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Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses

Pearson Human Anatomy & Physiology, Marieb/Hoehn
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A "foreign" molecule which can invoke the immune response is called a(n)

- hapten.
- antigen.
- antibody.
- colony-stimulating factor.
- immunoglobulin.
- antigen.
Active artificially acquired immunity is a result of

- contact with a pathogen.
- vaccination.
- antibodies passed on from mother to fetus through the placenta.
- injection of an immune serum.
- antibodies passed on from mother to baby through breast milk.
- vaccination.
Antibodies are produced in cells called

- natural killer cells.
- beta cells.
- plasma cells.
- helper T-cells.
- memory cells.
- plasma cells.
Complement proteins work by

- creating an impermeable barrier.
- phagocytosis of target cells.
- forming pores in the membranes of target cells.
- producing antibodies.
- neutralization of antigens.
- forming pores in the membranes of target cells.
Cytotoxic T cells kill target cells

- by releasing oxidizing agents.
- by phagocytosis.
- through injection of tumor necrosis factor.
- by secreting antibodies.
- through insertion of perforins into the target's membrane.
- through insertion of perforins into the target's membrane.
Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the thymus are

- T lymphocytes.
- B lymphocytes.
- NK cells.
- T lymphocytes.
Saliva and lacrimal fluids contain this enzyme that destroys bacteria.

- Pepsin
- Amylase
- Salivase
- Trypsin
- Lysozyme
- Lysozyme
The immune cell that allows for subsequent recognition of an antigen resulting in a secondary response is called a(n)

- basophil.
- antigen-presenting cell.
- helper T-cell.
- plasma cell.
- memory cell.
- memory cell.
The primary mechanism of antibody action is

- phagocytosis.
- agglutination.
- neutralization.
- complement activation.
- precipitation.
- complement activation.
These molecules are secreted by leukocytes and macrophages and result in a fever.

- Pyrogens
- Heparin
- Antibodies
- Histamine
- Keratin
- Pyrogens
This type of antibody binds to mast cells and basophils, thus invoking inflammation.

- IgA
- IgG
- IgE
- IgM
- IgD
- IgE
This type of disease results from the inability of the immune system to distinguish self from non-self antigens.

- SCID
- Allergy
- Anaphylaxis
- Autoimmune disease
- Immunodeficiency
- Autoimmune disease
When a localized area exhibits increased capillary filtration, hyperemia, and swelling, this is an indication that

- an immune response is underway.
- antigens are present.
- fever is developing.
- inflammation is occurring.
- antibodies are phagocytizing target cells.
- inflammation is occurring.
Which cell does NOT have a direct role in phagocytosis?

- Basophil
- Eosinophil
- Macrophage
- Neutrophil
- Kupffer cell
- Basophil
Which cells phagocytize antigen-bearing cells and bind them to their MHCs?

- NK cells
- Antigen presenting cells
- All immune cells
- Helper T-cells
- Plasma cells
- Antigen presenting cells
Which cells stimulate both arms of the immune response?

- Basophils
- Killer T-cells
- Plasma cells
- Helper T-cells
- Complement cells
- Helper T-cells
Which nonspecific defense cells specialize in attacking cancer cells and virus-infected cells?

- Natural killer cells
- Basophils
- Helper T-lymphocytes
- Plasma cells
- Macrophages
- Natural killer cells
Which of the following is a nonspecific barrier defense?

- Complements
- Natural killer cells
- Mucous membranes
- Macrophages
- Antibodies
- Mucous membranes
Which statement below is characteristic of a secondary humoral response?

- It triggers fever.
- It only occurs in the spleen.
- It results in less antibody secretion.
- It results in less memory cell circulation.
- It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.
- It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.
Which type of molecule is produced by viral-infected cells to communicate to non-infected cells of the presence of a virus?

- Complement
- Interferon
- Interleukin
- Pyrogen
- Antigen
- Interferon
Which of the following is NOT a surface barrier to pathogen influx?

- Complement cascade
- Saliva and tears
- Skin secretions
- Mucous membranes
- Complement cascade
Which cells of the innate immune response are responsible for detecting and destroying parasites?

- Natural killer cells
- Mast cells
- Eosinophils
- Neutrophils
- Eosinophils
Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?

