Terms in this set (146)
FrequencyThis is a count/tally of the number of instances of a target behavior. With frequency you would be tracking a discrete behavior (clear beginning and end)rateRate is a combination of the frequency count divided by your observation time. Rate can be an effective method of measurement for behaviors that are frequent and discrete (clear start and end)DurationThis is the total length of time the target behavior lasts. The behavior must have a clear start and end the or the behavior.Inter Response timeThis is the time between the end of a behavior and the start of a new behavior.LatencyIt is the time from the delivery of the SD (discriminative stimulus) until the start of the target behavior.Discontinuous measurementDiscontinuous measurement procedures only measure only measure a sample of the target behavior. This method does not track every instance of the behavior.Partial interval recordingThis measurement includes recording the prescence or absence of a target behavior during a set interval of time. It overestimates the occurrence of the target behavior.Whole interval recordingThis measurement includes recording the presence or absence of a target behavior during the whole interval. (Marked if the behavior happened during the whole time of the interval).Momentary time samplingThis measurement involved recording the presence or absence of a target behavior at the end of a present interval.PlacheckIt is a variation of momentary time sampling which works best for group situations or where a larger number of clients require data collection. This one provides the least amount of of information because it only captures a small portion of the target behavior.Data and graphsGraphing data allows for the ability to analyze and visually inspect the data to determine trends levels and variability within data.Bar graphDisplays total frequency/count across different behaviors using columns/bars.Line graphDisplays change over time and is used to demonstrate a relationship between two variables.Cumulative recordDisplays an increasing total amount of responses/goals over time. This follows a step wise fashion.Scatter plotsDisplays the strength, form and direction of the relationship between two quantitative variables. Similar to a line graph except data points are not connected.Semi-logarithmic chartsDisplays exponential growth of a target behavior over time.Preference assessmentsThis is a set of procedures which, depending on the methods, involves some combination of presenting an individual with preferred/potentially preferred stimuli to determine the most-least preferred stimuli.Helpful tips for planning a preference assessment1. Observe the individual and see the types of the items they like to interact with. 2. Consider items that have similar qualities but are not directly related. 3. Ensure that items not a part of the preference assessment are not in the way or distracting. 4. Have some fun with the process, the purpose of this process is to determine potential reinforcers.Single item preference assessmentThis assessment entails an individual being presented with a single stimulus per opportunity to engage with it and then removing that single stimulus and presenting a new one. The total duration of engagement is recorded for each stimuli presented.Free Operant preference assessmentThis assessment involves a variety of preferred and potentially preferred stimuli set out and available for the client. The RBT will record which items the client interacts with and the total duration of interaction. Selected items are put back into the array. The RBT is not to engage at this time and the client can interact freely with the items.Forced choice assessmentThis assessment involves a variety of preferred and potential all preferred stimuli being presented to the client in pairs. Then allow them to engage in the selected item for 30-60 seconds.Multiple stimulus preferrence assessment with replacement.This assessment involves a variety of preferred and potentially preferred stimuli set out and available for the client. The client will engage with the items for 30-60 seconds and the selected items are put back into the array.Multiple stimulus preference assessment without replacementThis assessment involves a variety of preferred and potentially preferred stimuli set out and available for the client. The client would engage with the item for 30 to 60 seconds and then the selected items are not put back into the array.ABC DataAntecedent Behavior Consequence. ABC data collection is a form of continuous data collection meaning that the observer is recording every instance of a target problem behavior.Setting eventSetting events are the events that surround a target behavior, but do not cue the behavior. Such as if an aggression happened when a client was told to do math worksheets then the setting event would be doing the worksheets.AntecedentThis is what happens immediately before a behavior/cues a behavior to occur.BehaviorThe behavior is the operational definition of the target behavior. Such as an aggression is any touching of a staff member.ConsequenceThis is what happens immediately after an instance of the target behavior.Discrete trial teachingReferred to as DTT. It is a model of teaching which uses the principles of ABA to present discrete trials in rapid success with a clear antecedent, expected behavior and consequence.Naturalistic teachingTeaching skills which can be generalized to the natural environment. This way is client leads the teaching and not teacher lead.Task analysis (chain)It involves breaking down a larger goal into smaller. Teachable steps and linking these smaller steps