful stimulus is an example of the ________ reflex.

a. cross-extensor
b. ankle-jerk
c. pupillary
d. withdrawal
e. knee-jerk
Withdrawal

Pulling away from a painful stimulus is an example of the Withdrawal reflex.
The brain and spinal cord comprise the

a. autonomic nervous system.
b. central nervous system.
c. afferent nervous system.
d. efferent nervous system.
e. peripheral nervous system.
central nervous system.

The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system.
The primary connection between cerebral hemispheres is the

a. cerebellum.
b. midbrain.
c. postcentral gyrus.
d. corpus callosum.
e. precentral gyrus.
corpus callosum.

The primary connection between cerebral hemispheres is the corpus callosum
Masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear

a. yellow.
b. brown.
c. gray.
d. transparent.
e. white.
white

Masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear white
The white matter of the spinal cord contains

a. bundles of dendrites.
b. interneurons.
c. sensory and motor nuclei.
d. bundles of myelinated axons .
e. cell bodies.
bundles of myelinated axons

The white matter of the spinal cord contains bundles of myelinated axons
Sensory receptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called

a. baroreceptors.
b. thermoreceptors.
c. proprioceptors.
d. nociceptors.
e. chemoreceptors.
baroreceptors.

Sensory receptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called baroreceptors.
Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the

a. round window.
b. cochlea.
c. auditory ossicles.
d. oval window.
e. tympanic membrane.
tympanic membrane

Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by thetympanic membrane
.................deafness results from conditions in the middle ear that block the normal transfer of vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window.

a. Cochlear
b. Tunnel
c. Conduction
d. Nerve
e. Corti
Conduction

Conduction deafness results from conditions in the middle ear that block the normal transfer of vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window
The fading of a smell some time after you enter a room is an example of experiencing

a. a change in temperature.
b. a change in concentration of the odor.
c. sensory adaptation.
d. damage to receptors.
e. all of the above
sensory adaptation.

The fading of a smell some time after you enter a room is an example of experiencing sensory adaptation.
Nearsightedness is more properly called

a. retinal detachment.
b. myopia.
c. diabetes mellitus.
d. hyperopia.
e. glaucoma.
Myopia
Nearsightedness is more properly called myopia.
A colorblind man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait. What proportion of their sons, if they have any, can be expected to be colorblind?

a. 50%
b. 25%
c. 12.25%
d. 100%
e. 0%
50%

A colorblind man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait. There is a 50 % chance their sons, if they have any, can be expected to be colorblind.
Which blood type is NOT possible if the mother is blood type AB and the father is type B?

a. A
b. B
c. O
d. AB
O

It is not possible for a child to have blood type O if the mother is AB and the father is B.
The gene that is NOT expressed in a heterozygous situation is called

a. recessive.
b. dominant.
c. incomplete.
d. phenotypic.
recessive.

The gene that is NOT expressed in a heterozygous situation is called recessive.
How many spermatozoa are produced during spermatogenesis?



a. one
b. two
c. four
d. six
e. eight
Four

Four spermatozoa are produced during spermatogenesis
When alleles are identical, they are said to be

a. dominant.
b. recessive.
c. homozygous.
d. heterozygous.
homozygous

When alleles are identical, they are said to be homozygous
Select the correct statement about testosterone control.

a. FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone.
b. Testosterone exerts positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary.
c. The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control.
d. GnRh from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
GnRh from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.

In testosterone control GnRh from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
The hormones responsible for maintaining the uterine wall during the second and third trimesters are

a. placental estrogen and progesterone.
b. hCG and LH.
c. placental lactogens.
d. FSH and LH.
e. none of the above
placental estrogen and progesterone.


The hormones responsible for maintaining the uterine wall during the second and third trimesters are placental estrogen and progesterone.
Foramen ovale ________.

a. is a shallow depression in the interventricular septum
b. is a condition in which the heart valves do not completely close
c. is a connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta in the fetus
d. connects the two atria in the fetal heart
connects the two atria in the fetal heart

Foramen ovaleconnects the two atria in the fetal heart
The body's nonspecific defenses include

a. skin.
b. complement.
c. interferon.
d. inflammation.
e. all of the above
all of the above

The body's nonspecific defenses include skin, complement, interferon and inflammation.
Which of the following is the LAST step in inflammation?

a. T cells release interferon.
b. phagocytosis.
c. mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin.
d. blood flow to an area increases.
e. red blood cells release pus-forming agents.
phagocytosis.

Phagocytosis is the LAST step in inflammation
Hypoventilation would cause

a. respiratory acidosis.
b. metabolic acidosis.
c. respiratory alkalosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.
e. none of the above
respiratory acidosis.

Hypoventilation would cause respiratory acidosis.
The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by

a. atmospheric pressure.
b. scalene muscles.
c. the diaphragm.
d. external intercostal muscles.
e. the abdominal muscles.
atmospheric pressure

The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by atmospheric pressure
Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?

a. anticipation of exercise
b. proprioceptors
c. simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center
d. decrease in lactic acid levels
decrease in lactic acid levels

decrease in lactic acid levels does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because ________.

a. the basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
b. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
c. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes
d. the temperature is lower at higher altitudes
the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes.

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes

a. carbon dioxide to react with bicarbonate ions.
b. water to react with hydrogen ions.
c. water to react with bicarbonate ions.
d. carbon dioxide to react with water.
e. none of the above
carbon dioxide to react with water

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes carbon dioxide to react with water
Which of the following is greater?

a. the partial pressure of oxygen in the arteries
b. the partial pressure of oxygen in the veins
the partial pressure of oxygen in the arteries

The partial pressure of oxygen is greater in the arteries than the veins
The tricuspid valve is closed ________.

a. by the movement of blood from atrium to ventricle
b. when the ventricle is in systole
c. while the atrium is contracting
d. while the ventricle is in diastole
when the ventricle is in systole

The tricuspid valve is closed when the ventricle is in systole
Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they ________.

a. have gap junctions
b. have end walls
c. have intercalated disks
d. are striated
are striated

Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they are striated
If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells in the SA node so that sodium influx is more rapid, ________.

a. heart rate would decrease, but blood pressure would rise due to the excess sodium present
b. potassium channels compensate and no change in heart rate would occur
c. tetanic contraction would occur due to the short absolute refractory period of cardiac muscle
d. threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase
threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase

If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells in the SA node so that sodium influx is more rapid, threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase
The deflection waves in an ECG tracing include ________.
a. the P wave, which is present only in patients who have had a heart attack
b. the Q-T interval, which indicates the time of atrial contraction
c. the T wave, which indicates ventricular repolarization
d. the PQRS complex, which follows ventricular contraction
the T wave, which indicates ventricular repolarization
The deflection waves in an ECG tracing include the T wave, which indicates ventricular repolarization
If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked,
a. the ventricles will beat faster.
b. the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.
c. the stroke volume will increase.
d. tachycardia will occur.
e. the ventricular rate of contraction will not be affected.
the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.

If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked, the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.
Which of the following will cause a decrease in blood pressure?

a. increased levels of aldosterone
b. increased vasodilation
c. increased levels of angiotensin II
d. increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
e. increased blood volume
increased vasodilation

Increased vasodilation will cause a decrease in blood pressure?
The placenta is composed of tissues from the

a. father.
b. mother and father.
c. mother.
d. embryo.
e. mother and embryo.
mother and embryo.

The placenta is composed of tissues from the
mother and embryo.
During the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle,

a. the old functional layer is sloughed off.
b. a new functional layer is formed in the uterus.
c. the ovarian follicle is formed.
d. ovulation occurs.
e. secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion.
secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion

During the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion
When a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell,

a. a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
b. the hormone is transported to the nucleus, where it alters the activity of the DNA.
c. the cell becomes inactive.
d. the plasma membrane becomes depolarized.
e. the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.
a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

When a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm
Insulin directly causes

a. increased blood pressure.
b. increased blood glucose levels.
c. increased glycogen storage.
d. release of lipids by adipose tissue.
e. increased heart activity.
increased glycogen storage

Insulin directly causes increased glycogen storage
The major targets of growth hormone are ________.

a. the liver
b. bones and skeletal muscles
c. the blood vessels
d. the adrenal glands
bones and skeletal muscles

The major targets of growth hormone are bones and skeletal muscles
Target cells of the releasing and inhibiting hormones are located in the

a. suprarenal gland.
b. thymus gland.
c. posterior pituitary.
d. testes.
e. anterior pituitary.
anterior pituitary

Target cells of the releasing and inhibiting hormones are located in the anterior pituitary
Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?

a. cardiogenic, which results from any defect in blood vessels
b. circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant
c. vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
d. hypovolemic, caused by increased blood volume
vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone is a type of circulatory shock
Which of the following is greater?

a. blood pressure when parasympathetic stimulation to the heart increases
b. blood pressure when sympathetic stimulation to the heart increases
blood pressure when sympathetic stimulation to the heart increases