- Pain
- Redness
- Heat
- Opsonization
- Swelling
- Opsonization
The process that begins when a helper T-cell binds to an MHC class II protein on a displaying cell is known as

- T-cell proliferation.
- self antigen recognition.
- costimulation.
- antigen proliferation.
- costimulation.
All of the following are examples of autoimmune disorders EXCEPT

- Grave's disease.
- systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Myasthenia gravis
- sickle cell anemia.
- rheumatoid arthritis.
- sickle cell anemia.
All of the following are examples of characteristics of adaptive defenses EXCEPT

- they have memory.
- they are systemic.
- They are usually initiated in a lymph node.
- we are born with them.
- they are specific.
- we are born with them.
Which of the following is a primary lymphoid organ?

- Spleen
- Thymus
- Peyer's patch
- Lymph node
- Tonsil
- Thymus
Which of the following is the hallmark of the humoral immune response?

- Antigen presentation
- Phagocytosis
- Binding of antibody to the antigen.
- Cell lysis by T cells
- Interferon production
- Binding of antibody to the antigen.
Which of the following is not an innate defense mechanism of the body?

- fever
- B lymphocytes
- skin
- inflammation
- B lymphocytes
Which of the following does not originate from a monocyte?

- microglia
- Kupffer cells
- natural killer cells
- free macrophages
- natural killer cells
The ability of a phagocyte to adhere to a particular particle depends on its ability to

- coat the particle with protein.
- recognize the carbohydrate signature of the particle.
- produce a respiratory rush.
- coat the particle with antibodies.
- recognize the carbohydrate signature of the particle.
Which of the following statements is false about natural killer cells?

- They attach infected or cancerous cells that lack self-surface receptors.
- They are large granular lymphocytes.
- They are not specific for each antigen.
- They destroy cells by phagocytosis.
- They destroy cells by phagocytosis.
Which of the following inflammatory chemicals is derived from arachidonic acid?

- perforin
- bradykinin
- prostaglandin
- histamine
- prostaglandin
Which of the following steps is the first step in an inflammatory response?

- release of leukocytosis inducing factor
- adhesion of the neutrophils cell adhesion molecules to antigen
- positive chemotaxis
- diapedesis
- release of leukocytosis inducing factor
In the respiratory burst, _____________ are released, which have potent cell-killing ability.

- neutrophils
- platelet derived growth factors
- free radicals
- histamines
- free radicals
Leukotrienes cause

- dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area.
- neutrophils to migrate to an area of inflammation.
- the release of digestive enzymes outside the cell.
- apoptosis of cells.
- dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area.
Toll-like receptors are found on

- lymphocytes.
- mast cells.
- macrophages.
- neutrophils.
- macrophages.
Which of the following statements about infectious granulomas is false?

- The tuberculosis bacillus can cause them.
- They contain a central region of infected macrophages.
- They provide life-long protection to the host against the causative pathogen.
- They appear as tumor-like growths.
- They provide life-long protection to the host against the causative pathogen.
Interferons can be used to treat all of the following except

- cancer.
- muscular dystrophy.
- Hepatitis C.
- viral infections.
- muscular dystrophy.
All of the following are functions of interferon except that

- it mobilizes natural killer cells.
- it interferes with viral replication in affected cells.
- it only occurs naturally.
- it is not viral specific.
- it only occurs naturally.
Which of the following processes is most similar to complement fixation?

- chemotaxis
- diapedesis
- antibody formation
- blood clotting
- blood clotting
The classical and alternate pathway for complement fixation converge at

- production of C-reactive protein.
- lysis of the foreign cell.
- insertion of the membrane attack complex.
- the release of factor B, D, and P.
- insertion of the membrane attack complex.
Which of the following minerals needed for bacterial reproduction does both the liver and spleen sequester during a fever?

- zinc
- phosphorous
- magnesium
- copper
- zinc
Which of the following does not apply to the specific defensive system?

- It has memory.
- It is immediate.
- It is specific.
- It is systemic.
- It is immediate.
Antigen is a contraction of

- antigen etc.
- antigenic determinants.
- anti-genetic.
- antibody genes.
- antigenic determinants.
Which hypersensitivity is caused by T-lymphocytes?

