AP Euro Ch. 14
Terms in this set (95)
not being present at your office
holding more than one office
brethren of the common life
existed in late 14th century in holland. lived in simplicity, spread the gospel daily, saw religion as a person/inner experience
thomas à kempis
wrote "the imitation of christ" and inspired the brethren of the common life
the imitation of christ
take christ as a model and live in simplicity
was studying law but vowed to become a friar when frightened during a storm. believed that salvation came from a simple faith in christ. eventually start the protestant reformation
Rebuilt St.Peter's Basilica; Arts; Turned Rome into the cultural center of the world; excommunicated Luther
wealthy banking family from which money was borrowed in order to continue work on St. Peter's Basilica
frederick of saxony
one of the seven electors. protected martin luther after he was excommunicated
paying to be sure that you won't go to hell. you may also pay for loved ones who have already passed.
This was the letter Martin Luther wrote to Archbishop Albert which explained that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance
diet of worms
A meeting summoned by Charles V that commanded Martin Luther to abandon his ideas. Luther refused and was branded an outlaw.
Holy Roman Emperor; King of Spain; Summoned Diet of Worms; Habsburg
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services.
colloquy of marburg
Official split between Zwingli and Luther over Eucharist; weakened forces to beat Charles V
referring to Christian religions that grew out of the Reformation
confession of augsburg
The main writings of Lutheranism; written by Luthers friend, Philip Melanchthon, salvation through faith; Bible ultimate spiritual authority
protestant belief that the bible is the sole source of religious truth
priesthood of all believers
Luther said/realized that everyone should follow their calling and find their own faith through scripture, which meant that no one could achieve a higher level of spirituality because of a church position.
a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine. bread=body of christ, wine=blood of christ
bread and wine literally changes into body and blood of Christ
Christ is present, but so are bread and wine (spiritual presence)
men of superior education who were required to deliver about a hundred sermons a year.
Representatives of peasants met and made these articles expressing their anger. It blamed religious lords and summarized the crisis of the 16th century. They complained about how nobles treated them poorly and heavily taxed them.
A book giving a brief summary of the basic principles of Christianity in question-and-answer form
The people who had the right to choose the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
1. 3 were Catholic
2. 3 were Protestants
3. 1 was the Emperor himself
Holy Roman Emperor elected in 1273. He began a long line of Hapsburg emperors. His marriage caused the Holy Roman Empire to gain the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Burgundy.
mary of burgundy
wife of Maximilian I, french
appeal to the christian nobility of the german nation
Unless the princes destroyed papal power in Germany, Luther argued in this book that reform was impossible. He urged princes to confiscate ecclesiastical wealth and to abolish indulgences, dispensations, pardons, and clerical celibacy. He told them it was their public duty to bring about a moral reform to the church.
peace of augsburg
This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following. religion of each german state determined by it's ruler
This was another leader in the Reformation who believed in a simple faith and a simple method of worship (presbyterianism)
the institutes of the christian religion
Book written by John Calvin containing two main beliefs: 1. Predestination and 2. Good works are a sign that you are destined for Heaven. Led to the "Protestant Work Ethic".
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is already determined by god
This was a moral tribunal in the city of Geneva that was established after John Calvin brought the Protestant Reformation there and set up a new system for education and practice of Calvinism as opposed to Catholicism.
Spanish humanist; gained notoriety for his publications denying the Christian dogma of the Trinity; burned at the stake
in Protestantism, the belief that saved individuals have a religious obligation to engage in worldly work.
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage
catherine of aragon
the first wife of Henry VIII; bore a daughter named Mary and had several still births afterward; she was later devorced by Henry after he established the Church of England
act in restraint of appeals
crown=hightest legal authority in land, forbade judicial appeals to the papacy
1534 - declared the king of England the supreme head of the Church of England (Henry VII used parliament to legalize the reformation in England)
pilgrimage of grace
Revolt against the Church of England by those who wanted to stay with the catholic church
dissolution of the monasteries
(1536-1541) Under the authority of Henry VIII, the administrative and legal disbanding of the monasteries, appropriating their income and disposing of their assets.
book of common prayer
the official prayer and liturgical (worship manual) book of Anglicanism. Charles I and Laud tried to impose it upon all Protestant churches in England- many people resisted.
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics
Reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada.
a group of Anglicans in England who wanted to purify their church of Catholic ways
Outward conformity to Church of England & uniformity in ceremonies - but in private ok to be Protestant; created by Queen Elizabeth to promoted peace in England
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
Calvinist church in Scotland
a jewish section of poland that was set apart by religion, education, language and appearance. conservative jews came from this place, many of which were zionists
leader of Swedish barons who overthrew Christian II and went on to become king of Sweden and established a Lutheran Reformation
maintained that the Eucharist should be administered as both bread and wine to all the congregation, including the laity.
Protestant kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire where the people defied their new ruler who tried to close down Protestant churches. It is in modern day Czechoslovakia.
Polish nobles who were completely exempt from taxes. These nobles later aquired controll over their serfs' lives
ottoman's divided hungry but b/c they didn't care what religion infidels practiced it was agreat advance for them.
nomads who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; edited and revived Catholic doctrine.
Movement to counter the spread of the Reformation; initiated by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545.
pope who refused to dissolve Henry's marriage. MAde his decision in part because troops had captured and sacked Rome in 1527.
pope who summoned the Council of Trent to deal with matters of Church reform
council of trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
A school for theological training
Angela Merici founded this. Her goal was to teach young women about official Catholic teachings and to give aid and help to people in need.
society of jesus
(The Jesuits) was founded to spread catholic doctrine around the world during the Counter Reformation.
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus
It was written by Loyola. This was a training manual for spiritual development and strengthened people to follow the will of God.
list of books banned by the Catholic Church
napoleonic code of law
unifies areas, allows nationalism to take over (Germ/Italy unify)
decline of RCC
failure of crusades, rise in nationalism, national ID > religious ID, black death, babylonian captivity/great schism
dominicans are church police, they root out Heretics, 1300s
1350-1415 paves the way for revolution, starts aid to poor
year of 95 theses, first break from RCC
this = Faith + Indulgences + Sacraments
treasury of merit
Clement VI, good words or indulgences that the Pope can disperse
Leo X - Jubliee Year, 1st break, year Luther objects against selling indulgences
if gave $ to Vatican and artwork, received indulgence, $ went to RCC and Fuggers, happened every 25 years
translations of Bible for common people, schools, everyone is their own priest, church says NO to all
support Luther, no tribute - save money, tax relief, more independence
support Luther, tax relief, potential for land/freedom, relate to Luther (from this background)
INDIVIDUALITY FROM OPPRESSORS
individuality from oppressors
peasants' idea of Christian liberty
peasant revolt, Protestant North & RCC South, peasants attack churches, priests, monasteries, HRE splits
Ferdinand and Isabella marry and create political alliance
marriage causes Aragon and Castille to work together and win Spain back from Moors
Charles I becomes king of Spain, chosen by Pope
Henry VII rules
Catherine of Aragon
first wife of Henry VIII, mary tudor, divorced
Henry VIII wants divorce from wife so he can get a son, annulment
1532 second wife of Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, charged with incest and beheaded
1536 third wife of Henry VIII, Edward (only son), dies from hemorrhaging
fourth wife of Henry VIII, advisors chose her for political reasons, divorce after 6 months
1540 fifth wife of Henry VIII, 19, "Jewel of Womanhood" charged with treason and beheaded
1543 sixth wife of Henry VIII, nurse for Henry, tutor for children