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50 terms

Sociology Review 2

STUDY
PLAY
Jane is 49 year-old woman of Irish-German descent. What do these characteristics have in common?
Ascribed
Signs that identify a position in society someone occupies are referred to as __________
status symbols
A position in society that someone holds that cuts across other status they hold, such as being a high-ranking Army officer, college president, or handicapped would be considered their ________
master status
The difference between status and role is that __________
play a role, occupy a status
Which of the following IS NOT one of the five functional requisites that every society must fulfill to survive?
Maintain traditional gender relationships
According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend on one another and become interdependent. This form of social cohesion he termed ___________
organic solidarium
An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called _______
tramaturgy
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the ___________
Thomas therom
Ferdinand Tonnies' term for the type of society he referred to, as "the intimate community" was _________. The term he used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was __________
Gemeinschaft, Gesellschaft
In Professor Jones' social problems course students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as "Dr. J's class" and feel significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. In view of this which concept best describes Dr. Jones' class?
Group
The "dawn of civilization" is most associated with which social revolution?
Agricultural
The _________ is to the post industrial societies as the ____________ is to the emerging biotech society
microchip, decoding of the human genome system
What is the key feature of post-industrial societies as it relates to the work force?
Transmission and use of information services dominating the work force.
There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nationals all over the world. Sociologically, Which concept best describes these fans?
Category
A group characterized by intimate, long term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a __________
primary
Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________
out groups
Different situations require that different styles of leadership be used to meet the primary goals of the group. Imagine a tour group is lost in the desert. Which type of leadership would be best for the tour guides to adopt?
Authoritarian Leader
Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six "stooges" and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?
Salman Asch
What did Stanley Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiment demonstrate?
A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others in order to do so by a person in a position of authority
How would an organization minimize group think from occurring?
By giving free range to diverse opinion
An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is __________
rationality
What is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life?
The past is the best guide for what should be done in the present
In which two societies are people evaluated based on "the bottom line"?
Industrial/ post-industrial
The early theorist who proposed religious beliefs were the key to whether or not a society embraced Capitalism was
favor
Samantha works in a place that is hierarchial, has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, and in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works in an
Bureaucracy
The experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor that results in a feeling of powerlessness is called __________
Alienation
The Boy Scouts, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, most civic organizations, and all other organizations that people join because of mutual interest are all examples of ___________
voluntary associations
The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called ________________
iron law of oligarchy
It is believed by some sociologists that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperating in their won exploitation. This belief is most aligned with the _________ perspective
conflict
People work more effectively in small groups and work teams than in a centralized command structure. What is the sociological explanation for that?
Small groups form primary relationships there by reducing alienation
Violation of norms and rules that are written into laws are officially called _________
crime
The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?
Not the act itself but the reactions of others that makes it deviant
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called _____________
degradation ceremony
The term degradation ceremony was coined by the sociologist _____________
Herald Garfield
Based on the differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?
The families involved with a history of crime
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of the _________ theory
labeling
The theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is the _________ theory
strain
John desires the best things in life...a fast car, designer clothes, and membership to an exclusive club.But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?
Innovator
Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression and used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?
Conflict Perspective
How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workforce who are subject to layoffs?
Marginal working class
What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?
Wealth, Power, Prestige
Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?
Two
When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to __________________________
a property owed and income made by the person less debts
Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright's model of the social class, Ruth would be classified as a
Bourgeoisie
What are the four variables Gilbert and Kahl used to develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the US and other capitalist countries?
Education, Power, Property, and Prestige
What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?
Intergenerational ability
Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder, which causes one class to increase while others decrease, is called _________ mobility
structural
What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?
Race and Ethnicity
The most likely segment of the population in the US to experience poverty today are ______________
children
What region of the US has the highest clustering of people in the poverty?
The South