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105 terms

CHAPTER 8-10 PSYCH EXAM!

STUDY
PLAY
rates of change in height and weight
At 2 yrs of age, average US child weighs 25 to 30 lbs and is approx 36 inches tall ( approx half their predicted adult height). At 6 yrs of age, average weight is 46 pounds and height is 46 inches tall.
myelin
protective insulation that surrounds parts of neurons
lateralization
specialization of functions, with these located more in one hemisphere of brain than in other
right hemisphere
spatial, music, emotions, patterns
left hemisphere
verbal (speaking, reading)
nightmare
A vivid bad dream, usually occurring toward morning
night terror
An intense physiological arousal that causes a child to awaken in a state of panic
obesity
body weight more than 20% higher than the average weight for age and height
cancer
Most frequent major illness to strike preschoolers
injuries
Before age 10, children have twice the likelihood of dying from an injury than from an illness
child abuse
The physical or psychological maltreatment or neglect of children
cycle-of-violence hypothesis
abuse and neglect that children suffer predisposes them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children
hyperreactivity hypothesis
individuals with greater emotional reactivity experience greater distress with child-related stressors.
psychological maltreatment
Harm to children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning that is caused by parents or other caregivers who use verbal or psychological abuse, hurtful actions, exploitation, or neglect
child neglect
Ignoring one's children or being emotionally unresponsive to them
resilience
The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage
gross motor skills
By 3 yrs/age: children have mastered jumping, hopping on one foot, skipping, and running &
By 4 to 5: motor skills have become honed, with greater control over their muscles.
fine motor skills
involve smaller, more delicate body movements; also show developmental patterns
handedness
clear preference for use of one hand over the other
preoperational stage
(2yrs-7yrs) children's use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases
operations
organized, formal, logical mental processes
symbolic function
the ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to represent something that is not physically present; at the core of the increasingly sophisticated use of language
centration
concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects (Ex: "boys" have short hair)
conservation
understanding that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects
transformation
process in which one state is changed into another
egocentric thought
Thinking that does not take the viewpoints of others into account
2 forms of egocentric thought
1) Lack of awareness that others see things from a different physical perspective & 2) Failure to realize others may hold thoughts, feelings, and points of view that differ from theirs
intuitive thought
thinking that reflects use of primitive reasoning and preschooler's avid acquisition of knowledge about the world
autobiographical memory
Memory of particular events from one's own life
scripts
Broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur
Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
According to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task without assistance
scaffolding
support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth
syntax
The combining of words and phrases to form meaningful sentences
fast mapping
process in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter
grammar
The system of rules that determine how thoughts can be expressed
private speech
not intended for others and is commonly used by children during the preschool years
pragmatics
aspects of language relating to communicating effectively and appropriately with others
social speech
speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person
Initiative-versus-guilt stage
(3-6 yrs); conflict between independence of action and occasional negative results of that action
erikson
psychosocial development involves change in the understanding of oneself as a member of society and understanding of others' behavior
self-concept
identity or set of beliefs of what one is like as an individual
collectivistic orientation
philosophy that promotes the notion of interdependence; the greater good outweighs individual benefit
individualistic orientation
philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual over the group/the greater good
race dissonance
The phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people
identification
children attempt to be similar to their parent of same sex, incorporating the parent's attitudes and values
gender identity
perception of oneself as male or female
gender schema
cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender
gender constancy
fact that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors
functional play
involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds
constructive play
children manipulate objects to produce or build something
parallel play
children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other (Ex: Boys drive toy trucks separately)
onlooker play
children simply watch others at play but do not actually participate themselves
associative play
Two or more children interact by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing
cooperative play
children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests
authoritarian parents
Parents are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold and whose word is law; they value strict, unquestioning obedience from their child; No tolerance of disagreement
permissive parents
Parents provide lax and inconsistent feedback; require little of their children
authoritative parents
warm but firm, setting clear and consistent limits; try to reason with their children, providing explanations for rules
uninvolved parents
Parents who show virtually no interest in their children, displaying indifferent, rejecting behavior
moral development
the maturation of one's sense of justice, of what is right and wrong, and their behavior in connection with such issues
Piagets 3 stages of moral development
Heteronomous morality (4-7 years),
Incipient cooperation stage (7-10 years),
Autonomous cooperation stage (10 + years)
prosocial behavior
Helping behavior that benefits others
abstract modeling
modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles
empathy
The understanding of what another individual feels
aggression
Intentional injury or harm to another person
emotional self-regulation
capability to adjust one's emotions to a desired state and level of intensity
relational aggression
Nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person's psychological well-being (Ex: name-calling)
instrumental aggression
Aggression motivated by a desire to obtain a concrete goal (Ex: hitting to get a toy)
emmy werner
came up with resilience
Lev Vygotsky
argues that the focus of cognitive development should be on a child's social and cultural world; opposite of Piaget's approaches
Lev Vygotsky
came up with the zone of proximal development (ZPD)
quality
a key factor in the effects of preschools are their level of
developmentally appropriate educational practices
David Elkind argues children require practices, which are based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child
David Elkind
argues for developmentally appropriate educational practices
Erik Erikson
suggested that during preschool years, children face a key conflict relating to psychosocial development that involves the development of initiative; came up with psychosocial development
psychosocial development
encompasses changes both in individuals understanding of themselves and their understanding of others behavior
4 approaches to gender development
biological, psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive
Diana Baumrind
identified 4 alternatives of the major parenting styles
theory of mind
refers to knowledge and beliefs about how the mind operates, becomes increasingly sophisticated during the preschool years
authoritative
parenting discipline style that seems most effective
model
observation of a _______ who is rewarded for prosocial behavior can lead to prosocial behavior on the part of the observer
becoming less chubby roundish and grow more slender
during the preschool years the body shape changes by
their muscles size increases and their bones become sturdier
children grow stronger as
increasingly differentiated and specialized
during the preschool period two brain hemispheres become
25-30 lbs
at two years of age an average child weighs
46 lbs and 46 inches
at 6 years of age a child weighs _____ and is ____ inches tall
economic factors
what influences height and weight changes around the world?
a preschoolers growing cognitive capabilities
increase in myelin may be related to
unusual growth spurts
during childhood their seems to be periods of _____ in the brain that are linked to advances in the cognitive abilities
sleep patterns
most children settle down fairly easily and drift off into sleep but some children have difficultly sleeping
minor illnesses
7-10 colds which can actually benefit child by building up immunity system
benefits of minor illnesses
boost immunity against more severe illnesses, help children gain knowledge of own bodies enhance coping skills, improve empathy
major illnesses
cancer (leukemia), AIDS
injury control
wearing helmets, seat belts, lock up cleaning supplies
lead poisoning
poor children are particularly susceptible to
twice
before the age of 10 children are _______ likely to die from an injury than an illness
physical activity, risks
the danger of injuries during the preschool years involve childrens high levels of ______ and some children more apt to take ______
gross motor skills (age 3)
by _____ children have mastered jumping, hopping on one foot, skipping, and running
age 4-5
by _____ childrens motor skills have been honed with greater control over their muscles
gross motor skill advances
related to brain development and myelination of neurons in areas of the brain related to balance and coordination
2-7, stability, change
preoperational thinking occurs from age _____ and is a time of both _____ and ______
lack of logical thought
piaget tended to focus on preschoolers deficiencies in thinking, focusing his observations on children
better
preschoolers who participate in head start are _____ prepared for future schooling than those who did now
no
children before the age of 2 should watch _______ television
androgynous
having both female and male characteristics
social learning approach
sees children as learning gender related behavior and expectations by observing others