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anything that occupies space and has mass


pure substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means

trace elements

elements critical to health that make up less than 0.01% of body mass


a substance containing 2 or more elements that are chemically combined in a fixed rate


smallest partical of an element


a subatomic partical with a unit of positive charge


a subatomic partical with a unit of negitive charge


a subatomic partical with no charge


in an atom the center core that contains protons and electrons and most of the mass

atomic number

the number of protons in an element


a different form of an element that has a different number a neutrons but the same number of protons

radioactive isotope

an isotope where the nucleus decays over time giving off raditation. they are useful in medcine and research

ionic bond

a bond where an atom transfers electrons to other atoms in order to have a complete outer energy level


atoms that have a charge as a result of gaining or losing electrons

chemical reactions

breaking of ols and formation of new chemical bonds, the result in new substances


the starting material for a reaction


the end result of a reaction

4 atoms that make up 96% of all living things

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

atomic mass

the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

polar molecules

a molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges

hydrogen bonds

a bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another atom


the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another


the type af attraction that occurs between unlike molecules


a uniform mixture of two or more substances


substances in a solution the disolves the other substance


the substance that is dissolved

aqurous solution

where water is the solvent


compound that has more H+ ions than other ions and that mesures less than 7 on the ph scale


a compound that has more OH- ions than other ions ans that mesures more than 7 on the ph scale

ph scale

describes how acidic or basic a solution is


a covalent molecule that is slightly polar and that has unique properties

temperature moderation

a property of water that allows water to heat up and cool down slower because the hydrogen bonds have to break or form


same throughout


has two or more substances that can be seperated (a supension)

ph steps

each ph step (ie 7to 8) is a ten fold increase (so 8 is ten times more basic than 7)

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