Blood pressure is greater when sympathetic stimulation to the heart increases v's blood pressure when parasympathetic stimulation to the heart increases
Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________.

a. nervous control that operates via reflex arcs involving baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and higher brain centers
b. the dural sinus reflex
c. chemical controls such as atrial natriuretic peptide
d. renal regulation via the renin-angiotensin system of vasoconstriction
the dural sinus reflex

Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include the dural sinus reflex
Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.

a. pressure changes in the thorax
b. venous valves
c. activity of skeletal muscles
d. urinary output
urinary output

Factors that aid venous return include all except urinary output
In active artificial immunity,

a. the body receives antibodies produced by another animal.
b. the body makes a memory of the attack.
c. the body receives antibodies produced by another person.
d. genes for antibodies are introduced into the body.

e. the immune system attacks normal body cells.
the body makes a memory of the attack

In active artificial immunity the body makes a memory of the attack
The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the ________.

a. integumentary system
b. immune system
c. lymphatic system
d. renal system
immune system

The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the immune system
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

a. producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
b. reducing its size
c. forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell
d. immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
Steroid hormones

a. are lipids.
b. are structurally similar to cholesterol.
c. bind to cell surface receptors.
d. A and B only.
e. A, B and C.
are lipids and are structurally similar to cholesterol

Steroid hormones are lipids and are structurally similar to cholesterol
Dan has been lost in the desert for two days with very little water. As a result of this exposure, one would expect to observe

a. elevated ADH levels.
b. increased blood volume.
c. normal urine production.
d. decreased blood concentration.
e. cells enlarged with fluid.
elevated ADH levels.

Dan has been lost in the desert for two days with very little water. As a result of this exposure, one would expect to observe elevaed ADH levels
The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________.

a. the operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach
b. control of the acids produced in the stomach
c. the control of respiratory ventilation
d. the active secretion of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells
the control of respiratory ventilation

The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of the control of respiratory ventilation
The hormone that causes the activation of osteoclasts is

a. parathyroid hormone.
b. thyroid hormone.
c. oxytocin.
d. calcitonin.
e. glucagon.
parathyroid hormone

The hormone that causes the activation of osteoclasts is parathyroid hormone
Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.

a. cortisol
b. aldosterone
c. thymosin
d. parathyroid hormone
e. calcitonin
parathyroid hormone

Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.
Neural reflexes
a. are automatic motor responses.
b. are triggered by specific stimuli.
c. show little variability in response.
d. help preserve homeostasis.
e. all of the above
all of the above

Neural reflexes are automatic motor responses, are triggered by specific stimuli, show little variability in response and help preserve homeostasis.
The ciliary muscle helps to
a. control the amount of light reaching the retina.
b. control the shape of the lens.
c. move the eyeball.
d. control the production of aqueous humor.
control the shape of the lens

The ciliary muscle helps to control the shape of the lens
Another name for antidiuretic hormone is
a. cortisol.
b. thymosin.
c. parathyroid hormone.
d. growth hormone.
e. vasopressin.
vasopressin

Another name for antidiuretic hormone is vasopressin
Which of the following is a function of neurons?
a. phagocytosis
b. information processing
c. secretion of cerebrospinal fluid
d. support
e. isolation of neuroglia
information processing

information processing is a function of neurons
The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
a. oxygen.
b. hemoglobin.
c. carbon dioxide.
d. bicarbonate ion.
e. sodium ion.
Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is the most important chemical regulator of respiration
Most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood is
a. bound to the same protein as oxygen.
b. bound to hemoglobin.
c. carried by white blood cells.
d. in ionic form as solute (bicarbonate) in the plasma.
e. dissolved in plasma.
in ionic form as solute (bicarbonate) in the plasma.
Most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood is in ionic form as solute (bicarbonate) in the plasma.
Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.

a. linking soluble antigens together so that they fall out of solution
b. cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched
c. targeting foreign cells so that complement proteins can cause cellular lysis
d. binding and inactivating chemical toxins released by bacteria or other microorganisms
cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

Antibody functions include all of the following except cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

Antibody functions include, linking soluble antigens together so that they fall out of solution, targeting foreign cells so that complement proteins can cause cellular lysis, binding and inactivating chemical toxins released by bacteria or other microorganisms
What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

a. depth perception
b. color vision
c. accommodation for near vision
d. vision in dim light
vision in dim light

The main function of the rods in the eye is vision in dim light.
The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
a. spermatogonia
b. interstitial cells
c. spermatocytes
d. sustentacular cells
interstitial cells

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called interstitial cells
Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
a. The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.
b. Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.
c. High oestrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
d. The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.
High oestrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.

In the ovarian cycle high oestrogen levels result in a surge of LH release
The hormone commonly measured in a pregnancy test is
a. hCG.
b. oestrogen.
c. progesterone.
d. LH.
e. FSH.
hCG

The hormone commonly measured in a pregnancy test is hCG
Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate?

a. gender
b. fitness level
c. age
d. skin color
skin color

Skin color does not influence heart rate
The white matter of the spinal cord contains
a. bundles of dendrites.
b. interneurons.
c. sensory and motor nuclei.
d. bundles of myelinated axons .
e. cell bodies.
bundles of myelinated axons .

The white matter of the spinal cord contains bundles of myelinated axons
The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
a. progesterone.
b. oestrogen.
c. LH.
d. FSH.
e. estradiol.
progesterone

The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is progesterone
Major events associated with inflamation include
a. tears, swelling, pain, and fever.
b. swelling, redness, tissue damage, and altered pH.
c. redness, pus, fever, and rapid heart rate.
d. redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
e. heat, pain, fever, and activation of the complement system.
redness, swelling, heat, and pain.

Major events associated with inflamation include redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
The second heart sound is heard when
a. blood enters the aorta.
b. the atria contract.
c. the AV valves open.
d. the AV valves close.
e. the semilunar valves close.
e. the semilunar valves close.

The second heart sound is heard when the semilunar valves close.
Which of the following is an muscular adaptation as a result of exercise?

a. Muscle fibers become less efficient.
b. Muscle fibers increase their reserves of glycogen.
c. Muscle fibers become smaller in diameter.
d. Muscles become less elastic.
e. Muscles fatigue more rapidly.
Muscle fibers increase their reserves of glycogen

Muscle fibers increase their reserves of glycogen is a muscular adaptation as a result of exercise
The role of the pituitary hormone LH in males is to
a. influence sexual behaviors and sex drive.
b. develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics.
c. initiate sperm production in the testes.
d. stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.
e. stimulate the sustentacular cells to produce inhibin.
stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.

The role of the pituitary hormone LH in males is to stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.
The increase in FSH that occurs at the beginning of of the ovarian cycle triggers

a. menstruation.
b. pregnancy.
c. menopause.
d. ovulation.
e. follicle development.
follicle development
The increase in FSH that occurs at the beginning of of the ovarian cycle triggers follicle development
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
a. internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
b. external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax
c. diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax
d. diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax
internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon.
Blood pressure increases with
Choose one answer.
a. increased cardiac output.
b. increased blood volume.
c. increased peripheral resistance.
d. increased heart rate
e. all of the above
all of the above

Blood pressure increases with increased cardiac output, increased blood volume, increased peripheral resistance and increased heart rate.
Information received by the brain concerning internal or external environmental conditions is called a(n)

a. response.
b. action potential.
c. sensation.
d. stimulus.
e. effector.
sensation

Information received by the brain concerning internal or external environmental conditions is called sensation
The posterior pituitary gland secretes
a. FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone.
b. OXT, oxytocin.
c. MSH, meanocyte-stimulating hormone.
d. TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.
e. ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.
OXT, oxytocin

The posterior pituitary gland secretes OXT, oxytocin
Rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to
a. excessive ATP.
b.decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.
c. lack of oxygen.
d. lactic acid buildup.
e. excessive ATP and decreased permeability to calcium.
decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.

Rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.
Interstitial cells produce
a. sperm.
b. nutrients.
c. FSH.
d. testosterone.
e. androgen-inhibiting protein.
testosterone

Interstitial cells produce testosterone
Which center is located in the pons?
a. expiratory
b. pacemaker neuron center
c. pontine respirator group (PRG)
d. inspiratory
pontine respirator group (PRG)

the pontine respirator group is located in the pons
Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
a. auditory tube
b. tympanic membrane
c. pinna
d. external acoustic meatus
auditory tube

the auditory tube is not part of the external ear
Oxytocin ________.
a. exerts its most important effects during menstruation
b. release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
c. is an anterior pituitary secretion
d. controls milk production
release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

oxytocin release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
a. Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
b. Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.
c. The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.
d. Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.

