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Name 6 types of nutrients.


What are the functions of the digestive system?

Provide energy
Provide building materials
Eliminate wastes

What does mechanical digestion do?

physically prepares food for chemical digestion

How does mechanical digestion prepare food for chemical digestion?

chewing by teeth; churning of stomach

What happens in chemical digestion?

complex food molecules are broken down to monomers that can be absorbed

What is absorption?

movement of nutrients from digestive tract into blood or lymph

What is ingestion?

intake of food

What is defection?

elimination of undigested or unabsorbed materials

What does an enzyme do?

Speed up chemical reactions

Name the parts of the digestive tract from mouth to anus.

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

Name 4 accessory structures to the digestive tract.

salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

Why do the lips appear red?

poorly keratinized; allowing blood to show through

Where are the taste buds located?

on the tongue

What do taste buds do?

detect sweet, sour, salty, and bitter tastes

What is the tongue composed of?

skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane

What bones make up the hard palate?

maxilla, palatine

What makes up the soft palate?

made up mostly of muscle

What is the uvula?

A finger like projection at the end of the soft plate

Where are tonsils located?

back of mouth on either side of tongue;
also in the nasopharynx (adenoids)

What do the tonsils do?

help protect body against disease

Name the three types of salivary glands.

parotid, sublingual, submandibular

Are salivary glands endocrine or exocrine?

exocrine glands

What do they produce?

1000-1500 ml of saliva

What is the chemical composition of saliva?

99.5 % is water; other 0.5 % are ions

What digestive enzyme is in saliva?

salivary amylase

Give the chemical reaction for the activity of amylase.

Salivary amylase
Starch or glycogen + H20 -> maltoses

What is the part of the tooth above the gumline called?

the crown

What are the parts of the crown?

layer of enamel, dentin, pulp

What is the part of the tooth below the gumline?

the root

What are the parts of the root?

dentin, pulp

Name the different types of teeth.

incisors, canine, premolars, molars

How many sets of teeth do we have?


Name each.

Primary or Deciduous
Secondary or Permanent

How many teeth in each set?

Primary 20 teeth
Secondary 32 teeth

What are dental caries?

tooth decay; cavities

What is the bolus?

chewed food mixed with saliva

What is the pharynx?

Region that receives air from nasal cavities and food from the mouth

Where does swallowing occur?

the pharynx

When the bolus leaves the pharynx, where should it go?


Is swallowing a reflex action?


What is the role of the soft palate in swallowing?

moves back to close off the nasopharynx

What is the epiglottis' role in swallowing?

covers the glottis during swallowing

What is the glottis?

opening to the larynx (voicebox)

What is the glottis' role in swallowing?

close glottis

After swallowing, where does the food go?


Do we breathe when we are swallowing?


What is the esophagus?

Tube from pharynx to the stomach

What does the esophagus do?

move bolus from the mouth to the stomach

What is peristalsis?

rhythmic contraction that move nutrients or wastes along tube

What is the esophageal sphincter?

muscle that closes or opens the esophagus by contracting and relaxing

What does the esophageal sphincter do?

allows the bolus to move into the esophagus and keeps stomach acid out of the esophagus

Where is the stomach located?

Left side of body below diaphragm

What are its rugae?

Folds of mucosa (wall of the stomach)

What do gastric glands secrete?

gastric juice

What is the chemical composition of gastric juice?

pepsinogen, HCl, and muscus

What digestive enzyme is in gastric juice?


Give the chemical reaction for pepsin.

Protein + Water ------> Polypeptides

What is the pH of the stomach?


What does this do?

Kills most bacteria

What is the role of the stomach with regard to storage?

stores food

What is chyme?

mixture of stomach fluids and food produced in the stomach

Where is the small intestine?

between stomach and large intestine

What are the small intestines regions?


What two glands send digestive juices into the duodenum?

Pancreas and Liver

What are villi and microvilli?

They are small fingerlike projections in the small intestine

What are lacteals?

Lymph containing capillaries found at the center of villi

What enzymes are produced by the small intestine?

amylase, trypsin, and lipase

Give the chemical reaction for maltase.

Maltose + Water ---> glucose + glucose

Give the chemical reaction for sucrase.

Sucrose + Water ---> glucose + fructose

Give the chemical reaction for lactase.

Lactose + Water ---> glucose + galactose

Give the chemical reaction for peptidase.

Polypeptidases or Peptidases
Polypeptides or Peptides + Water ---> amino acids or dipeptides

Where does practically all chemical digestion take place?

small intestines

Where does practically all absorption take place?

small intestines

Is absorption an active or passive process?


How is absorption accomplished?

active transport
facilitated transport

Into what are monosaccharides absorbed?


Into what are amino acids and dipeptides absorbed?


Into what are glycerol and fatty acids absorbed?

lacteals (lymph capillaries)

Where is the pancreas?

in abdominal cavity, resting on posterior abdominal wall

What are functions of the pancreas?

endocrine and exocrine secretion

What is pancreatic juice?

sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

What enzymes are contained in pancreatic juice?

amylase, trypsin, lipase

What is the role of sodium bicarbonate in pancreatic juice?

neutralizes chyme

Where is the liver?

upper right section of abdominal cavity; under diaphragm

What are eight functions of the liver?

1. Makes bile
2. Detoxifies poisons and destroys old erythrocytes
3. Makes plasma proteins
4. Stores glucose as glycogen and breaks down glycogen to glucose
5. Makes glucose from non-carbohydrates
6. Stores iron and fat-soluble Vitamins A, D, E, K
7. Produces urea from amino acids
8. Helps regulate blood cholesterol level

Where is the gall bladder?

attached to the surface of the liver

What is the function of the gall bladder?

stores bile

What is bile?

A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles.

What secretes bile?

the liver

What stores bile?


In what part of the small intestines does the bile work?


What is biles function?

emulsifies lipids which increases surface area

What is the site of production of CCK?

small intestines

Where does CCK work?

pancreas or gall bladder

What does CCK do?

stimulate gall bladder to release more bile

What is the site of production of gastrin

lower stomach

What does gastrin do?

stimulates gastric glands

Where does gastrin work?

Upper stomach

What is the site of production of secretin?

small intestines

Where does secretin work?

pancreas or liver

What does secretin do?

stimulates the liver to make more bile

What is the site of production of insulin?


Where does insulin work?


What does insulin do?

lowers blood sugar
breaks glucose into glycogen

What is the site of production of glucagon?


Where does glucagon work


What does glucagon do?

raises blood sugar
breaks down glucose

Where is the large intestine?

Between the Ileum and the anus

What are its regions?

Cecum with attached appendix;
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending Colon
Sigmoid Colon

What are the functions of the large intestine?

Forms and eliminates wastes
Absorbs water, ions, and vitamins

Does chemical digestion occur in the large intestines?


What are the layers of the wall of the digestive tract and the tissue makeup of each?


What two tissues makes up mucosa?

epithelium and connective

What tissue makes up submucosa?


What tissue makes up muscularis?


What two tissues makes up serosa?

loose connective and squamous epithelium

What does the liver make?

bile, plasma proteins, non-carbohydrates, urea

What does the liver regulate?

blood cholesterol levels

What does the liver store?

glycogen, glucose, ions, vitamins

How does the liver get rid of poisons and old erythrocytes?

it detoxifies them

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