Terms in this set (74)
What is the triad for congenital toxoplasma gondii?
Chorioretinitis, Intracranial calcifications, and encephalitis/hydrocephalis
what is the classic triad for congenital Rubella?
Deafness, cataracts, heart disease
what is the triad for congenital CMV?
Jaundice at birth (rare at birth, usually appears a couple days after, so if there is jaundice right at birth, assume CMV), Hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae
do genital warts impede with vaginal birth?
no, unless to big to give birth
what hormone prevents lactation before birth?
progesterone and estrogen (they also cause ++ in breasts )
what is the 1st 15 days of the cycle? the second?
Follicular Phase, Luteal Phase
what hormone is more in the FOllicular phase? The luteal phase?
what does estrogen inhibit?
WHat does progesterone inhibit?
FSH and LH
what hormone increases uterus sensitivity to oxytocin?
what hormone causes thickening of the mucous? thinning of the mucous?
what type of mole (hydatidiform) is this: enlarged uterine growth, excessive ++++ bHCG, no fetal parts, diploid chromosome number (46)
what type of mole (hydatidiform) is this: normal uterine size, Triploidy, fetal heart sounds possible (there is presence of fetal tissue), slightly elevated bHCG
paget disease is linked with what type of ca?
estrogen increases the secretion of what hormone?
LH (FSH = ++Estrogen = -- FSH and ++LH = ++progesterone = --FSH and --LH)
PCOS has what symptoms
increase in androgens (hirsutism), increased estrogen, polycystic ovaries, irregular menses
testosterone can become two molecules, which are:
estrogen (via aromatase) or DHT (dihyrotestosterone) via 5alpha reductase
what cells produce estrogen?
granulosa cells (from FSH Stimulation along with androstenedione from theca cells)
what cells synthesize progesterone?
Theca interna cells - from LH stimulation
what happens in meiosis 1?
the two full chromosomes separate from each other (leaving 1 chromosome with two sister chromatids in each cell )
what happens in meiosis 2
the sister chromatids are separated
trisomy 21 happens at meiosis 1 or 2?
increased chorionic epithelium growth, villi swelling excessively - what am I?
molar (hydatidiform) cyst
failure to start puberty and anosmia
kallman sydnrome =-- in GnRH cells
how many days after ovulation until beta HCG is testable
what is the koilocyte and what is it associated with?
cells in HPV -
what serotypes are low risk HPV? see a condyloma accumulata
HPV 6 and 11
what serotypes are high risk HPV? see dysplasia (CIN)
HPV 16, 18
very thin skin (or thick) leukoplakia of the vulva, usually elderly? benign
Lichen Sclerosis (lichen sclerosis chronicus)
what is adenosis?
when the upper 2/3 (from the mullerian duct) of the vagina is lined with it's original columnar et - not the squamous cell et from the ant 1/3 of the vagina that normally happens (form the Urogenital Sinus)
what stage are oocytes in while resting?
prophase of meiosis 1
what stage are the oocytes right after ovulation?
metaphase of meiossi 2
what has an ultrasound image of a snow storm?
a complete mole
what molar pregnancy has an ++uterus for gestational age?
abrupt painful bleeding in the prego mother after car accident
after birth the placenta doesn't come off, what happened?
the decidual layer of the placenta has mal-attached. placenta accreta/increta/percreta
usually painless bleeding after 20 wks of gestation? most likely:
low bHCG, pain, ultrasound shows mass in the lateral abdomen of prego.
ectopic prego. usually in the ampulla of fallopian tube
postpartum infection. left over remnants. bacterial infection
how ot treat it?
tx with gentamicin and clindamycin
normal sized uterus, pain, bleeding, dyspareunia, chocolate cyst in ovary?
cyclic pelvic pain, bleeding, normal sized uterus
enlarged uterus, but soft. dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia
postmenopausal bleeding, cyclic orientation without ovulation
multiple discrete masses in the uterus, premenopausal, smooth muscle tumor
most common tumor in gyn section?
obese female, failure to achieve pregnancy, LH:FSH high at a 3:1 ration
Polycystic ovary syndrome
most common primary cancer of the ovary?
where does the hcg come from?
what is kallmann syndrome?
primary amenorrhea - --GnRH from hypothalamus
what is the effect of extra estrogen on throid hormones?
the extra estrogen causes a ++ in Thyroid binding globulin = ++ in total T4 and T3 (but same amount of free T3 = asymptomatic)
most common ovarian tumor, uterine bleeding, call exner bodies?
granulosa cell tumor
what is the main thing to ask for in hx of a patient with ectopic pregnancy?
have they had PID?
what cells release inhibin?
granulosa cells (negative feedback to fsh)
first line anti htn meds in prego?
alpha methyldopa, labetalol, hydralazine
what ligament attaches the ovary to the uterus?
the ovarian ligament
what ligament attaches the ovaray to the peritoneum?
the infundibulopelvic ligament/suspensory ligament
what ligament attaches the fallopian tube, the uterus and the ovary to the peritoneum?
the broad ligament
what ligament attaches the uterus to the labia majora
the round ligament
what do these do to the risk of ovarian cancer?
BRCA 1/2 = ++
previously prego / breastfeeding = --
OCP = --
Late menopause = ++
PCOS = ++
infertility = ++
endometriosis = ++
what ligament houses the nerves and vessels that supply the ovary?
the suspensory ligament
what tumor is common after a molar pregnancy, can also be seen after birth
choriocarcinoma - made up of trophoblast (cyto and syncytio)
endometrial glandular tissue is moving deep in to the myometrium
what is the worst complication if someone had an infection with n. gonorrhea?
infertility via PID and it's factors
japanese female presents with bilateral ovarian tumors, and acanthosis nigricans, what is the tumor?
gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis
bilateral tumor of the ovaries, calcification seen
(psammoma bodies) = serous cystadenocarcinoma
best tx for BV?
what does bHCG stimulate?
the corpus luteum (to secrete progesterone) -
what trimester is bHCG most important
2nd and 3rd trimester the placenta synthesizes it's own estriol and progesterone
what hormone is bhcg most common to?
what causes the temperature spike around the time of ovulation?
the increase in progesterone
is sheehan syndrome a problem with the anterior pituitary or with the hypothalamus?
with the anterior pituitary
what are schiller duval bodies indicative of?
yolk sac tumor - along with elevated a feto protein
bleeding in the third trimester with -- baby health
bleeding in the second or third trimester, usually with a previous c section
what is placenta accreta?
part of placenta left in after birth = lots of bleeding post birth