The female reproductive system ovulation occurs 14 ddays after beginning of menses, monthly discharge of the uterus is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones and fertilization usuall occurs in the fallopian tube.
Gray matter in the spinal cord is mostly
a. cerebrospinal fluid.
b. cell bodies.
c. fissures.
d. axons.
e. myelin.
cell bodies

Grey matter in the spinal cord is mostly cell bodies
Antibodies cause which of the following reactions?
a. agglutination
b. opsonization
c. neutralization
d. precipitation
e. all of the above
all of the above

Antibodies cause agglutination, opsonization, neutralization and precipitation
The sliding filament model of contraction involves ________.
a. the shortening of thick filaments so that thin filaments slide past
b. the Z discs sliding over the myofilaments
c. actin and myosin shortening but not sliding past each other
d. actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap
actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap

The sliding filament model of contraction involves actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap
The resting membrane potential of a nerve fiber is caused by having the
a. chloride ions inside the cell.
b. sodium ions inside the cell and potassium outside the cell.
c. sodium and potassium ions inside the cell.
d. potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.
e. hillock and knob at opposite ends.
potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.

The resting membrane potential of a nerve fiber is caused by having the potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
a. diffusion
b. osmosis
c. active transport
d. filtration
diffusion

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by diffusion
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

a. phagocyte mobilization
b. vasodilation
c. production of complement and interferon
d. vasoconstriction
vasodilation

the redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to local hyperemia caused by vasodilation
Increased sodium ion concentrations in the body can be caused by
a. cortisol.
b. aldosterone.
c. erythropoietin.
d. thymosin.
e. renin.
aldosterone

Increased sodium ion concentrations in the body can be caused by aldosterone
During the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle,
a. the old functional layer is sloughed off.
b. a new functional layer is formed in the uterus.
c. the ovarian follicle is formed.
d. ovulation occurs.
e. secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion.
secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion.

During the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion.
As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries the
a. flow increases.
b. viscosity increases.
c. resistance increases.
d. pressure increases.
e. all of the above
resistance increases

As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries the resistance increases.
The last stage of labor is the
a. decidual stage.
b. expulsion stage.
c. neonate stage.
d. placental stage.
e. dilation stage.
placental stage

The last stage of labour is placental stage
Normal eye focusing is termed
a. refraction.
b. presbyopia.
c. emmetropia.
d. myopia.
e. hyperopia.
emmetropia

Normal eye focusing is termed emmetropia
Spermatogenesis ________.
a. results in the formation of diploid cells
b. is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
c. uses mitosis to produce gamete cells
d. involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
Spermatogenesis involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________.
a. a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
b. no change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate
c. no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration
d. a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.
a. movement of a cupula
b. substances in solution
c. stretching of the receptor cells
d. the movement of otoliths
substances in solution

Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by substances in solution
The effect of endurance-type athletic training may be to lower the resting heart rate. This phenomenon ________.

a. does not occur in aerobic training
b. results in decreased cardiac output and increased blood pressure
c. is a sign of dangerous overexertion
d. is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output
is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output

The effect of endurance-type athletic training may be to lower the resting heart rate. This phenomenon is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output
The greatest area of the sensory cortex is devoted to the

a. legs.
b. face.
c. chest.
d. back.
e. feet.
face

the greatest area of the sensory cortex is devoted to the face
Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in

a. repolarization.
b. hyperpolarization.
c. depolarization.
d. increased negative charge inside the membrane.
e. none of the above
depolarization

Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in depolarization
A person who suffers from emphysema can exhibit signs of
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. metabolic alkalosis.
c. metabolic acidosis.
d. respiratory alkalosis.
e. none of the above
respiratory acidosis

A person who suffers from emphysema can exhibit signs of respiratory acidosis
Stereoscopic (binocular) vision results when the
a. images in each eye are slightly different.
b. images in both eyes are identical.
c. brain interprets the images and alters them.
d. rods of one eye are stimulated, and cones are stimulated in the other.
e. none of the above
images in each eye are slightly different

Steroscopic (binocular) vision results when images in each eye are slightly different
Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.
a. tympanic membrane
b. semicircular canals
c. cochlea
d. vestibule
cochlea

Receptors for hearing are located in the cochlea
Hypoventilation would cause
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. metabolic acidosis.
c. respiratory alkalosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.
e. none of the above
respiratory acidosis

Hypoventilation would cause respiratory acidosis
Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
a. auditory tube
b. tympanic membrane
c. pinna
d. external acoustic meatus
auditory tube

the auditory tube is not part of the external ear, the tympanic membrane, pinna and external acoustic meatus are.
The hormone ADH

a. causes the kidneys to produce a large volume of urine.
b. stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium ions.
c. stimulates water conservation at the kidneys.
d. is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to changes in blood osmolarity. e. all of the above
stimulates water conservation at the kidneys

the hormone ADH stimulates water conservation at the kidneys.
Which of the following is aldosterone able to affect?
a. formation of plasma proteins
b. pH regulation
c. removal of wastes
d. regulation of intracellular body fluid volume
e. regulation of body fluid concentration
regulation of body fluid concentration

Aldosterone is able to regulate body fluid concentration
If a resting potential becomes more negative, the cell

a. repolarizes.
b. depolarizes.
c. hyperpolarizes.
d. refracts.
e. summates.
hyperpolarizes

if a resting potential becomes more negative, the cell hyperpolarizes
When a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell,
a. a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
b. the hormone is transported to the nucleus, where it alters the activity of the DNA.
c. the cell becomes inactive.
d. the plasma membrane becomes depolarized.
e. the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.
a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

When a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm
The all-or-none principle states that
a. all stimuli will produce identical action potentials.
b. all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.
c. only motor stimuli can activate action potentials.
d. only sensory stimuli can activate action potentials.
e. the greater the magnitude of the stimuli, the greater the intensity of the action potential.
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.

The all-or-none principle states that all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.
The area between Z lines is the
a. sarcomere.
b. myofibril.
c. sarcolemma.
d. myofilament.
e. sarcoplasmic reticulum.
sarcomere

The area between Z lines is the sarcomere
Growth hormone causes
a. increased rate of lipid catabolism.
b. increased protein synthesis.
c. growth of bones and skeletal muscle.
d. enhanced movement of amino acids into cells.
e. all of the above
all of the above

Growth hormone causes, increased rate of lipid catabolism, increased protein synthesis, growth of bones and skeletal muscle and enhanced movement of amino acids into cells
Hormone-producing cells of the testes produce
a. oestrogen.
b. progesterone.
c. cortisone.
d. semen.
e. testosterone.
testosterone

Hormone-producing cells of the testes produce testosterone
The term used to describe muscular growth in response to usage is
a. myopathy.
b. multiple sclerosis.
c. muscular dystrophy.
d. hypertrophy.
e. atrophy.
hypertrophy

the term used to describe muscular growth in response to usage is hypertrophy
________ causes a direct increase in blood volume by controlling water loss.
a. ADH
b. Erythropoietin
c. Renin
d. Angiotensin
e. ACTH
ADH

ADH causes a direct increase in blood volume by controlling water loss
A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will

a. increase the rate of breathing.
b. decrease the rate of breathing.
c. decrease the alveolar ventilation rate.
d. decrease pulmonary ventilation.
e. decrease the vital capacity.
increase the rate of breathing.

A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will increase the rate of breathing
A neural cortex (gray matter) is found on the surface of the
a. cerebrum.
b. midbrain.
c. cerebellum.
d. pons.
e. both A and C
A and C

A neural cortex (gray matter) is found on the surface of the cerebrum and cerebellum
Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
a. potassium
b. chloride
c. iron
d. magnesium
potassium

Whereas sodium is found mainly in extracellular fluid, most potassium is found in intracellular fluid
The most important factor affecting the pH of body fluids is the concentration of

a. hydrochloric acid.
b. ketone bodies.
c. carbon dioxide.
d. lactic acid.
e. organic acids.
carbon dioxide

The most important factor affecting the pH of body fluids is the concentration of carbon dioxide
Where are the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary made?
a. posterior pituitary
b. anterior pituitary
c. thyroid
d. suprarenal gland
e. hypothalamus
hypothalamus

The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are made in the hypothalamus
The term general senses refers to sensations of

a. hot and cold.
b. pain.
c. touch and vibration.
d. both B and C
e. all of the above
e, all of the above

The term general senses refers to sensations of hot and cold, pain, touch and vibration
Which of the following factors is most likely to result in an increase in blood pressure?

a. decreased volume of body fluids
b. increased excretion of sodium
c. decreased blood flow to the skin
d. increased vessel diameter
e. increased excretion of water
decreased blood flow to the skin

decreased blood flow to the skin is most likely to result in an increase in blood pressure
The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________.

a. always fatal
b. shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea
c. only that form of shock caused by large-scale loss of blood
d. any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally
shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea

The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.
a. chemotaxis
b. diapedesis
c. margination
d. phagocytosis
chemotaxis

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called chemotaxis
The pituitary hormone that promotes testosterone release in males and ovulation in females is
a. FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone.
b. LH, leutenising hormone.
c. TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.
d. ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.
e. GH, growth hormone.
LH, Leutenising hormone

The pituitary hormone that promotes testosterone release in males and ovulation in females is LH
Depolarization of the atria is represented on an electrocardiogram by the
a. PR complex.
b. T wave.
c. P wave.
d. S wave.
e. QRS complex.
P wave