together in a chain.Forward chainingThe client is given an independent opportunity to produce the first behavior/step on a behavior chain. The clients are given the chance to complete the first step independently and then if they do so then they get to do the next step independently then the next step.Backward chainingThe client is given an independent opportunity to produce the last behaviors/step on a behavior chain. The client is given the opportunity to do the last step independently and then if they do they can do the next step in the chain independently.Total task chainingThe client is given the opportunity to complete the entire behavior chain and will be given assistance as needed for the steps they cannot complete independently.ShapingYou are differently reinforcing approximations to a larger target behavior.Discrimination trainingThis procedure involves reinforcing the target behavior and extinguishing the other behavior in the presence of other stimuli. Such as when asked to touch dog the client would only be given access to reinforcement if they touch the dog.Discriminative stimulusThe technical definition of an SD stimulus which indicates that a particular response will be reinforced.S-delta extinction stimulusThe technical definition of an S-delta stimulus which indicates that a particular response will not be reinforced. If the client touched any picture other than the dog they will not be reinforced.Stimulus control transferStimulus control occurred when the duration, rate latency, or amplitude of a response is altered by the presence of an antecedent stimulus. Example, brining in a bag of McDonalds may increase the likelyhood of a child asking for McDonalds.Stimulus generalizationThis occurs when a stimulus shares some similar physical characteristic with controlling stimulus evokes the same behavior as the controlling stimulus. For example a child has a dog names Coby and calls all dogs Coby that they see from now on.Stimulus discriminationThis occurs when a new stimulus, which may or may not be similar to controlling stimulus, does not evoke the same response as the controlling stimulus. For example, the client may be able to identify that real sharks are dangerous but you sharks are not.Physical promptThis can be used as full physical prompt (hand over hand) or as a partial (tap elbow). It is the most intrusive and are typically faded as quickly as possible.Verbal promptThis can be a full verbal prompt (giving the client verbal response) or partial verbal response ( giving the client the beginning of the sound).Model promptThis prompt involves the instructor demonstrating the target behavior.Gestural promptThis prompt involves using some form of gesture which indicates the target response of the learner.Positional/proximity promptThis prompt involves placing the target stimulus closer to the client to increase the likelihood they select that stimulus.Visual promptThis prompt can be used to support with scheduling, predictability, and behavior chains. Such as having a visual schedule for brushing teeth.Least to most promptingThis process involves giving the client an independent opportunity to produce the skill and successively in smallest the amount of prompt required to produce the target behavior. For example starting with just a vocal prompt then using partial prompting then full prompting hand over hand.Most to least promptingThis process involves giving the client enough support to produce the skill/target behavior. Such as you physically prompt the client first then vocally prompt and so on.Time delay prompt fadingThis process involves giving a small delay after an instruction is given before delivering a prompt. For example if you ask a client to get dressed you briefly wait for them to begin the sequence.Prompt hierarchy (least to most intrusive)1. Independent 2. Gesture 3. Visual 4. Verbal 5. Model 6. Partial physical 7. Full physicalToken systemToken economies provide a system of generalized conditioned reinforcers for engaging in the target behaviors to exchange for a menu of backup reinforcers.Seven components of a token economy1. Target behaviors. These should be operationally defined in observable and measurable terms. 2. Type of tokens such as stars or stickers. 3. Menu of backup reinforcers such as food. 4. Scheduled reinforcement, for example VR2 schedule. 5. Criteria for exchange ( how many tokens are required to get a backup reinforcer?) 6. Where/when tokens will be exchanged for backup reinforcers. 7. Response cost (this should only be used when there is a specific intervention stating that tokens can be removed). This involves the removal of tokens for a problem behavior. This would be considered a punishment procedure and should be communicated with your supervisor.differential reinforcementThis focuses on building functional replacement behaviors for problem behaviors or increasing functionally appropriate behaviors already in a clients repertoire.Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)This intervention involves reinforcing any behavior other than the problem behavior. (If the client does not partake in spitting behavior for 10 minutes they will get reinforcement)Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA)This intervention involves reinforcing a functional replacement behavior that serves the same function as the problem behavior.Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviorThis intervention involves reinforcing a behavior which cannot physically occur during the same time as the problem behavior. (Such as a client hits and the client is reinforces when they have their hands in their pockets).Differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior (DRL)This intervention involves reinforcing a lower, but not zero, rate of behavior. This is typically used for behaviors which are socially acceptable but happen too often.Differential reinforcement of high rates of behavior (DRH)This intervention involves reinforcing a desirable behavior which is not occurring at a high enough rate. For example, if we wanted to increase the amount of requests our client has thorough out the, we would set a criteria and if the student reached that criteria more, they would gain access to a reserved reinforcer.Differential reinforcement of diminishing rates of behavior (DRD)This intervention involves reinforcing a progressively lower criterion of the target behavior until completely zero. This is used for problem behaviors which do not serve a functional purpose or are socially inappropriate.ExtinctionExtinction means the removal of reinforcement. For example if a problem behavior was maintained by escape the removal of escape would put the behavior on extinction.Extinction burstIt happens initially when the reinforcement maintaining behavior is removed and the individual will increase the rate that the problem behavior occurs.Spontaneous recoveryThis happens when the problem behaviors reappear after they have been put on extinction for some duration of time.ResurgenceThis occurs when the problem behavior put on extinction reappears as a result of the schedule of reinforcement being thinned for the alternative/replacement behavior.Attention extinctionAttention is removed, this is also known as planned ignoring in some cases.Tangible extinctionThis procedure involves completely denying accesses to tangible item/activity. For example by blocking the use of a light up toy by locking it up.Escape extinctionThis procedure involves preventing a client from leaving a demand situation.Sensory extinctionThis procedure involves preventing a client from engaging in a sensory behavior. For example If a client bites their hands they may be required to wear gloves.Session notesSession notes provide a variety of purpose which may include supporting insurance/billing, court subpoena or records, data analysis, planning, future programming, problem solving, and communicating across teams.Objective writingObjective writing means that you're writing session notes exactly as you see and hear.ProfessionalismBest practice would state that we use professionalism across all aspects of service delivery. This includes working with families, external providers, and co-workers.Incident reportsThese are used to document most common injuries.How to maintain client dignity1. Talk about clients using objective and professional language. Use operational definitions name and providing some measurement around the behavior such as he participated in 5 instances of biting behavior today. 2. Do not refer to the client as a pain in the neck, or annoying. 3. Try to allow for as much independence as possible with personal care routines, as well as privacy when it is okay to do so. 4: Do not label clients as their diagnosis. 5. Avoid over generalizations such as saying all children with autism do this.Professional boundariesIt is important that the relationship with the client and family remains as a therapeutic relationship and that professional boundaries are not crossed.Working in the homeDecline food that the clients try to give you, and the lines can start to be blurred when providing client care in a clients home.Dual relationshipsThis occurs when a relationship with the client of family happens outside of behavior analytic service delivery such as the clients parents asking you to attend personal events like birthday parties.Conflicts of interestA conflicts of interest is when someone has access to information and/or has external stake or factor which may affect their judgement or ability to deliver behavior analytic services.Social mediaDo not accept a client or family member as a friend on Facebook or on any other social media platform.Supervision requirements1. An RBT must receive 5% of the hours spent delivering/providing behavior-analytic services per month. 2. Supervision must include at least two face to face, synchronous contacts per month with having at lest one of those having the supervisor directly observe the RBT. 3. An RBT must keep documentation of supervision for a minimum of 7 years. 4. Inform the BACB of any changes in name, address, or email within 30 days.Role of an RBTRBT's are responsible for implementation of behavior analytic programming and intervention. RBT's provide direct service of the recipients of behavior analysis. Intervention and programming should be designed by a BCBA or BCBA-D. The role of the RBT is not to design or create plans, but rather implement them.Example of situations of where you would seek clinical direction.1. A parent wants explanation of intervention strategies/direction of programming. 2. You are unsure of how to run a specific program. 3. You are unsure of a teaching strategy. 4. You do not understand components of a behavior reduction plan/skill acquisition plan/behavior intervention plan. 5. You have feedback on a revision to a program or feel a program needs revision. 5. You need support with a personal learning objections/performance plans. IShaping process1. Operationally defined target behavior (e.g. brushing teeth, waving hands, etc.). 2. Determine baseline level or current level of producing the target behavior. 3. List all of the steps of the target behavior (task analysis). 