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Praxis 5622 Theories
Terms in this set (47)
Piaget- Sensorimotor (birth to about age 2)
The child learns about himself and his environment through motor and reflex actions. Thought derives from sensation and movement. The child learns that he is separate from his environment and that aspects of his environment continue to exist even though they may be outside the reach of his senses.
Piaget- Preoperational (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7)
Applying his new knowledge of language, the child begins to use symbols to represent objects. Early in this stage he also personifies objects. He is now better able to think about things and events that aren't immediately present. Oriented to the present the child has difficulty conceptualizing time. His thinking is influenced by fantasy—the way he'd like things to be—and he assumes that others see situations from his viewpoint. He takes in information and then changes his mind to fit his ideas.
Piaget- Concrete (first grade to early adolescence)
During this stage, accommodation increases. The child develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgments about concrete or observable phenomena, which in the past he needed to manipulate physically to understand. In teaching the child, giving him the opportunity to ask questions and to explain things back to you allows him to mentally manipulate information.
Piaget-Formal Operations (adolescence)
This stage brings cognition to its final form. This person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgments. At this point, he is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. Teaching for the adolescent may be wide-ranging because he'll be able to consider many possibilities from several perspectives.
Gardner "Theory of Multiple Intelligences"
theory that there are 7 ways in which people understand in the world, which are Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Visual-Spatial, Body-Kinesthetic, Musical-Rhythmic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal.
Blooms Taxonomy- Knowledge
Part of Blooms Taxonomy, recall of information, discovery, observation, listing, locating, naming
Blooms Taxonomy- Comprehension
Part of Blooms Taxonomy, understanding, translating, summarizing, demonstrating, discussing
Blooms Taxonomy- Application
Part of Blooms Taxonomy, using and applying knowledge; using problem solving methods; manipulating; designing; experimenting
Blooms Taxonomy- Analysis
Part of Blooms Taxonomy, identifying patterns, organizing of ideas, recognizing trends
Part of Blooms Taxonomy, using old concepts to create new ideas, design and invention, composing, imagining, inferring, modifying, predicting, combining
Blooms Taxonomy- Evaluation
Part of Blooms Taxonomy, assessing theories, comparison of ideas, solving, judging, recommending, rating
Piaget idea of Assimilation
A matching between the cognitive structures and the physical environment; a cognitive process that describes how we take in new information and incorporate that new information into our existing knowledge
Piaget idea of Accommodation
process by which the cognitive structure is modified; involves altering one's existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process.
Assimilation and accommodation are referred to as this because they occur at all levels of intellectual development
An innate tendency to organize one's experiences to ensure maximal adaptation; encompasses assimilation and accommodation
Pertaining to large units of behavior; Large intact meaningful behavior pattern
Tolman's term "vicarious trial and error"
different approaches are tested cognitively rather than behaviorally (rat in a maze deciding which way to go).
Tolman's term "latent learning"
a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned.
Tolman's term "Latent Extinction"
refers to decrease in responses which occur as a result of non-reinforced experience
Tolman's term "Cathexis"
a learnt tendency to associate certain objects with certain drive states
Tolman's term "Equivalence belief"
When a "subgoal" has the same affect as the goal itself ex- If getting a high grade in class temporarily reduces a student's need for love
Tolman's term "Field expectancies"
are developed in the same way as a cognitive map. A form of learning in which the organism learns what leads to what.
Tolman's term "Field cognition modes"
a way of approaching a problem-solving situation. To arrange the perceptual field with certain configuration. Tolman suspected that this was an innate tendency, modifiable with experience.
Tolman's term "Drive discrimination"
The ability to see appropriate goal. Organisms can determine their own drive states and therefore can respond appropriately. EX] animals can be trained to turn one way in a maze when they are hungry and another way when they are thirsty.
Skinners term "Differential reinforcement"
aims to get rid of undesirable behaviors by using positive reinforcement in a structured manner to increase desirable behaviors;
some responses are reinforced and others are not
Skinners term "Successive Approximation"
only those responses that become increasingly similar to the one the experimenter wants are reinforced
is a way of learning in which our behaviors are changed as a result of its consequences.
Skinners term "punishment"
occurs when a response removes something positive from the situation or adds something negative. Skinner believed this was ineffective. Skinner believed the best way to discourage an undesirable behavior was to ignore it.
This law describes choice behavior with variable intervals schedules. For a pigeon pecking 2 keys with different reinforcement schedules, the relative frequency of a behavior matches the relative frequency of its reinforcement
Skinners term "Behavior economics"
Seeing how long or hard an animal will work till its rate decreases
Skinners term "Mand"
used to describe a verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is therefore under the functional control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation.
Skinners term "Tact"
used to describe a verbal operant which is controlled by a nonverbal stimulus (such as an object, event, or property of an object) and is maintained by nonspecific social reinforcement (praise).
Skinners term "Echoic"
as verbal vocal behavior under the control of, and with common sound units to, an immediate auditory stimulus. verbal behavior is reinforced when someone's verbal response is repeated verbatim
Skinners term "Autoclitic behavior "
suggests behavior which is based upon or depends upon other verbal behavior that qualifies responses, expresses relations and provides a grammatical framework for verbal behavior by being "nurturistic."
Skinners term "Contingency contracting "
Agreement between two people that when one acts in an appropriate way, the other one gives him or her something of value
the relativity theory of reinforcement, states that more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors
Premack term "constructivism learning "
Centered approach to teaching; students construct knowledge for themselves
Skinner term "extrinsic motivation"
Motivation that comes from external factors, as opposed to internal rewards or pleasure. drives one to do things for tangible rewards or pressures, rather than for the fun of it.
Skinner term "intrinsic motivation"
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner
A tendency for a person to be a passive learner who is dependent on others for guidance and decision-making.
A person's ability to think about his or her own thinking. requires self-awareness and self-regulation of thinking.
Readiness to Learn
A context within which a students more basic needs (such as sleep, safety, and love) are met and the student is cognitively ready for developmentally appropriate problem-solving and learning.
Instructional supports provided to a student by an adult or a more capable peer in a learning situation. The more capable a student becomes with a certain skill or concept, the less instruction the adult or peer needs to provide.
Piaget term "Schema"
concept in the mind about events, scenarios, actions, or objects that have been acquired from past experience. The mind loves organization and must find previous events or experiences with which to associate the information, or the information may not be learned.
The ability to apply a lesson learned in one situation to a new situation--for example, a student who has learned to read the word "the" in a book about cows and then goes home and reads the word "the" successfully in a note that a parent left on the counter
Vygotsky's theory "Zone of Proximal Development"
suggests that students learn best in a social context in which a more able adult or peer teaches the student something he or she could not have learned on his or her own.
Albert Bandura Theory:"Social (or Observational) Learning Theory"
found that children learn by observing others. In a classroom setting, This may occur through modeling or learning vicariously through others'experiences
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