The P wave on an electrocardiogram represents depolarization of the atria
The ________ of the heart is(are) located in the walls of the ventricles.

a. SA node.
b. bundle branches.
c. AV node.
d. bundle of His.
e. Purkinje fibers.
Purkinje fibers

The Purkinje fibers of the heart are located in the walls of the ventricles
The second heart sound is heard when
a. blood enters the aorta.
b. the atria contract.
c. the AV valves open.
d. the AV valves close.
e. the semilunar valves close.
the semilunare valves close

The second heart sound is heard when the semilunar valves close
The amount of blood the heart pumps in one minute is
a. cardiac output.
b. end diastolic volume.
c. cardiac reserve.
d. end systolic volume.
e. stroke volume.
cardiac output

The amount of bood the heart pumps in one minute is cardiac output
Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.
a. about the same number of each is produced per month
b. they have the same number of chromosomes
c. they have the same degree of motility
d. they are about the same size
They have the same number of chromosomes

Human egg and sperm are similar in that they have the same number of chromosomes
________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

a. Our genes
b. The type of antigen
c. Memory cell production
d. Enzymes present at the time of the invasion
Our genes

Our genes dertermine what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognise and resist
Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

a. Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders."
b. Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched nblood transfusion.
c. Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.
d. Antibodies are present on all pathogens.
Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched nblood transfusion.
The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by

a. TSH.
b. the hypothalamus.
c. blood calcium levels.
d. thyroid hormone.
e. all of the above
blood calcuim levels

The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by blood calcium levels
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

a. the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ
b. nothing all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
c. the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
d. the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ
Sperm production occurs in the

a. epididymis.
b. seminal vesicles.
c. ductus deferens.
d. seminiferous tubules.
e. rete testis.
seminiferous tubules

Sperm production occurs in the seminiferous tubules
Which of the following is not involved in the short-term controls of blood pressure?

a. reflex arcs involving baroreceptors
b. chemoreceptors
c. altering blood volume
d. reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers
altering blood volume
The ossicles
a. cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate.
b. produce a nerve stimulus in the cochlea.
c. recieve vibrations from the cochlea .
d. attach the oval window to the round window.
e. amplify vibrations.
amplify vibrations

The ossicles amplify vibrations
Cells that help to regulate the immune response are

a. cytotoxic cells.
b. helper T cells.
c. plasma cells.
d. B cells.
e. NK cells.
helper T cells

Cells that help regulate the immune response are helper T cells
Hyperventilation may cause a(n)

a. decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH.
b. increase in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH.
c. decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and a drop in pH.
d. increase in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an decrease in pH.
e. none of the above
decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH.

Hyperventilation may cause a decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH
Dehydration would cause

a. decreased secretion of ADH.
b. increased thirst.
c. fluid to shift from the ECF to the ICF.
d. decreased levels of aldosterone.
e. all of the above
increase thirst

Dehydration would cause increased thirst
Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are sensitive to blood


a. oxygen concentration.
b. carbon dioxide concentration.
c. pH.
d. bicarbonate concentration.
e. both B and C
e. both B and C

Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are sensitive to blood carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration
In response to decreased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys could produce
a. a larger volume of urine.
b. more dilute urine.
c. urine with a lower concentration of potassium ions.
d. urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.
e. urine with less urea.
urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.

In response to decreased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys could produce urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.
The stage of labor during which the uterus prepares to expel the fetus is the

a. fetal stage.
b. dilation stage.
c. placental stage.
d. expulsion stage.
e. emergence stage.
dilation stage

During the dilation stage of labor the uterus prepares to expel the fetus
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.

a. proteins
b. enzymes
c. hormones
d. antibodies
hormones

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called hormones
Electrolyte balance ________.
a. refers to the phosphate balance in the body
b. may be disturbed due to higher loss of electrolytes on hot days
c. is usually difficult to maintain
d. can be disrupted because water is not free to move between cells and capillaries
may be disturbed due to higher loss of electrolytes on hot days

Electrolyte balance may be disturbed due to higher loss of electrolytes on hot days
________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.
a. Our genes
b. The type of antigen
c. Memory cell production
d. Enzymes present at the time of the invasion
Our genes

Our genes dertermine what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist
Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.
a. Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders."
b. Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched nblood transfusion.
c. Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.
d. Antibodies are present on all pathogens.
Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched nblood transfusion.
At rest, myosin molecules are
a. bound to actin molecules.
b. blocked from binding to calcium ions.
c. blocked from binding to actin molecules.
d. bound to troponin molecules.
e. bound to ATP molecules.
blocked from binding to actin molecules

At rest, myosin molecules are blocked from binding to actin molecules.
The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by
a. TSH.
b. the hypothalamus.
c. blood calcium levels.
d. thyroid hormone.
e. all of the above
blood calcium levels

The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by blood calcium levels.
The specialized sarcolemma that contains acetylcholine receptors is the
a. synaptic cleft.
b. I band.
c. synaptic knob.
d. motor unit.
e. motor end plate.
motor end plate

The specialized sarcolemma that contains acetylcholine receptors is the motor end plate
If Broca's area is damaged, what might result?
a. mental retardation
b. loss of upper limb control
c. loss of ability to speak
d. loss of memory
e. loss of sensation
loss of the ability to speak

If the Broca's are is damaged you might lose the ability to speak
Hormone-producing cells of the testes produce
a. oestrogen.
b. progesterone.
c. cortisone.
d. semen.
e. testosterone.
testosterone

The testes produce testosterone
During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.

a. oestrogen reaches its highest levels
b. progesterone levels are at their highest
c. LH reaches its highest levels
d. the Graafian follicle forms
progesterone levels are at their hightest

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle progesterone levels are at their hightest
Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
a. the ventral respiratory group
b. Broca's center
c. the chemoreceptor center
d. the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus
the ventral respiratory group
Nerve impulses from the ventral respiratory group will result in inspiration
The transparent portion of the eye is the

a. pupil.
b. iris.
c. optic nerve.
d. canthus.
e. cornea.
cornea

The treansparent protion of the eye is the cornea
Which of the following is the LAST step in inflammation?
a. T cells release interferon.
b. phagocytosis.
c. mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin.
d. blood flow to an area increases.
e. red blood cells release pus-forming agents.
phagocytosis

The last step in inflammation is phagocytosis
What is the function of the transverse tubule?
a. to allow cross-bridge attachment
b. the storage of calcium ions
c. to store sodium ions
d. to transmit muscle impulses to the cell's interior
e. all of the above
to transmit muscle impulses to the cell's interior

the transverse tubule transmits muscle impulses to the cell's interior
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is

a. FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone.
b. LH, leutenising hormone.
c. TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.
d. MSH, meanocyte-stimulating hormone.
e. ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.
ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.

The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

a. producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
b. reducing its size
c. forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell
d. immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

a. Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders."
b. Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched blood transfusion.
c. Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.
d. Antibodies are present on all pathogens.
Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched blood transfusion.
Saltatory conduction
a. is slower that conduction on an unmyelinated axon.
b. is faster than conduction on an unmyelinated axon.
c. occurs only if the myelin sheath is continuous.
d. occurs at the synapse.
e. occurs only if nodes of Ranvier are lacking.
is faster than conduction on unmyelinated axon

Saltatory conduction is faster than conduction on unmyelinated axon
The pituitary hormone that stimulates increases in bone and muscle mass is
a. GH, growth hormone.
b. TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.
c. LH, leutenising hormone.
d. ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.
e. MSH, meanocyte-stimulating hormone.
GH, growth hormone

The pituitary hormone that stimulates increases in bone and muscle mass is GH, growth hormone
Which blood type is NOT possible if the mother is blood type AB and the father is type B?
a. A
b. B
c. O
d. AB
O

Blood Type O is not possible if mother is AB and father is B
The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of
a. olfactory receptors in the nose.
b. nociceptors.
c. mechanoreceptors in the ear.
d. light receptors in the eye.
e. baroreceptors.
olfactory receptors in the nose

The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of olfactory receptors in the nose.
Which of the following is a function of neurons?
a. phagocytosis
b. information processing
c. secretion of cerebrospinal fluid
d. support
e. isolation of neuroglia
information processing

the function of neurons is information processing
The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by
a. TSH.
b. the hypothalamus.
c. blood calcium levels.
d. thyroid hormone.
e. all of the above
blood calcium levels

The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by blood calcium levels
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

a. the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ
b. nothing all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
c. the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
d. the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ
Sperm production occurs in the
a. epididymis.
b. seminal vesicles.
c. ductus deferens.
d. seminiferous tubules.
e. rete testis.
seminiferous tubules

Sperm production occurs in the seminiferous tubules
Which of the following is not involved in the short-term controls of blood pressure?
a. reflex arcs involving baroreceptors
b. chemoreceptors
c. altering blood volume
d. reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers
altering blood volume

