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What are the functions of the digestive system?
Provide building materials
How does mechanical digestion prepare food for chemical digestion?
chewing by teeth; churning of stomach
What happens in chemical digestion?
complex food molecules are broken down to monomers that can be absorbed
Name the parts of the digestive tract from mouth to anus.
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
Name 4 accessory structures to the digestive tract.
salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Where are tonsils located?
back of mouth on either side of tongue;
also in the nasopharynx (adenoids)
Give the chemical reaction for the activity of amylase.
Starch or glycogen + H20 -> maltoses
What is the esophageal sphincter?
muscle that closes or opens the esophagus by contracting and relaxing
What does the esophageal sphincter do?
allows the bolus to move into the esophagus and keeps stomach acid out of the esophagus
Give the chemical reaction for peptidase.
Polypeptidases or Peptidases
Polypeptides or Peptides + Water ---> amino acids or dipeptides
What are eight functions of the liver?
1. Makes bile
2. Detoxifies poisons and destroys old erythrocytes
3. Makes plasma proteins
4. Stores glucose as glycogen and breaks down glycogen to glucose
5. Makes glucose from non-carbohydrates
6. Stores iron and fat-soluble Vitamins A, D, E, K
7. Produces urea from amino acids
8. Helps regulate blood cholesterol level
What are its regions?
Cecum with attached appendix;
What are the functions of the large intestine?
Forms and eliminates wastes
Absorbs water, ions, and vitamins
What are the layers of the wall of the digestive tract and the tissue makeup of each?
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