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as the earth does this over a 24 hour time period, it creates day and night! Hopefully you can remember this one!


as the earth does this over a 365 1/4th day time period, it creates years..


creates seasons due to the amount of sun an area of the globe gets; northern and southern hemispheres are in opposite seasons due to this

Water Cycle

water circulates from the earth's surface to the atomosphere and then back again


The top layer of the earth's surface from about


The second layer of the earth's surface

Outer and Inner Core

The 3rd and 4th layers of the earth's surface

Plate Tectonics

Moving slabs of rock and plates under the earth


Created when plates collide together


Created when slides bump or rub past each other


Process by which rock is borken down into smaller pieces by cooling temperatures, wind, water, and ice


Movement of sediment from one location to another by wind, water, and ice


A group of animals and plants that depend on each other for survival


The place where a plant or animal lives


The spread of desert-like conditions due to overuse of soil and erosion

Natural Resource

Any material in nature that people value and need

Renewable Resources

Resources the earth replenishes naturally such as water, soil, trees, animals, the sun

Nonrenewable Resources

Resources that cannot be replaced such as fossil fuels

Hydroelectric Power

Power that is produced from the water

Solar Power

Power that is produced from the sun


Heat from the earth that produces energy

Wind Power

Windmills and wind turbines produce this type of power


Clearing the land of trees


Planting new trees to replace lost forestland

Fossils Fuels

Nonrenewable resources that come from the remains of animals and plants the include oil/petroleum, natural gas, and coal


Most abundant of the 3 fossil fuels; also the biggest pollutant


The rarest of the 3 fossil fuels; most of it is in the Middle East

Natural Gas

The cheapest burning of the 3 fossil fuels

Nuclear Power

Produced by the splitting of atoms; has dangerous wastes

Mineral Resources

Resources such as metal, rocks, salts, and gemstones


A region's average weather over a long period of time

Tropical Climate

Type of climate that is hot and warm; the low numbered latitude lines

Temperate Climate

Middle latitude lines; characterized by seasonal change

Polar Climates

Cold and dry; located in the higher latitude lines

El Nino

An ocean and weather pattern that affects the Pacific Coast of the Americas causing ocean and weather events to be extreme

Rain Shadow Effect

Moisture of the ocean air falls on one side of the mountain facing the wind; little moisture remains to fall on the other side, creating a rain shadow.

Highland Climate

Type of climate that changes with elevation and gets colder as you go up

Global Warming

Caused by the burning of fossil fuels and pollution release into our atmosphere by human causes which depletes our ozone layer

Dry Climate

Type of climate that recieves little or no rain and are found all over the world


Released from the top of factories that pollutes the air

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