Altering blood volume is not involved in short-term contrls of blood pressure
The ossicles

a. cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate.
b. produce a nerve stimulus in the cochlea.
c. recieve vibrations from the cochlea .
d. attach the oval window to the round window.
e. amplify vibrations.
amplify vibrations

The ossicles amplify vibrations
Antibodies cause which of the following reactions?

a. agglutination
b. opsonization
c. neutralization
d. precipitation
e. all of the above
e. all of the above

Antibodies cause agglutination, opsonization, neutralization and precipitation
Hyperventilation may cause a(n)
a. decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH.
b. increase in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH.
c. decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and a drop in pH.
d. increase in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an decrease in pH.
e. none of the above
a decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH

Hyperventilation may cause a decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH
The primary connection between cerebral hemispheres is the
a. cerebellum.
b. midbrain.
c. postcentral gyrus.
d. corpus callosum.
e. precentral gyrus.
corpus callosum

The primary connection between cerebral hemispheres is the corpus callosum
Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are sensitive to blood
a. oxygen concentration.
b. carbon dioxide concentration.
c. pH.
d. bicarbonate concentration.
e. both B and C
e. both B and C

Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are sensitive to blood carbon dioxide concentration and pH
In response to decreased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys could produce
a. a larger volume of urine.
b. more dilute urine.
c. urine with a lower concentration of potassium ions.
d. urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.
e. urine with less urea.
urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions

In response to decreased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys could produce urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions
An example of partial but sustained contraction is
a. muscle tone.
b. a twitch.
c. treppe.
d. fatigue.
e. tetany.
muscle tone

An example of partial but sustained contraction is muscle tone
Each of the following effects is associated with stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system EXCEPT one. Identify the exception.
a. decreased heart rate
b. increased blood flow to skeletal muscles
c. reduced circulation to the skin
d. dilation of the pupils
e. increased sweat secretion
decreased heart rate
When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) increases,
a. less urine is produced.
b. less water is reabsorbed by the nephron and collecting duct.
c. more salt is secreted by the nephron.
d. theurine becomes more dilute.
e. more urine is produced.
less urine is produced

When the level of ADH(antidiuretic hormone) increases, less urine is produced
Endocrine organs can be controlled by
a. hormones from other endocrine glands.
b. releasing hormones from the hypothalamus.
c. direct neural stimulation.
d. A and C only
e. A, B and C
e. A, B and C

Endocrine organs can be controlled by hormones from other endocrine glands, releasing hormones from the hypothalamus and direct neural stimulation
Movement of water between compartments is by
a. diffusion.
b. facilitated diffusion.
c. osmosis.
d. pinocytosis.
e. active transport.
osmosis

Osmosis is the movement of water between compartments
A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by
a. conversion of creatine phosphate.
b. anaerobic respiration.
c. aerobic respiration.
d. the tricarboxylic acid (Kreb's) cycle.
e. both A and D
aerobic respiration

A resting muscle generates mos of its ATP by aerobic respiration
A person who chronically consumes large amounts of antacids to settle an upset stomach may risk
a. respiratory alkalosis.
b. metabolic acidosis.
c. respiratory acidosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.
e. none of the above
metabolic alkolosis

A person who chronically consumes large amounts of antacids to settle an upset stomach may risk metabolic alkalosis
Immunity that results from antibodies ingested from breastmilk is which type of immunity?
a. passive natural
b. active natural
c. active artificial
d. autoimmunity
e. innate
passive natural

Immunity that results from antibodies ingested from breastmilk is passive natural immunity
The adrenal medulla produces
a. mineralocorticoids.
b. androgens.
c. glucocorticoids.
d. steroids.
e. adrenalin.
adrenalin

The adrenal medulla produces adrenalin
Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
a. More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
b. CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.
c. Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH.
d. Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation.
More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs. is incorrect
As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries the

a. flow increases.
b. viscosity increases.
c. resistance increases.
d. pressure increases.
e. all of the above
resistance increases

As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries the resistance increases
The principal cation in the ICF is
a. potassium.
b. sodium.
c. magnesium.
d. calcium.
e. chloride.
potassium

The principal cation in the ICF is potassium
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
a. A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal
b. During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2
c. Increased antioxidant levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity
d. During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently
A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.
The hypothalamus controls the secretions of the posterior pituitary by way of
a. direct neural stimulation.
b. gap junctions.
c. releasing and inhibiting hormones.
d. altering ion concentrations in the anterior pituitary.
e. direct mechanical control.
direct neural stimulation

The hypothalamus controls the secretions of the posterior pituitary by way of direct neural stimulation
A neural cortex (gray matter) is found on the surface of the
a. cerebrum.
b. midbrain.
c. cerebellum.
d. pons.
e. both A and C
e. A and C

A neural cortex (gray matter) is found on the surface of the cerebrum and cerebellum
When alleles are identical, they are said to be
a. dominant.
b. recessive.
c. homozygous.
d. heterozygous.
homozygous

When alleles are identical, they are said to be homozygous
Preparation of the uterine lining for implantation results from stimulation by
a. mineralocorticoids.
b. thyroid hormone.
c. testosterone.
d. growth hormone.
e. progesterone.
progesterone

Preparation of the uterine lining for implantation results from stimulation by progesterone
Just prior to menses,
a. a new uterine lining is formed.
b. ovulation occurs.
c. secretory glands and blood vessels develop in the endometrium.
d. the corpus luteum is formed.
e. estrogen and progesterone levels drop rapidly.
estrogen and progesterone levels drop rapidly

Just prior to menses, estrogen and progesterone levels drop rapidly
Nociceptors are sensitive to
a. osmotic pressure.
b. pain.
c. blood pressure.
d. pressure.
e. light touch.
pain

Nociceptors are sensitive to pain
Which of the following directly targets the gonads?
a. follicle-stimulating hormone
b. growth hormone
c. gonadotropin-releasing hormone
d. thyroxine
e. insulin
follicle- stimulating hormone

follicle-stimulating hormone directly targets the gonads
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?


a. rising carbon dioxide levels
b. arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention
c. rising blood pressure
d. arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg
rising blood pressure

rising blood pressure is not a stimulus for breathing
The cells that are actively involved in immunological surveillance are the

a. helper T cells.
b. B cells.
c. suppressor T cells.
d. NK cells.
e. plasma cells.
NK cells

NK cells are actively involved in immunological surveillance
The gene that is NOT expressed in a heterozygous situation is called
a. recessive.
b. dominant.
c. incomplete.
d. phenotypic.
recessive

Recessive gene is NOT expressed in a heterozygous situation
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

a. producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
b. reducing its size
c. forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell
d. immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries the
a. flow increases.
b. viscosity increases.
c. resistance increases.
d. pressure increases.
e. all of the above
resistance increases

As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries the resistance increases
The process of oogenesis produces ________ viable ovum/ova.

a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
e. eight
one

The process of oogenesis produces ONE viable ova.
The anterior cavity of the eye is

a. filled with perilymph.
b. filled with aqueous humor.
c. filled by the vitreous body.
d. hollow.
e. filled with endolymph.
filled with aqueous humor

The anterior cavity of the eye is filled with aqueous humor
Spermatogenesis ________.

a. results in the formation of diploid cells
b. is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
c. uses mitosis to produce gamete cells
d. involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

Spermatogenesis involves a kind of cell division limited to gametes
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to lower is

a. growth hormone.
b. glucagon.
c. insulin.
d. cortisol.
e. erythropoietin.
insulin

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to lower is insulin
The hormone that is released by kidney cells in response to low blood pressure is

a. cortisol.
b. angiotensin.
c. adrenalin.
d. renin.
e. ADH.
renin

The hormone that is released by kidney cells in response to low blood pressure is renin
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?

a. increased tissue PO2
b. decreased temperature
c. decreased pH
d. none of the above
e. all of the above
decreased pH

Decreased pH would increase the amount of oxygen discharded by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues
Which of the following is the highest number in a blood pressure reading?
a. blood osmotic pressure
b. diastolic pressure
c. pulse pressure
d. systolic pressure
e. mean arterial pressure
systolic pressure

Systolic pressure is the highest number in a blood pressure reading
Synaptic knobs occur at the end/s of

a. axons.
b. somas.
c. the hillock.
d. cell bodies.
e. dendrites.
axons

Synaptic knobs occur at the ends of axons
The cranial nerve that has three branches is the

a. facial.
b. glossopharyngeal.
c. agus.
d. trigeminal.
e. abducens.
trigerminal

The cranial nerve that has three branches is the trigerminal
The role of the pituitary hormone LH in males is to

a. influence sexual behaviors and sex drive.
b. develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics.
c. initiate sperm production in the testes.
d. stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.
e. stimulate the sustentacular cells to produce inhibin.
stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.


The role of the pituitary hormone LH in males is to
stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.
Cells of the adrenal cortex produce

a. adrenalin.
b. insulin.
c. ADH.
d. aldosterone.
e. parathyroid hormone.
aldosterone

Cells of the adrenal cortex produce aldosterone
If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked,

a. the ventricles will beat faster.
b. the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.
c. the stroke volume will increase.
d. tachycardia will occur.
e. the ventricular rate of contraction will not be affected.
the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.