4. Teach the skill and differentials reinforce independence of the current step. 5. When the current step is mastered, put this step on extinction and differentially reinforce the next step.Some steps for naturalistic teaching1. Follow the clients lead. This focuses on the clients motivation to direct what activity or event teaching will occur. For example, a child may lead you to a train set. 2. Reinforcement should be related to the activity. 3. Motivation should be embedded in the activity. Such as if a child like trains going to the train set would be the motivation operation. 4. Mastered skills should be interspersed with the new skills being targeted during naturalistic teaching.Components of a discrete trial1. Discriminative stimulus the instruction. 2. The target behavior/response. 3. A consequence. This can be reinforcement or error correction depending on the response.TopographicalDefined on some observable and measurable characteristic of the behavior.Functional definitionBehavior that falls into a common function.Skills assessmentThey help determine where the clients are across a a variety of domains.Curriculum based assessmentThey are a form of direct assessment of targeted behaviors and skills in a variety of a mix of areas such as math, language, spelling, and writing.Baseline dataThe purpose of a baseline is to determine where a clients skills or ability is at in regards to a target behavior or goal.Assist with individuals assessment proceduresRBT's role is to assist the BCBA by paring, collecting ABC data if necessary and collecting assessment data based on the learner's profile (manding, listener skills, motor imitation, etc).Daily functional living skills assessmentThese assessments focus on skills people require to function across all environments.Social skills assessmentsAs an RBT you may be asked to run social skills groups as well as assess social skills. As an RBT you may be expected to implement as well as follow teaching manuals regarding these skills.Functional behavior assessmentIt is a combination of information gathering, data collection, and functional assessment procedures used to determine possible function of a target behavior.Indirect functional behavior assessment proceduresThis is part of FBA process that involves gathering information from a variety of sources. This might include interviews, rating scales, medical reports etc. It can come from anyone such as doctors, therapists, caregivers, and teachers.Direct functional behavior proceduresThis involves directly observing the client and collecting data.Functional analysis/analog assessmentThis method sets up environmental conditions to target the four functions of behavior. A function is determined when the target behavior increases under certain environmental conditions.Components of a skills acquisition plan1. Overall goal/terminal goal for the client. 2. Steps to reach the overall goal. 3. The model of teaching used to teach the skills. 4. The type of promoting procedures to be used. 5. Mastery criteria for the goal. 6. Schedule of reinforcement. 7. A plan for generalization and maintenance checks.Session preparation1. Review data/previous season notes to get the most up to date information. 2. Ensure the workspace is clear from unneeded items or distractions. 3. Ensure that all programming and data collection materials are collected. 4. Ensure technology is charged or a charger is near by. 5. Ensure that all client reinforcers are gathered and accessible during your session. 6. Ensure that all the baseline/maintenance checks are ready to go. 7. Review any program revisions. 8. Plan your session for goals, targets, and areas to focus on.ReinforcerAny consequence which increases the future likelihood of a target behavior occurring.PunisherAny consequence which decreases the future likelihood of a target behavior occurring.Unconditioned reinforcers (primary reinforcers)These reinforce biological need so do not need to be learned such as drinking when thirsty.Conditioned reinforcers (secondary reinforcers)These reinforcers are not biological needs and depends on a learned history, like knowing that money is reinforcing and buys you things.Positive reinforcementAdding stimulus to the environment that will increase the probability of a target behavior occurring.Negative reinforcementRemoving a stimulus from the environment that increases the further probability of a target behavior occurring.Positive punishmentAdding a stimulus to the environment to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will happen again. For example giving more chores when a client did not do the chores they were given.Negative punishmentTaking away a stimulus form the environment to decrease the future probability of a target behavior occurring. For example taking away a child's toy when they throw it.Continuous reinforcementEvery response gains access to reinforcement.Intermittent/variable reinforcementWhen implementing this schedule of reinforce the not every response is reinforced. For example is only providing reinforce the after two correct responses, then 3, then 5.Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcementReinforcement is delivered immediately after the number of responses is met. For example, on an FR4 schedule the client only gets reinforced after every 4th response.Fixed interval (FI) schedule of reinforcementDepending on what the interval is set at, reinforcement is delivered immediately after the first correct response after an amount of time has passed.Variable ratio (VR) schedule of reinforcementDepending on what ratio is set at, reinforcement is delivered on an average around that number of responses.Variable interval (VI) schedule of reinforcementDepending on what the interval is set at, reinforcement is delivered on the average of the time and immediately after the first correct response after that amount of time has passed.MaintenanceThis is a check on the clients ability to retain skillsGeneralizationIt focuses on spreading teaching effects to new materials, novel situations, and new environments and maintenance focuses on the ability to retain skills that are taught.Stimulus generalizationInvolves a target behavior that occurs in the presence of one stimulus occurring in the presence of another. For example if a client sees a picture of a dog and is able to recognize a dog on the street.Response generalizationA target behavior that occurs under one set of environmental conditions occurring under another set of environmental conditions. For example if a client learned to use a spoon to eat yogurt and then randomly goes to the fridge and begins eating jello with a spoon, eating with the spoon is response generalization.General case analysisThis entails identifying common stimuli, relevant examples in natural environment, multiple examples, response requirements.Programming common stimuliTeaching using stimuli that have the critical components of the stimuli in the natural environment. For example, teaching with the same bike they would see at home and at school.Training looselyThis involves teaching a variety of miscellaneous examples which do not share the features of stimuli in the natural environment. For example, teaching using a 2D picture of a dog, a 3D toy of a dog and a real dog as examples.Indiscriminate contingenciesProviding reinforcement on an unpredictable schedule. For example using a variable ratio schedule.MeditationEnsue that you are teaching skills in the natural environment or facilitating the transfer of skills to the natural environment.Teaching multiple exemplarsIncluding multiple examples of the same stimuliTeaching negative examplesInclude examples where responding should not occur. For example having distraction pictures in an array for a receptive identification program.Methods of teaching generalization1. General case analysis, 2. Programming common stimuli, 3. Training loosely, 4. Indiscriminable contingencies, 5. Meditation, teaching multiple exemplars, teaching negative examples.MaintenanceThis is a check on the clients ability to retain skills.FunctionThe ability to quickly identify a potential function maintaining behavior can result in more effective and successful reduction of the challenging behavior.Escape maintained behaviorEscape behaviors typically look like a client trying to get out of an expectation, situation or environment.Access to tangibleTangible behaviors include behaviors which allow access to a preferred item/activity or attempt to allow access to these item activities.Access to attentionThese behaviors have a social meditation component to them, to get attention from another person.Sensory/automatic maintained behaviorsThese tend to occur across all situations and environments. Interventions typically focus on providing the client with an appropriate way to access their sensory needs.sensory extinctionThis procedure involves preventing a client from engaging in a sensory behavior.Ecological variables to report in documentation1. Sleep routines, late bedtimes, early wake ups. 2. Changes in prescribed medication or delivery of over the counter medications. 3. Illness or atypical behavior which may not be interpreted as illness. 4. Changes in routines. 5. Any challenges around eating (not eating, missing a meal.). 6. Changes to the home environment (staying at a family members home).Areas you may want to document1. Any ecological variables shared by a caregiver and/or affecting the session. 2. Programming/goals that were worked on during the session. 3. Effective reinforcers used. 4. Any challenging behaviors. 5. Any additional materials or missing items required. 6. Any objective information that another team member should know.Communiating with stakeholders (family, caregivers, and other professionals).As an RBT your role is to provide direct behavior analytic services to clients. In providing these services you may be asked to join meeting and communicate with stakeholders. Your role is not to make clinical decisions or talk about the further direction of programming. That is the role of the supervisor. If the stakeholders ask these questions you can pass the questions on to the the stakeholders and these meeting should always happen in the presence of a supervisor.Questions an RBT can answer when asked by a caregiver.1. Objective information about the session (did they eat their entire snack). 2. Objective information about the areas of focus during the session (worked on his patterning tasks session). 3. Objective information about reinforcers (client selected iPad 10 times a day). 4. General reminders or messages to pass along (the supervisor will be calling you this evening at 6 pm to discuss next steps).Questions an RBT should not be answering1. Future programming or direction of programming. 2. Rationale behind a behavior intervention plan. 3. Why staff have been assigned to a client. 4. Modifications to programming or interventions. 5. Ethical justification for programming/targets.
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Consider a binary response variable y and an explanatory variable x. The following table contains the parameter estimates of the linear probability model (LPM) and the logit model, with the associated p-values shown in parentheses.
Variable Constant x LPM −0.72(0.04)0.05(0.06) Logit −6.20(0.04)0.26(0.02)
c. What is the predicted probability implied by the loait model for x=20 and x=30 ?
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