Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: This hormone is responsible for the regulation of metabolic and immune response.
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone: It triggers the pituitary gland to release a thyroid-stimulating hormone which plays a major role in the functioning of organs of the body such as heart, muscles, etc.
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: It stimulates the pituitary gland to release several reproductive hormones.
Oxytocin: It is involved in several processes such as lactation, childbirth, regulating sleep cycles, maintaining body temperature.
Somatostatin: This hormone is also known as Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone. It regulates the endocrine system and affects the neurotransmission and cell proliferation by interacting with G-protein coupled receptors.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH): Responsible for the growth and repair of all cells in the body.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): Influences the thyroid gland for the release of thyroxine, its own hormone. TSH is also called Thyrotropin.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): Influences the adrenal gland to release of Cortisol or the "stress hormone". ACTH is also known as corticotropin.
Luteinising Hormone (LH) and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): Collectively known as Gonadotropins, LH and FSH control the sexual and reproductive characteristics in males and females.
Prolactin (PRL): Produces milk in the breast. Though it is present at all times, the secretion is increased during and just after pregnancy.
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH): Involved in the stimulation of the production of melanin by skin and hair.
Serotonin is the precursor of melatonin. Serotonin is acetylated and methylated to yield melatonin within the pineal gland. The light exposure to the eyes affects the synthesis and secretion of melatonin.
Two melatonin receptors have been found in mammals- Mel1A and Mel1B. These are G-protein coupled cell surface receptors.
Melatonin affects circadian rhythm.
Our circadian rhythm is a 24-hour biological cycle, characterised by the sleep-wake patterns. The daylight and darkness regulate our circadian rhythms. The secretion of melatonin is stopped on exposure to light which in turn controls the circadian rhythm. The secretion of melatonin is high during dark and low during daylight. This influences our reaction to photoperiod.
The secretion of gonadotropins from the anterior Pituitary gland is blocked by melatonin thereby affecting reproduction. These hormones aid in the development of ovaries and testes.
T4: Thyroxine (Tetraiodothyronine)
Thyroxine is a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland in the bloodstream. It then travels to the organs such as kidneys and liver where it gets converted into and gets converted into its active form triiodothyronine.
It is a thyroid hormone that affects physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, etc.
Bones - The parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates the release of calcium from stores of calcium present in the bones into the bloodstream.
Intestine - PTH increases the calcium absorption in the intestine by food through its impacts and affects the metabolism of vitamin D.
Kidneys - PTH minimizes the calcium loss in the urine and also stimulates active vitamin D formation in the kidneys.
Other sets by this creator
J.V., a 56-year-old delivery truck driver, has been taken to the emergency department (ED) because he was experiencing chest pain. It started just after he had a quick lunch at a food truck. He told the paramedic that he often has chest pain but that it goes away when he "takes a swig of antacid," but this time the pain did not stop. On arrival, he was given another dose of antacid and sublingual nitroglycerin, and the chest pain stopped. The first set of cardiac enzymes and basic metabolic profile (BMP) were drawn, and a 12-lead ECG was done. He weighs 275 pounds (125 kg), is 5 ft, 5 inches (165 cm) tall, and tells the nurse he has been overweight all his life. He said he's had the chest pains for about 2 years but did not go to get checked because they always went away when he took antacids and he was too busy with work to go to a doctor. He works late hours, "lives on coffee," and grabs fast food when he has time to eat. He smokes 1.5 to 2 packs of cigarettes a day, has a beer every evening once he is home, and usually finishes a 6-pack on the weekends. Vital signs: T 98.9, P 110, R 14, BP148/98. The test results are listed below.
|Chloride||102mEq/L(102mmol/L)||Hemoglobin||14.8 g/dL(148 g/L)|
|Glucose||168mg/dL(9.3mmol/L)||Cardiac troponin T||0.05ng/mL(0.05mcg/L)|
|BUN||12mg/dL(4.3mmol/L)||12-Lead ECG||Sinus tachycardia, rate 105|
After noting the ECG results and the normal second set of cardiac enzymes, the ED provider tells J.V. that the "chest pain" was more likely gastrointestinal (GI) in origin. J.V. was discharged from the ED with a referral to the hospital's Gl clinic with a possible diagnosis of GERD. One week later, at the GI clinic, he is examined by the Gl nurse practitioner (NP). The NP tells J.V. that she thinks he has GERD, but the diagnosis will be confirmed by an upper endoscopic examination. The upper endoscopy is scheduled for 0700 on Tuesday of the following week. J.V. has several questions about the upper endoscopy. The nurse provides teaching about the procedure, required preparation, and what to expect afterward. Which statement by J.V. indicates a need for further teaching?
a. "I will be wide awake during the procedure."
b. "I will not eat or drink anything after midnight."
c. "I will not take any antacid the morning of this test."
d. "This test will help the doctor figure out why I have so much heartburn."