Supplements for Fat Loss

FIGURETrends in Obesity
One survey of 3,500 U.S. adults revealed that among those making a serious attempt to lose weight, over....
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Supplements for Fat Loss
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine) is a naturally occurring substance in coffee beans, kola nuts, guarana seeds, yerba mate, and tea leaves, and it is also synthesized in a lab as caffeine anhydrous. It stimulates the nervous system and has been shown to modestly increase daily energy expenditure, decrease energy intake, reduce perceived-effort-level of exercise, and improve feelings of energy and alertness
energy expenditure by 8 to 11% in both groups. This equated to a significant daily increase of 79 calories in the formerly obese participants and 150 calories in the lean subjects. A meta-analysis of six well-designed studies revealed caffeine-only and caffeine with catechins from tea significantly increase 24-hour energy expenditure by 4.8 and 4.7% respectively compared to the placebo. A caffeine-catechin mixture also significantly increased fat oxidation
increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation and potentially decrease acute energy intake. Active healthy adults consumed a moderate dose of caffeine (3 milligrams/kilograms) 90 minutes before an hour of moderate-intensity exercise and 30 minutes post-exercise, which resulted in significantly higher energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fewer calories were consumed 2 hours later compared to a meal consumed after an exercise bout without caffeine ingestion
Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Caffeine in coffee at a dosage of 6 milligrams/kilograms much overweight and obese participants consumed 3 hours later and the next day compared to water and a lower dose of caffeine (3 milligrams/kilograms).Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Another study found that, compared to a placebo, 300 milligrams of caffeine given 30 minutes prior to unlimited access to food reduced ....intake in men (by 22%) but not women. Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine An apparent benefit to caffeine ingestion is a decreased sense of effort associated with ...exercise and an increase in physical performance. This has relevant practical application to exercise enjoyment and subsequent adherence, particularly during the early stages of exercise adoption and during weight- and fat-loss plateaus.Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Caffeine appears to be a viable weight-loss tool; however, fat-burner supplements often include other ingredients, including tea, capsaicin, bitter orange, and ephedra (which is now banned in the United States). Green tea extracts, primarily EGCG, in combination with caffeine have been shown to increase metabolism and fat oxidation and to modestly boost weight loss and reduce waist circumferenceSupplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine A systematic review of 13 randomized, controlled trials analyzing the effect of caffeine on weight loss determined a dose-response of caffeine on reductions in fat mass, weight, and body-mass index, suggesting caffeine's viability to aid in promoting weight and fat loss. Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Overall, the research shows that ...caffeine in moderate doses increases energy expenditure at rest and exercise and may decrease energy intake and, therefore, appears to serve as a safe thermogenic weight-control aid among healthy adults.Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Caffeine Source & ContenteBrewed Coffee, 8 ounces Caffeine Content (mg) 85-100 Brewed Black Tea, 8 ounces Caffeine Content (mg) 55 Cola, 20 ounces Caffeine Content (mg) 58 Energy Drink, 16 ounces Caffeine Content (mg) 152 Energy Shot, 2 ounces Caffeine Content (mg) 207 Fat Burning Supplements, 2 pills Caffeine Content (mg) 200-225Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine One of the common misconceptions around caffeine is the notion that caffeine use at normal and recommended intake causes...dehydration; yet, this has not been proven in the research A minor diuretic effect may occur at rest but does not negatively impact fluid balance during exercise.Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Adult intake of caffeine up to 400 to 500 milligrams per day appears safe in healthy individuals, but adverse side effects, including ...elevated heart rate, increased blood pressure, jitteriness, nervousness, and gastrointestinal distress, may occur and are more likely at higher doses (> 500 milligrams) and among novel users Doses over 10,000 milligrams are considered fatal.Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine The American Medical Association recommends that teenagers limit daily intake of caffeine to ... Because the half-life of caffeine in healthy adults is 5 to 6 hours, increased sleep latency may occur if taken late in the day.100 milligrams/day .Supplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Combining other sources of caffeine, including energy drinks; coffee; and herbal ingredients such as ma huang (ephedra), citrus aurantium (bitter orange), or other stimulants; can ...exacerbate side effects and is not recommended. Side effects of stimulants associated with green-tea extracts include nausea, stomach upset, and increased blood pressureSupplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Caffeine intake up to 400 to 500 milligrams/day appears safe in healthy adults. Higher doses and combining with other stimulants may result in adverse side effects such as jitteriness, insomnia, and stomach upset. Doses over 10,000 milligrams are considered fatal.Critical! caffeine intakeSupplements for Fat Loss Stimulants Caffeine Low to moderate doses of caffeine at 3 to 4 milligrams/kilograms of body weight, not to exceed 400 to 500 milligrams/day, modestly increases daily energy expenditure, decreases food intake, and may help support healthy weight managementCoach's Corner low to moderate caffeineSupplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients The stimulants p-synephrine, the active ingredient extracted from bitter Seville oranges (citrus aurantium), and ephedrine, derived from a native Chinese plant (ma huang), are ...commonly included in weight-loss supplements often in combination with