If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.
Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.

a. cortisol
b. aldosterone
c. thymosin
d. parathyroid hormone
e. calcitonin
parathyroid hormone

Increased levels of the hormone parathyroid hormone will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.
The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for activity and stress is the

a. sympathetic division.
b. somatic motor division.
c. parasympathetic division.
d. craniosacral division.
e. arachnoid division.
sympathetic division.

The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for activity and stress is the
sympathetic division.
The first line of cellular defense against pathogens is

a. T cells.
b. phagocytes.
c. B cells.
d. plasma cells.
e. NK cells.
phagocytes

The first line of cellular defense against pathogens is phagocytes.
The normal rate and depth of breathing is established in centers located in the


a. medulla oblongataand pons.
b. spinal cord.
c. midbrain.
d. cerebellum.
e. cerebrum.
medulla oblongataand pons

The normal rate and depth of breathing is established in centers located in the medulla oblongataand pons.
The special senses are

a. equilibrium.
b. gustation.
c. olfaction.
d. vision.
e. all of the above
e. all of the above

The special senses are equilibriium, gustation, olfaction and vision
At the neuromuscular junction, the muscle fiber membrane is folded to form a

a. neurotransmitter.
b. motor unit.
c. motor neuron.
d. neuroreceptor.
e. motor end plate.
motor end plate

At the neuromuscular junction, the muscle fiber membrane is folded to form a motor end plate
Which of the following is the smaller amount?

a. the concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm of a resting muscle

b. the concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a resting muscle
a. the concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm of a resting muscle

the concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm of the resting muscle are smaller than those in the sarcoplasmic reticulum
What is the function of the transverse tubule?

a. to allow cross-bridge attachment
b. the storage of calcium ions
c. to store sodium ions
d. to transmit muscle impulses to the cell's interior
e. all of the above
d. to transmit muscle impulses to the cell's interior

The transvers tubule transmit muscle impulses to the cell's interior
When blood glucose levels fall,

a. insulin is released.
b. protein synthesis decreases.
c. peripheral cells take up less glucose.
d. glucagon is released.
e. all of the above
glucagon is released

When blood glucose levels fall glucagon is released
The principal cation in the ICF is

a. potassium.
b. sodium.
c. magnesium.
d. calcium.
e. chloride.
potassium

The principal cation in the ICF is potassium
The area of sensory cortex devoted to a body region is relative to the

a. number of motor units in the area of the body.
b. distance of the body area from the brain.
c. size of the body area.
d. size of the nerves that serve the area of the body.
e. number of sensory receptors in the area of the body.
number of sensory receptors in the area of the body.

The area of sensory cortex devoted to a body region is relative to the number of sensory receptors in the area of the body.
A foreign invader that may cause disease is called a(n)

a. pathogen.
b. antibody.
c. virus.
d. bacteria.
e. antigen.
pathogen

A foreign invader that may cause disease is called a
pathogen
ADH promotes water reabsorption mainly through the wall of the
.

a. collecting duct.
b. loop of Henle.
c. proximal convoluted tubule.
d. minor calyx.
e. distal convoluted tubule.
collecting duct

ADH promotes water reabsorption mainly through the wall of the collecting duct
The posterior pituitary gland secretes

a. FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone.
b. OXT, oxytocin.
c. MSH, meanocyte-stimulating hormone.
d. TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.
e. ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.
OXT oxytocin

The posterior pituitary gland secretes OXT, oxytocin
The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________.

a. significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
b. insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary
c. significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter
d. the only factor that influences resistance
significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius

The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
The cells that are actively involved in immunological surveillance are the

a. helper T cells.
b. B cells.
c. suppressor T cells.
d. NK cells.
e. plasma cells.
NK cells

NK cells are actively involved in immunological surveillance
Symptoms of shock include

a. decreased urine formation.
b. low blood pressure.
c. rapid, weak pulse.
d. hypotension.
e. all of the above
e. all of the above

Symptoms of shock include decreased urine formation, low blood pressure, rapid, weak pulse and hypotension
Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?

a. anticipation of exercise
b. proprioceptors
c. simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center
d. decrease in lactic acid levels
decrease in lactic acid levels

decrease in lactic acid levels does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated
During vigorous excercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to ________.

a. lactic acid
b. a strong base
c. hydrochloric acid
d. stearic acid
lactic acid

During vigorous excercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid
The sliding filament model of contraction involves ________..

a. the shortening of thick filaments so that thin filaments slide past
b. the Z discs sliding over the myofilaments
c. actin and myosin shortening but not sliding past each other
d. actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap
actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap

The sliding filament model of contraction involves actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap
The genotype for a male would be

a. XX.
b. XO.
c. YO.
d. XY.
e. YY.
XY

XY is the genotype for a male
XX is the genotype for a female
The ________ contains vesicles filled with acetylcholine.

a. neuromuscular junction
b. synaptic knob
c. synaptic cleft
d. transverse tubule
e. motor end plate
synaptic knob

The synaptic knob contains vesicles filled with acetylcholine
The area between Z lines is the

a. sarcomere.
b. myofibril.
c. sarcolemma.
d. myofilament.
e. sarcoplasmic reticulum.
sarcomere

The area between Z lines is the sarcomere
Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.

a. margination, which is the process of white cell movement through the walls of capillaries into injured tissues
b. mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
c. diapedesis, during which cells line up against the capillary wall
d. monocytes as the most active phagocyte
mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

Phagocyte mobilization involves mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?

a. bundle of His
b. AV valve
c. SA node
d. AV node
AV valve

The AV valve is not part of the conduction system of the heart.
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites on which structure

a. thick filaments
b. actin filaments
c. myosin filaments
d. Z discs
actin filaments

During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attace to active sites on actin filaments
The total body water is divided into intracellular and extracellular fluids. Plasma is considered ________.

a. intracellular
b. lymph
c. extracellular
d. interstitial
extracellular

The total body water is divided into intracellular and extracellular fluids. Plasma is considered extracellular
Angiotensin increases blood pressure by

a. promoting the excretion of sodium.
b. increasing peripheral resistance.
c. inhibiting aldosterone.
d. promoting the release of renin.
e. inhibiting ADH.
increasing peripheral resistance.

Angiotensin increases blood pressure by increasing peripheral resistance.
In response to action potentials arriving from the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases

a. calcium ions.
b. sodium ions.
c. acetylcholine.
d. potassium ions.
e. all of the above
calcium ions

In response to action potentials arriving from the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions.
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.

a. greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin.
b. only about 1.5% of the total oxygen carried.
c. not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules.
d. about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin.
only about 1.5% of the total oxygen carried.


In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is only about 1.5% of the total oxygen carried.
The visual cortex is located in the

a. frontal lobe.
b. cerebellum.
c. occipital lobe.
d. parietal lobe.
e. temporal lobe.
occipital lobe

The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe
Cytotoxic T cells ________.

a. require the presence of both histamine and heparin in order to function
b. are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
c. self-destruct once the antigen has been neutralized
d. function mainly to stimulate the proliferation of other T cell populations
are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

Cytotoxic T cells are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
________ deafness results from conditions in the middle ear that block the normal transfer of vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window.

a. Cochlear
b. Tunnel
c. Conduction
d. Nerve
e. Corti
Conduction

Conduction deafness results from conditions in the middle ear that block the normal transfer of vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window.
This gland signals nearly all other body cells.

a. thymus
b. thyroid
c. pineal
d. parathyroid
e. pancreas
thyroid

The thyroid gland signals nearly all other body cells
The skeletal muscles store calcium ions in the
a. sarcoplasm.
b. sarcolemma.
c. sarcosome.
d. sarcomere.
e. sarcoplasmic reticulum.
sarcoplasmic reticulum

The skeletal muscles store calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum
In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose metabolized releases enough energy to form ________ molecules of ATP.

a. 4
b. 30
c. 38
d. 2
e. 36
2

In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose metabolized releases enough energy to form 2 molecules of ATP.
________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

a. Eosinophils
b. B cells
c. Basophils
d. Macrophages
d. Macrophages

Macrophages predominate at the sites of chronic infections.
The visual cortex is located in the

a. frontal lobe.
b. cerebellum.
c. occipital lobe.
d. parietal lobe.
e. temporal lobe.
occipital lobe

The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe
Normally menstruation occurs when ________.

a. blood levels of FSH fall off
b. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
c. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase
d. the corpus luteum secretes estrogen
blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

Normally menstruation occurs when blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
Blood pressure is lowest in which of the following structures?

a. aorta
b. vein
c. vena cavae
d. capillary
e. arteriole
vena cavae

Blood pressure is lowest in the vena cavae
An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net ATPs per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is ________.

a. the citric acid cycle
b. glycolysis
c. the electron transport chain
d. hydrolysis
glycolysis

An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net ATPs per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is glycolysis
Calcium homeostasis primarily reflects

a. a balance between absorption in the gut and excretion at the kidneys.
b. hormonal control of calcium reserves in the bones.
c. an interplay between parathormone and aldosterone.
d. an interplay between reserves in the bone, the rate of absorption, and the rate of excretion.
e. careful regulation of blood calcium levels by the kidneys.
an interplay between reserves in the bone, the rate of absorption, and the rate of excretion.

