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Nuclear division process that halves the chromosome number. basis of sexual reproduction


nuclear division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number. Basis of body growth,tissue repair and replacement in multicelled eukaryotes; also asexual reproduction in some plants, animals, fungi, and protists

cell cycle

a series of events from the times a cell forms until its cytoplasm divides


refers to the two members of a pair of chromosomes with the same length, shape and genes


in a eukaryotic cell cycle, the interval between mitotic divisions when a cell grows, roughly doubles the number of its cytoplasmic components, and replicates its DNA


stage of mitosis in which sister chromatids seperate andmove to opposite spindle poles


stage of mitosis during which the cell's chromosomes align midway between the poles of the spindle


stage of mitosis in which chromosomes condense and become attatched to a newly froming spindle


dynamically assembled and disassembled array of microtublesthat moves chromosomes during nuclear division


stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrice at the spindle poles and decondense, and new nuclei form

asexual reproduction

reproductive mode by which offspring arise from one parent and inheriet that one parents genes only

cell plate

after nuclear division in a plant cell, a disk shaped structure that forms a cross-wall between the two new nucllei

cleavage furrow

in a dividing animal cell, the indentation where cytoplasmic division will occur


a genetically identical copy of an organism

contractile ring

a thin band of actin and myosin filaments that wraps around the midsection of an animal dell. During cytoplasmic division , the band contracts and pinches the cytoplasm in two


forms of a gene that encode slightly different versions of the genes product


fusion of a sperm nucleus and an egg nucleus, the result being a single-celled zygote


mature, haploid reprosuctive cell


having one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species

sexual reproduction

reproductive mode by which offspring arise from two parents and inherit genes from both.


cell formed by fusion of gamtes; first cell of a new individual

crossing over

process in which homologous chromosomes exchange corresponding segments during meiosis


mature female gamete, or ovum


a haploid, multicelled body in which gametes form during the life cycle of plants


mature male gamete


diploid, spore-producing body of a plant

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