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Chapter 22 Biology

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Vascular Tissue
specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant.
Tracheids
hollow plant cell in xylem tissue with thick cell walls that resist pressure.
Xylem
transport subsystem that carries water upward from the roots to every part of the plant.
Phloem
transports solutions if nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis.
Lignin
substance that makes cell walls rigid, enables vascular plants to grow upright and reach great heights.
Roots
underground organs that absorb water and minerals.
Leaves
photosynthetic organs that contain one or more bundles of vascular tissue.
Veins
made of xylem and phloem.
Stems
supporting structures that connect roots and leaves, carrying water and nutrients between them.
Rhizomes
creeping underground stem in ferns.
Fronds
large leaves
Sporangia
haploid spores on the underside of their fronds in tiny containers.
Sori
sporangia grouped into clusters.
Gymnosperms
bear their seeds directly on the surfaces of cones.
Angiosperms
bear their seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed.
Cones
the gametophytes of seed plants grow and mature within sporophyte structures.
Flowers
seed-bearing structure of an angiosperm.
Pollen Grain
entire male gametophyte is contained in a tiny structure.
Pollination
transfer of pollen from the make reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure.
Seed
an embryo of a plant that is encased in protective covering and surrounded by a food supply.
Embryo
an organism in its early stage of development.
Seed Coat
surrounds and protects the embryo and keeps the contents of the seed from drying out.
Sporophyte
spore-producing plant
Gametophyte
gamete producing plant
Bryophytes
non-vascular plants
Rhiziods
long, thin, cells that anchor ferns in the ground and absorb water and minerals from the surrounding soil.
Gemmae
small, multi-cellular reproductive structures
Protonema
moss spore lands in a moist place, it germinates and grows into a mass of tangled green fillimates.
Antheridia
sperm with whip like tails.
Archegonia
where egg cells are produced.