Calcium homeostasis primarily reflects an interplay between reserves in the bone, the rate of absorption, and the rate of excretion.
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because ________.

a. the basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
b. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
c. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes
d. the temperature is lower at higher altitudes
the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects

a. B cells.
b. plasma cells.
c. helper T cells.
d. suppressor T cells.
e. cytotoxic T cells.
helper T cells

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects helper T cells
Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscles have

a. little need for oxygen.
b. very few mitochondria.
c. a rich nerve supply.
d. a rich vascular supply.
e. all of the above
a rich vascular supply

Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscles have a rich vascular supply
Which of the following changes will result in increased nutrient delivery to a specific tissue?

a. relaxation of precapillary sphincters
b. increased vessel diameter
c. decreased peripheral resistance
d. increased blood pressure
e. increased blood volume
relaxation of precapillary sphincters

relaxation of precapillary sphincters result in increased nutrient delivery to a specific tissue
The T wave of the ECG corresponds to

a. ventricular repolarization.
b. ventricular systole.
c. atrial depolarization.
d. atrial diastole.
e. none of the above
ventricular repolarization

The T wave of the ECG corresponds to ventricular repolarization.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

a. diffusion
b. osmosis
c. active transport
d. filtration
diffusion

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by diffusion
An example of partial but sustained contraction is

a. muscle tone.
b. a twitch.
c. treppe.
d. fatigue.
e. tetany.
muscle tone

An example of partial but sustained contraction is muscle tone.
Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

a. respiratory acidosis
b. metabolic alkalosis
c. respiratory alkalosis
d. metabolic acidosis
metabolic acidosis

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. The patient is most likely to be metabolic acidosis
Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except ________.

a. glucose
b. blood plasma
c. lymph and interstitial fluid
d. cerebrospinal fluid
glucose

glucose is not extracellular fluid
The last stage of labor is the

a. decidual stage.

b. expulsion stage.

c. neonate stage.

d. placental stage.

e. dilation stage.
placental stage

The last stage of labour is the placental stage
If you are running sprints, which nutrient would your body use the most of to make ATP?

a. sugars

b. fat

c. amino acids

d. cholesterol

e. protein
sugars

If you are running sprints, sugars would be used the most by your body to make ATP
Saltatory conduction

a. is slower that conduction on an unmyelinated axon.

b. is faster than conduction on an unmyelinated axon.

c. occurs only if the myelin sheath is continuous.

d. occurs at the synapse.

e. occurs only if nodes of Ranvier are lacking.
is faster than conduction on an unmyelinated axon.

Saltatory conduction is faster than conduction on an unmyelinated axon.
The skeletal muscle organelles that actually contracts are the

a. transverse tubules.

b. Muscle fibres

c. actin and myosin

d. sarcolemma.

e. myofibrils.
moyfibrils

The skeletal muscle organelles that actually contracts are the myofibrils
Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?

a. cardiogenic, which results from any defect in blood vessels

b. circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant

c. vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

d. hypovolemic, caused by increased blood volume
vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

Vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone is a type of circulatory shock
Which of the following will occur after ovulation?

a. The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.

b. The endometrium enters its secretory phase.

c. The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.

d. The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans.
The endometrium enters its secretory phase.

The endometrium enters its secretory phase after ovulation
If the parents are AA and aa, the offspring are expected to be

a. AAaa

b. aa.

c. AA.

d. Aa.
Aa

If the parents are AA and aa, the offspring are expected to be Aa
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the


a. smooth muscles in the airways.

b. external intercostal muscles.

c. diaphragm.

d. elastic recoil of lung tissue and the thoracic cage.

e. alveoli.
elastic recoil of lung tissue and the thoracic cage.

The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the elastic recoil of lung tissue and the thoracic cage.
The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the ________..

a. integumentary system

b. immune system

c. lymphatic system

d. renal system
immune system

The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize or destroy them is the immune system.
The endocrine system

a. releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body.

b. releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously.

c. produces effects that can last for hours, days, and even longer.

d. A and C only

e. A, B and C
e. A, B and C

The endocrine system releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body,releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously and produces effects that can last for hours, days and even longer.
Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

a. respiratory acidosis

b. metabolic alkalosis

c. respiratory alkalosis

d. metabolic acidosis
metabolic acidosis

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly they are most likely to be in metabolic acidosis
The hormone ADH

a. causes the kidneys to produce a large volume of urine.

b. stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium ions.

c. stimulates water conservation at the kidneys.

d. is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to changes in blood osmolarity.

e. all of the above
stimulates water conservation at the kidneys

The hormone ADH stimulates water conservation at the kidneys
The body's nonspecific defenses include

a. skin.

b. complement.

c. interferon.

d. inflammation.

e. all of the above
e. all of the above

The body's nonspecific defenses include, skin, complement, interferon and inflammation
Depolarization of the atria is represented on an electrocardiogram by the

a. PR complex.

b. T wave.

c. P wave.

d. S wave.

e. QRS complex.
P wave

Depolarization of the atria is represented on an electrocardiogram by the P wave
Rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to

a. excessive ATP.

b. decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.

c. lack of oxygen.

d. lactic acid buildup.

e. excessive ATP and decreased permeability to calcium.
decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.

Rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.
Just prior to menses,

a. a new uterine lining is formed.
b. ovulation occurs.
c. secretory glands and blood vessels develop in the endometrium.
d. the corpus luteum is formed.
e. estrogen and progesterone levels drop rapidly.
estrogen and progesterone levels drop rapidly.

Estrogen and progesterone levels drop rapidly just prior to menses
The pigmented portion of the eye is the

a. canthus.

b. conjunctiva.

c. pupil.

d. cornea.

e. iris.
iris

The pigmented portion of the eye is the iris
Control of the viscera is the job of the

a. autonomic nervous system.

b. conscious control.

c. spinal cord.

d. brain.

e. all of the above
autonomic nervous system

Control of the viscera is the job of the autonomic nervous system
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites on which structure

a. thick filaments

b. actin filaments

c. myosin filaments

d. Z discs
actin filaments

During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites on actin filaments
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

a. phagocyte mobilization

b. vasodilation

c. production of complement and interferon

d. vasoconstriction
vasodilation

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by vasodilation
________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

a. Eosinophils

b. B cells

c. Basophils

d. Macrophages
macrophanges

Macrophanges predominate at the sites of chronic infections
Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in

a. repolarization.

b. hyperpolarization.

c. depolarization.

d. increased negative charge inside the membrane.

e. none of the above
depolarization

Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in depolarization
Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.

a. The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.

b. During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.

c. If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

d. During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.
If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?

a. angeiotensin II

b. ADH

c. atrial natriuretic peptide

d. nitric acid
nitric acid

nitric acid does not help regulate blood pressure
The effect of endurance-type athletic training may be to lower the resting heart rate. This phenomenon ________.

a. does not occur in aerobic training

b. results in decreased cardiac output and increased blood pressure

c. is a sign of dangerous overexertion

d. is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output
is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output

The effect of endurance-type athletic training may be to lower the resting heart rate. This phenomenon is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output
The normal rate and depth of breathing is established in centers located in the


a. medulla oblongataand pons.

b. spinal cord.

c. midbrain.

d. cerebellum.

e. cerebrum.
medulla oblongataand pons

The normal rate and depth of breathing is established in centers located in the oblongataand pons
Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
Choose one answer.

a. auditory tube

b. tympanic membrane

c. pinna

d. external acoustic meatus
tympanic membrane

Tympanic membrane is not part of the external ear
Dual innervation refers to

a. an organ receiving nerves from both the brain and the spinal cord.

b. a nerve that innervates two different organs.

c. an organ receiving both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.

d. an organ receiving two nerves from the spinal cord.

e. none of the above
an organ receiving both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.

a. meiosis

b. DNA synthesis

c. mitosis

d. cytokinesis
mitosis

The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through mitosis
The resting membrane potential of a nerve fiber is caused by having the

a. chloride ions inside the cell.

b. sodium ions inside the cell and potassium outside the cell.

c. sodium and potassium ions inside the cell.

d. potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.

e. hillock and knob at opposite ends.
potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.

