Care of Child - Exam Review

What are the stages of grief according to the textbook?
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Who is autistic disorder more common in?4x more common in males.Who is more severely affected by autistic disorder?Females.What is the cause of autistic disorder?Unknown. Not related to socioeconomic level, race, or parenting style.What are signs of autistic disorder?Peculiar and bizarre characteristics primarily in: - social interactions. - communication. - behaviour. - difficulty with eye and body contact. - language delay.What is the cure for autistic disorder?No cure. Multiple therapies used.What are early signs of a hearing impairment?Lack of startle reflex. Failure to locate a source of sound at 6 months. Absence of babbling at 7 months.Communication strategies for children with a hearing impairment?Hand gestures. Sign language. Speech language therapy. Lip reading.What is important for children with a hearing impairment?Socialization.Normal HR for each age group?0-12 months: 110-160 1-11 years: 70-120 12+ years: 60-100Normal RR for each age group?0-6 months: 30-60 6-12 months: 24-30 1-5 years: 20-30 6-11 years: 12-20 12+ years: 12-20Normal BP for each age group?0-6 months: 65-90/45-65 6-12 months: 80-100/55-65 1-11 years: 90-110/55-75 12+ years: 110-135/65-85Normal temp for all age groups?Rectal: 36.6-38 Ear: 35.8-38 Oral: 35.5-37.5 Axillary: 36.5-37.5What are the different types of fractures?Simple or closed: does not produce a break in the skin Compound or open: fractured bone protrudes through the skinFracture heal time?Newborn period: 2-3 weeks. Early childhood: 4 weeks. Later childhood: 6-8 weeks. Adolescence: 8-12 weeks.What is the diagnostic test used to diagnose a fracture?Radiographs. History taking.What are the 4 goals of fracture management?Regain alignment and length of the bony fragments. Retain alignment and length. Restore function to the injured parts. Prevent further injury and deformity.What should the nurse assess when caring for a patient with a cast?CSM. Colour. Pain. Knowledge.What are some signs of compartment syndrome?Intense pain, especially when the muscle is stretched. Tenderness in the affected area. Tightness in the muscle. A tingling or burning sensation. In severe cases; numbness or weakness.Since plaster cast takes _____ to _____ hours to completely dry, the nurse handling the cast should use her palms to handle the cast to prevent pressure points.10-72 hours.What is the benefit of a synthetic cast vs a plaster cast?Plaster: mould closely to the body part. Have a smooth exterior. Inexpensive. Synthetic: lighter material. Takes 5-20 to dry. Permits earlier weight bearing. Water resistant.When applying a cast or splint, tell the child that it will feel _____, which is normal, and caused by a chemical reaction activated by water.Warm.When at home, or in the hospital, the child should _____ the affected limb to reduce swelling.Elevate.Different types of restraints we can use on children? What should we assess for when they are on?Therapeutic holding. Jacket restraint. Swaddle or mummy restraint (least restrictive). Arm leg restraints. Elbow restraints CSM, skin breakdown, redness, discomfort.What test is used to diagnose cystic fibrosis?Sweat chloride test.What are some symptoms of severe encephalitis?Confusion, agitation or hallucinations. Seizures. Loss of sensation or being unable to move certain areas of the face or body. Muscle weakness. Problems with speech or hearing. Loss of consciousness (including coma)How do we care for myelomeningocele, and what are we trying to prevent?Kept in warmer. Sac is kept moist and dressings changed every 2-4 hours, assessed well. Positioning is most important, usually kept in prone. Trying to prevent infection.What causes diaper rash, and what is the best way to prevent it?Candida albicans. Frequent diaper changes.What are some signs of dehydration? What is the best treatment?Sunken fontanelles, lack of tears, skin turgor, decreased urinary output, dry mucous membranes. Oral rehydration - small amounts frequently.What is the harness called which treats developmental dysplasia of the hip? How long should it be worn for?Pavlick harness. All day and night for 6-8 weeks, then a splint may be used at night.What is the first action to treat a mild burn? A severe burn?Mild: cool water Severe: put out fire/ stop burning process. Remove burned clothes.What are some things we can educate our patients on regarding iron supplements?Tarry stool. Constipation. Take with vitamin C to increase absorption.What is our priority assessment for sick and injured children?ABCs.What is our priority for a child with a spinal injury?Immobilization.What are some treatments for a child with cystic fibrosis who is hospitalized with a respiratory infection?Postural drainage. Corticosteroids and bronchodilator. Oxygen. Antibiotics.How can we prevent the spread of impetigo?Hand washing. Avoid sharing towels, clothes, etc.What is our second priority assessment for a child with a head injury?Evaluation for shock Assessment for spinal cord injuries Neurological assessment