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38 terms

Chapter 5 Road to Independence

Road To Independence
STUDY
PLAY
revenue
incoming money
boycott
a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
writs of assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled
non-importation
an agreement that pledged not to import or use goods imported from Great Britain
resolution
a formal expression of opinion.
repeal
to cancel an act or law
effigy
a crude dummy or image representing a hated person or group
propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
militia
civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army
minutemen
colonial militia volunteer who was prepared to fight at a minutes notice
loyalist
A person who supported the British during the American Revolution
patriot
A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution
petition
a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority
preamble
introduction
Sugar Act
halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Townshend Acts
Laws passed by Parliament in 1767 that set taxes on imports to the colonies
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Coercive Acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
Continental Congress
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Battle of Lexington and Concord
These two battles occurred on the same day. They were the first military conflicts of the war. Lexington was the first one, in which a shot suddenly rang out as minutemen were leaving the scene at Lexington. Fighting then occurred. The British won the brief fight. In the second battle, Concord, the British had gone onto Concord and, finding no arms, left to go back to Boston. On the bridge back, they met 300 minutemen. The British were forced to retreat, and the Americans claimed victory.
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
Olive Branch Petition
Still pledge loyalty to King George III but are still asking Britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and British troops out of the colonies; George didn't want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Samuel Adams
Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Patrick Henry
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)
Paul Revere
American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
John Jay
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
John Hancock
American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress
Benjamin Franklin
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Thomas Jefferson
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.