The resting membrane potential of a nerve fiber is caused by having the potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.
What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

a. depth perception

b. color vision

c. accommodation for near vision

d. vision in dim light
vision in dim light

The main function of rods in the eye is vision in dim light
Which of the following is aldosterone able to affect?

a. formation of plasma proteins

b. pH regulation

c. removal of wastes

d. regulation of intracellular body fluid volume

e. regulation of body fluid concentration
regulation of body fluid concentration

aldosterone is able to regulate body fluid concentration
The adrenal medulla produces

a. mineralocorticoids.

b. androgens.

c. glucocorticoids.

d. steroids.

e. adrenalin.
adrenalin

The adrenal medulla produces adrenalin
Paired chromosomes are called

a. autosomal chromosomes.

b. homologous chromosomes.

c. homozygous chromosomes.

d. alleles.

e. heterozygous chromosomes.
homologous chromosomes

Paired chromosomes are called homologous chromosomes
A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by

a. conversion of creatine phosphate.

b. anaerobic respiration.

c. aerobic respiration.

d. the tricarboxylic acid (Kreb's) cycle.

e. both A and D
aerobic respiration

A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by aerobic respiration
Nociceptors are sensitive to

a. osmotic pressure.

b. pain.

c. blood pressure.

d. pressure.

e. light touch.
pain

Nociceptors are sensitive to pain
Blood flow through the cardiovascular system is affected by

a. the amount of friction in the blood vessels.

b. the viscosity of the blood.

c. the length and diameter of the blood vessels.

d. pressure differences.

e. all of the above
e. all of the above

Blood flow through the cardiovascular system is affected by, the amount of friction in the blood vessels, the viscosity of the blood, the length and diameter of the blood vessels and pressure differences.
Motor innervation of the muscles of facial expression is through the

a. accessory nerve.

b. vagus nerve.

c. trigeminal nerve.

d. abducens nerve.

e. facial nerve.
facial nerve

Motor innervation of the muscles of facial expression is through the facial nerve
The skeletal muscles store calcium ions in the

a. sarcoplasm.

b. sarcolemma.

c. sarcosome.

d. sarcomere.

e. sarcoplasmic reticulum.
sarcoplasmic reticulum

The skeletal muscles store calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum
The autonomic division of the nervous system directs

a. voluntary motor activity.

b. conscious control of skeletal muscles.
c. processes that maintain homeostasis.

d. unconscious control of skeletal muscles.

e. all of the above
The autonomic division of the nervous system directs
processes that maintain homeostasis

processes that maintain homeostasis
The hearing receptors are located in the

a. utricle.

b. organ of Corti.

c. saccule.

d. semicircular canals.

e. ampulla.
organ of Corti

The hearing receptors are located in the organ of Corti
Special lymphocytes that are part of the nonspecific defenses are called

a. plasma cells

b. NK cells

c. memory T cells

d. monocytes

e. memory B cells
NK cells

Special lymphocytes that are part of the nonspecific defenses are called NK cells
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.

a. chemotaxis

b. diapedesis

c. margination

d. phagocytosis
chemotaxis

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called chemotaxis
The baroreceptor reflex causes changes in

a. heart rate.

b. cardiac output.

c. peripheral resistance.

d. blood pressure.

e. all of the above
e. all of the above

The baroreceptor reflex causes changes in heart rate, cardiac output, peripheral resistance and blood pressure
Increased sodium ion concentrations in the body can be caused by

a. cortisol.

b. aldosterone.

c. erythropoietin.

d. thymosin.

e. renin.
aldosterone

Increased sodium ion concentrations in the body can be caused by aldosterone
Which of the following lists the parts of a reflex arc in the correct order?

a. effector, receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron

b. receptor, sensory neuron, effector, interneuron, motor neuron

c. receptor, effector, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron

d. receptor, interneuron, sensory neuron, motor neuron, effector

e. receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector
e. receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector


the correct order of the reflex arc is receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector
Calcium homeostasis primarily reflects

a. a balance between absorption in the gut and excretion at the kidneys.

b. hormonal control of calcium reserves in the bones.

c. an interplay between parathormone and aldosterone.

d. an interplay between reserves in the bone, the rate of absorption, and the rate of excretion.

e. careful regulation of blood calcium levels by the kidneys.
d. an interplay between reserves in the bone, the rate of absorption, and the rate of excretion.

Calcium homeostasis primarily reflects an interplay between reserves in the bone, the rate of absorption, and the rate of excretion.
Which of the following activities would employ isometric contractions?

a. standing at attention

b. running

c. writing

d. chewing food

e. flexing the forearm
standing to attention

Standing to attention would employ isometric contractions
The enzyme acetylcholinesterase causes acetylcholine to

a. bond to actin.

b. form cross-bridges.

c. decompose.

d. synthesize.

e. be secreted.
decompose

The enzyme acetylcholinesterase causes acetylcholine to decompose
Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscles have

a. little need for oxygen.

b. very few mitochondria.

c. a rich nerve supply.

d. a rich vascular supply.

e. all of the above
a rich vascular supply

Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscles have a rich vascular supply
Head injuries that damage cerebral blood vessels are serious conditions because

a. epicardial tissue will be affected.

b. they could cause severe pain.

c. pathways for intelligent processing will be blocked.

d. bleeding in these spaces compress and distort the relatively soft tissues of the brain.
e. the venous sinus will not drain.
bleeding in these spaces compress and distort the relatively soft tissues of the brain.

Head injuries that damage cerebral blood vessels are serious conditions because bleeding in these spaces compress and distort the relatively soft tissues of the brain.
Growth hormone causes

a. increased rate of lipid catabolism.

b. increased protein synthesis.

c. growth of bones and skeletal muscle.
d. enhanced movement of amino acids into cells.

e. all of the above
e. all of the above

Growth hormone causes, increased rate of lipid catabolism, increased protein synthesis, growth of bones and skeletal muscle, and enhanced movement of amion acids into cells.
Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?

a. Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.

b. Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.

c. The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.

d. Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
In response to action potentials arriving from the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases

a. calcium ions.

b. sodium ions.

c. acetylcholine.

d. potassium ions.

e. all of the above
calcium ions

In response to action potentials arriving from the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
.

a. greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin.

b. only about 1.5% of the total oxygen carried.

c. not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules.

d. about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin.
only about 1.5% of the total oxygen carried.


In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is only about 1.5% of the total oxygen carried.
The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the

a. frontal lobe.

b. central sulcus.

c. postcentral sulcus.

d. longitudinal fissure.

e. lateral sulcus.
longitudinal fissure

The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the longitudinal fissure
In active artificial immunity,

a. the body receives antibodies produced by another animal.

b. the body makes a memory of the attack.

c. the body receives antibodies produced by another person.

d. genes for antibodies are introduced into the body.

e. the immune system attacks normal body cells.
the body makes a memory of the attack

In active artificial immumity the body makes memory of the attack
Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?

a. The skin will be cold and clammy.

b. Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.

c. Blood flow to the kidneys increases.

d. Blood will be diverted to the digestive organs.
Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.

During vigorous exercise Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
The ________ contains vesicles filled with acetylcholine.

a. neuromuscular junction

b. synaptic knob

c. synaptic cleft

d. transverse tubule

e. motor end plate
synaptic knob

The synaptic know contains vesicles filled with acetylcholine
Normal eye focusing is termed

a. refraction.

b. presbyopia.

c. emmetropia.

d. myopia.

e. hyperopia.
emmetropia

Emmetropia is normal eye focusing
Peptide hormones

a. are produced by cells in the adrenal glands.

b. are derived from the amino acid tyrosine.

c. are lipids.

d. are chemically related to cholesterol.

e. are composed of amino acids.
are composed of amino acids

Peptide hormones are compsed of amino acids
Neurotransmitters are released from the

a. hillock.

b. synapse.

c. synaptic terminals/knobs.

d. collaterals.

e. dendrites.
synaptic terminals/knobs.

Neurotransmitters are released from the terminals/knobs.
The reproductive system

a. stores and nourishes gametes.

b. produces and transports gametes.

c. produces FSH and LH.

d. A and B only

e. A, B and C
d. A and B only

The reproductive system stores and nourishes gametes, produces and transports gametes
The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________.

a. significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius

b. insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary

c. significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter

d. the only factor that influences resistance
significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius

The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
The part of the peripheral nervous system that brings information to the central nervous system is the

a. motor division.

b. autonomic division.

c. efferent division.

d. somatic division.

e. afferent division.
afferent division

The part of the peripheral nervous system that brings information to the central nervous system is the afferent division
A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by

a. conversion of creatine phosphate.

b. anaerobic respiration.

c. aerobic respiration.

d. the tricarboxylic acid (Kreb's) cycle.

e. both A and D
aerobic respiration

A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by aerobic respiration
Aldosterone will ________.

a. promote an increase in blood pressure

b. promote a decrease in blood volume

c. decrease sodium reabsorption

d. result in a larger output of urine
promote an increase in blood pressure

Aldosterone will promote an increase in blood pressure
Angiotensin increases blood pressure by

a. promoting the excretion of sodium.

b. increasing peripheral resistance.

c. inhibiting aldosterone.

d. promoting the release of renin.

e. inhibiting ADH.
increasing peripheral resistance.

Angitensin increases blood pressure by increasing peripheral resistance