caffeine or other ingredients. Ephedra was banned as an ingredient in dietary supplements in 2004 by the U.S. FDA due to safety concerns but may still be commercially available through various websites. P-synephrine is structurally similar to ephedrine and is often marketed as an ephedra-free fat-loss aid due to its apparent stimulatory effect on the central nervous system, energy expenditure, and mild suppression of appetiteSupplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients The safety of p-synephrine has been called into question after two small studies with 25 total participants reported increases in heart rate and blood pressure. The trial conducted by Bui et al. was a randomized, crossover study with 15 healthy adults who consumed one dose of bitter orange (900 milligrams standardized to 6% synephrine) or a placebo. Conversely, a small trial with 20 healthy subjects demonstrated that a.. .50-milligram dose of p-synephrine increased resting metabolism by 65 calories compared to a placebo with no adverse effects on mood, heart rate, or blood pressure Additionally, two larger and longer double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with healthy subjects taking 49 milligrams of p-synephrine once or twice a day alone or in combination with other herbs for 2 months observed no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or blood chemistrySupplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients The authors of one review of over 20 published and unpublished studies with over 350 subjects taking p-synephrine in doses up to 80 milligrams/day with or without caffeine in doses of 132 to 528 milligrams/day or other ingredients for up to 12 weeks concluded that p-synephrine alone or as part of a multi-ingredient supplement increases expenditure and resting metabolic rateSupplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients studied the effects of a multi-ingredient caffeine-containing (284 milligrams) preworkout supplement with and without 20 milligrams of p-synephrine or a placebo on exercise performance and resting energy expenditure in 75 healthy active adults. It found adverse effects on heart rate, blood pressure, kidney function, or liver enzymes relative to baseline values. Both treatment groups experienced increases in resting energy expenditure, greater readiness to exercise with no improvements in muscular endurance or anaerobic sprint capacity compared to the placebo group, and no additional benefits of p-synephrineSupplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients A 2017 review of approximately 30 studies in over 600 normal-weight and overweight human subjects concluded that ...p-synephrine does not have negative effects on the cardiovascular system at daily doses up to 100 milligrams and acts as a non-stimulatory thermogenic, with no serious adverse events being directly attributable to p-synephrine; however, favorable changes in body weight haveSupplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients It is important to note that synthetic forms of p-synephrine are prohibited for use in the United States and include..methylsynephrine, isopropyl-norsynephrine, and t-butyl-norsynephrine, which are considered adulterants in dietary supplements. .Although the literature to date has shown small changes in energy expenditure with the bitter orange extract, p-synephrine alone, and in combination with various other ingredients, changes in body weight are less apparent and require further investigation with longer, larger-scale studies at varying doses and to discover whether meaningful weight loss can be safely achieved.Supplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients Capsaicin Capsaicin is ... .one of five naturally present capsaicinoids in red chili peppers and is purported to be a natural weight control due to its ability to stimulate thermogenesis, increase body temperature, and decrease food intake administered 2.56 milligrams of capsaicin to 15 normal-weight and overweight individuals before meals three times a day during a 25% caloric deficit and observed a significant increase in fat oxidation over a 36-hour period. Others have observed acute increases in energy expenditure between 5 and 20% with capsaicin intake, while others have not observed an effect, possibly due to varying doses, study protocol, and/or small sample sizes . Additional research is required to determine whether capsaicin supplementation can result in elevated energy expenditure over extended periodsSupplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients Capsaicin Capsaicin's potential as a viable weight-loss aid may be due to ... analyzed the effect of capsaicin ingestion with meals three times a day while subjects were in energy balance and during a 25% calorie restriction. During energy balance, there were significantly greater feelings of fullness and satisfaction with capsaicin consumption and a 30% reduction during dinner. During caloric restriction, participants reported a marked decrease in the desire to eat after dinner compared to a control group, potentially mitigating the negative impact weight loss has on appetiteits effect on appetite and food intake.Supplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients Capsaicin A systematic review of eight randomized controlled trials on the impact of capsaicin ingestion on food intake in normal-weight and overweight adults found that .... A 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial with overweight individuals who supplemented with 4 milligrams of capsaicinoids daily resulted in ...a minimum dose of 2 milligrams consumed prior to meals significantly reduced intake by 74 calories compared to a placebo significantly lower reported intake (257 calories/day), and those who consumed a lower daily dose (2 milligrams) experienced an improved waist-to-hip ratio compared to the placebo group. However, the 4 milligrams/day dose resulted in gastrointestinal distress in 23% of the subjects and no significant improvements in body weight were observedSupplements for Fat Loss Other Stimulant Ingredients Capsaicin Capsaicin may have a slight positive impact on energy expenditure, appetite, and food intake when consumed in 2- to 4-milligram doses before meals.oach's Corner capsaicinSupplements for Fat Loss Starch/Fat Blockers and Other Common Weight Loss Ingredients Various ingredients have been investigated for their potential to decrease absorption of macronutrients and their respective calorie content to promote weight loss and are routinely included in supplements as fat blockers or carbohydrate/starch neutralizers.......Phaseolus vulgaris, extracted from white kidney beans, inhibits the action of the digestive enzyme amylase, thus, interfering with the digestion of and absorption of carbohydrates and potentially preventing absorptionSupplements for Fat Loss Starch/Fat Blockers and Other Common Weight Loss Ingredients Daily dosages of Phaseolus vulgaris ranging from ......500 to 3,000 milligrams for up to 12 weeks have been shown to modestly enhance weight loss, albeit inconsistently. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with 60 overweight subjects, those who consumed a proprietary form (Phase 2) before a high-carbohydrate meal lost significantly more weight (6.4 pounds) compared to subjects receiving the placebo (0.77 pounds) after 30 daysSupplements for Fat Loss Starch/Fat Blockers and Other Common Weight Loss Ingredients nother randomized placebo-controlled study examined the effect of Phaseolus vulgaris in conjunction with a reduced-calorie diet on body weight . After 12 weeks, the supplement group lost an average of 6.4 pounds while the placebo group lost an average of 2 pounds. Conflicting results were reported in a clinical trial with 39 obese adults who did not experience additional weight loss from consuming 1,500 milligrams of Phase 2 twice daily before meals for 8 weeks while following a low-fat, fiber-rich diet. A larger placebo-controlled trial with 123 overweight and obese individuals following a calorie-restricted diet demonstrated that consuming 1,000 milligrams of Phaseolus vulgaris before meals three times a day for 3 months resulted in significantly more weight and fat loss, 4.4 and 3.5 pounds respectively, than the group who consumed a placebo . Based on the small number of trials thus far, Phaseolus vulgaris consumed prior to meals...may slightly enhance weight loss over a 4- to 12-week period with a potential for minor side effects such as gastrointestinal upset.Supplements for Fat Loss Starch/Fat Blockers and Other Common Weight Loss Ingredients Chitosan is another blocker supplement manufactured from shellfish. It is marketed as a fat blocker due to...its ability to prevent absorption of dietary fat by binding to it in the intestinal tractSupplements for Fat Loss Starch/Fat Blockers and Other Common Weight Loss Ingredients One review of 15 trials and 1,219 participants concluded that chitosan results in significantly greater weight loss of 3.7 pounds over 6 months, but many of the trials have been of poor quality . A 2018 meta-analysis of 14 randomized, controlled trials revealed that using chitosan (0.34 to 3.4 grams/day) for 4 to 52 weeks compared to a placebo slightly reduces body weight (weighted mean difference of 1.01 kilogram) in overweight and obese subjects . Other commonly used ingredients in weight-loss supplements include conjugated ...,---------------------------------------------------------------- all of which are either lacking in well-designed research or have shown virtually no impact on body weightlinoleic acid (CLA), L-carnitine, chromium, green coffee bean extract, and hydroxycitric acid or HCA (garcinia cambogia)Supplements for Fat Loss Meal-Replacement Formulas The use of protein-rich shake formulas has been shown to be effective strategy for reducing caloric intake and supporting weight loss and weight-loss maintenanceSupplements for Fat Loss Meal-Replacement Formulas A review of six randomized, controlled interventions on the effect of utilizing reduced isocaloric diets with one to two liquid meal replacements or regular foods for at least 12 weeks revealed that...overweight or obese adults lost significantly more weight after 3 months and 1 year with no reports of adverse events and better adherence in the partial-meal replacement group . Other work has demonstrated the use of meal replacements for up to a year to increase total protein intake and enhance weight loss and fat mass while preserving fat-free mass in obese subjects with metabolic syndromeSupplements for Fat Loss Meal-Replacement Formulas In a randomized trial with young, overweight men in a 40% calorie deficit combined with resistance training, high-intensity interval training, or sprint interval training 6 days a week, subjects consumed either a low-protein diet (1.2 gram/kilogram) or high-protein diet (2.4 grams/kilograms) using whey protein beverages for 4 days . The high-protein group lost more body fat and gained significantly more lean body mass compared to the lower-protein group, which maintained lean body mass. This data and others demonstrate the value of higher protein intakes and protein-rich shakes for...promoting favorable changes in body composition during weight lossSupplements for Fat Loss Meal-Replacement Formulas Meal replacements appear to offer multiple benefits,...including portion control and the ability to induce a calorie deficit, a method for increasing protein intake to aid in satiety along with providing structure, and convenience to weight-loss plans. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics identifies the use of meal replacements as an evidence-based strategy for weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese adults Additionally, meal replacements offer an opportunity to increase the diet quality of clients by adding in nutrient-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, and calcium- and vitamin D-rich beverages.Supplements promoted as fat burners have a limited impact on weight loss with most ingredients lacking quality evidence. However, the use of protein-rich meal replacements one to two times/day has been shown to improve weight-loss success, body composition, and maintenance of a healthy body weight.Coach's Corner Supplements for Fat LossQ Which is the only "fat burning" supplement that, when used safely and moderately, has strong evidence showing it to be effective at helping to improve body composition?CaffeineQ What is considered to be the highest safe moderate dose of caffeine for healthy adults?400-500 mg/dayQ Capsaicin has been shown to have a modest, but positive, impact on energy balance in which of the following ways? Select all that apply.Increased calorie expenditure Appetite reduction