- acute
- subacute
- chronic
- delayed
- delayed
In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restrictive process

- T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative selection.
- T-lymphocytes with self-antigens only go through positive selection.
- T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative and positive selection.
- immature T-lymphocytes go through apoptosis.
- T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative selection.
"Somatic recombination" refers to

- the selection of antigens the body will respond to.
- the somatic response to recombinant DNA.
- the shuffling of genetic fragments within each lymphocyte as it becomes immune competent.
- the rearrangement of cells in order to produce an immune response.
- the shuffling of genetic fragments within each lymphocyte as it becomes immune competent.
All of the following are names of antigen-presenting cells except

- macrophages.
- B-lymphocytes.
- T-lymphocytes.
- Langerhan's cells.
- T-lymphocytes.
Gene guns are used to shoot

- antigens with genes.
- genes that prevent hypersensitive reactions into lymphocytes.
- naked "DNA" viral vaccines into the skin.
- pathogens in the blood stream.
- naked "DNA" viral vaccines into the skin.
T-lymphocytes that bind to an antigen before co-stimulation takes place will cause

- these lymphocytes to become tolerant to that antigen.
- cause less tissue damage than when co-stimulation takes place first.
- these lymphocytes to die.
- cause plasma cells to produce autoantibodies.
- these lymphocytes to become tolerant to that antigen.
Without __________ there is no adaptive immune response.

- T-lymphocytes
- antibodies
- plasma cells
- B-lymphocytes
- T-lymphocytes
In the list below, which type of cell is involved in adaptive immunity?


- Macrophages
- B cells
- Natural killer cells
- Neutrophils
- B cells
Which of the following is not a sign of inflammation?


- Swelling
- Redness
- Pain
- Fever
- Fever
The first step in inflammation is:


- phagocyte mobilization.
- tissue injury.
- vasodilation.
- the release of pro-inflammatory signals.
- tissue injury.
Which of the following is not a property of interferons (IFNs)?


- IFNs stimulate B cells to produce antibodies.
- IFNs have antiviral activity.
- IFNs activate macrophages.
- IFNs have an anticancer role.
- IFNs stimulate B cells to produce antibodies.
Humoral immunity is provided by:


- complement proteins.
- T cells.
- interferons.
- antibodies.
- antibodies.
________ are substances that can trigger the adaptive defenses and provoke an immune response.


- Haptens
- Antibodies
- Interleukins
- Antigens
- Antigens
________ is the property of lymphocytes that prevents them from attacking the body's own cells.


- Immunological memory
- Self-tolerance
- Antigenicity
- Immunocompetence
- Self-tolerance
Self-reactive B cells are eliminated in the:


- bone marrow.
- lymph nodes.
- thymus.
- spleen.
- bone marrow.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a secondary immune response?


- A secondary immune response is slower than a primary immune response.
- A secondary immune response is started by naïve lymphocytes, while a primary immune response is initiated by memory cells.
- A secondary immune response lasts longer than a primary immune response.
- A secondary immune response does produce as many antibodies compared to a primary immune response.
- A secondary immune response lasts longer than a primary immune response.
A vaccination works to establish:


- natural passive immunity.
- natural active immunity.
- artificial passive immunity.
- artificial active immunity.
- artificial active immunity.
Which is correctly matched?


- B cells: suppress the immune response once the foreign antigen has been cleared from the body.
- Helper T cells: recognize virus-infected cells
- Cytotoxic T cells: activated by antigens bound to MHC I
- Regulatory T cells: make antibodies
- Cytotoxic T cells: activated by antigens bound to MHC I
MHC II proteins are found on:


- red blood cells.
- cytotoxic T cells.
- antigen-presenting cells.
- helper T cells.
- antigen-presenting cells.
What is the second step of T cell activation?


- Chemotaxis
- Antigen binding
- Anergy
- Co-stimulation
- Co-stimulation
Which of the following is mismatched?


- B cells: can be activated to produce antibodies
- Helper T cells: directly target and kill cancer cells
- Cytotoxic T cells: carry out cellular immune responses
- Regulatory T cells: release inhibitory cytokines to dampen the immune response
- Helper T cells: directly target and kill cancer cells
A graft that is transplanted from one person to a genetically identical individual (i.e., to an identical twin) is an example of a(n) __________.


- Allograft
- Autograft
- Isograft
- Xenograft
- Isograft