Psychology Test One
Terms in this set (49)
Scientist Stephen Jay Gould made which of the following contentions about the relationship between science and religion?
Religion and science are entirely different and non overlapping realms of understanding the world.
According to McFall (1977), science can be usefully described as a prescription for
Which of the following would be the best example of the "Hot Hand" phenomenon discussed in your textbook chapter?
Stephanie, sitting at a blackjack table in Las Vegas, wins 8 consecutive rounds of the game and triples her money in under 20 minutes.
Walter and Lisa are driving their new Houston to Oklahoma City. Walter insist on doing most of the driving because he claims to be the "much better driver". When they get to their destination, the car dashboard reports that they got 34 miles per gallon of gasoline during the trip. Walter brags that, as the better driver, he knows how to get more out of the same amount of gasoline. Lisa smiles and decides not to mention that the new car has a more fuel efficient engine. Which error is Walter making by taking credit for the higher fuel economy on this trip?
He has not ruled out rival explanations
What famous American psychologist also heavily influenced the field of advertising?
"Seek and ye shall find" is a short and simple way to sum up
A ________ works in prisons, jails, and other settings to assss inmates and assist in rehabilitation.
Pinker (1997) and others have demonstrated that humans display an adaptive predisposition to make order out of disorder and sense out of nonsense. This tendency can account for
the popularity of pseudoscience
According to your authors, the discipline of psychology is best thought of as
the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior.
According to your authors, psychology is a method for
acquiring more insight into the hows and whys of human behavior
This simplest measure of variability is the
This research design involves an extreme deep and detailed information gathering from a single individual over an extended period of time
case study design
A graph that can be used to represent the pattern of relationship between scores from two variables is called a
_______ is consistency of measurement
_______ studies allow us to make predictions about one variable based on the knowledge of another
Mary conducts research examining the efficacy of treatment of elderly persons in nursing facilities in her home state. In order for her to use this research to influence larger political policies regarding the care of the elderly on a state and federal level, she will have to generalize her findings to th larger population of elderly nursing home residence. What sort of statistics should she use to accomplish this goal?
When a psychologist is discussing a "heuristic", he or she is referring to
a mental shortcut or rule of thumb
A research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable is called
Dr. Francis is conducting a study in which she is examining the impact of a new math tutoring program on elementary school students's performance in a math class. She has hypothesized that the tutoring will significantly increase the performance of students who are enrolled in this program. She has to remember not to et her expectation of an outcome influence her interpretation of the final data. In other words, she needs to defend against the _____ effect.
Why is it important to make sure that different participant groups are roughly equivalent in terms of personal characteristics (age,gender, etc) before any independent variable is introduced?
So that no major differences between the groups unduly bias the results of the experiment
Mary suffered a head injury in a car accident last week. Since that time she is able to speak fluently but has difficulty understanding what is being said to her. Mary may be exhibiting problems associated with _____ area.
Small electrodes are pasted onto Miranda's scalp and are connected by wire to a machine that translates the electrical energy from her brain into wavy lines on a moving piece of paper. From this description, it is evident that Miranda's brain is being studied through the use of
The corpus callosum
shares permits communication between the two halves of the cerebral cortex
Your teacher asks you to describe the sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during neural conduction. Which of the following sequences will you offer?
dendrites, soma, axon, axon terminal
Mobombi had completed about a quarter of the distance in the marathon in which he was a participant. Suddenly, he stumbled and fell. Despite feeling a sharp pain initially, he got up and continued to run until he completed the race. Upon crossing the finish line he fell down writhing in pain. When checked out, it was discovered that Mobombi had broken his leg. He was able to run the remainder of the marathon relatively pain free due to the release of
John has decided to start to learn how to wrestle. His first day at practice, a seasoned wrestler slams the back of his head tot he mat. John was shaken and reported to the trainer that he "saw stars" after he hit his head. As a result of "seeing stars" John's _____ was temporarily affected as a result of the slam.
Which of the following is a group of several interconnected brain structures that is involved in emotion, memory, smell, and motivation
the limbic system
_____ are slender threads inside of a cell's nucleus that carry genes.
A ______ is a fluid-filled space between two neurons through which neurotransmitters travel. It is in this area where messages are transmitted chemically.
The saclike structures found inside the axon terminals containing chemicals are called
Rodney wanted to "have the bumps on his head examined" to determine certain aspects of his personality. To do this he had to go to a
One particular confound for the use of an adoption study of heritability is the phenomenon of ___ placement, in which a child is placed in a home that is similar to the home of the biological parents.
The two types of glial cells are called ___ & ___
astrocytes & oligodendrocytes
Samantha's doctor is concerned that Samantha may have a brain tumor. Which method of neuroimaging should he use to detect the tumor
Scientific skepticism requires that any claim is met with
an open mind
a key characteristic of a good scientific theory is that it is a simple explanatory device. This key characteristic is explained as the critical thinking principle of
The term ______ refers to phenomena like ESP that fall outside the realm of traditional science
A skeptic is one who
accepts claims on the basis of persuasive scientific evidence
Dr. Richbur's botany class gathers specimens outside of the classroom for further study. Dr. Richburg instructs his students to develop a scientific theory that helps explain the biodiversity of the plants. The resulting theory should
explain observations about the plants and predict new findings about plant biodiversity
Which of the following is one of the primary benefice of the case study method of conducting research?
They can be helpful in providing existence proofs
Lisa, a college student, had a great time at a party last night. She danced, sang karaoke, and even played the rock band video game- all behaviors that she had never exhibited in public before. She had been drinking the punch all night long, which she was told contained high levels of alcohol. Lisa was quite surprised to find out he next morning that the punch did NOT contain any alcohol. What concept may explain lisa's behavior?
the placebo effect
Which ethical requirement of research was not present in the tuskegee experiment, where nearly 400 aafrican american men were eposes to syphilis and denied treatment for its symptons
Professor Goldner is studying hyperactivity in preschool age children. she is concerned that differences in child rearing, diet, and etc may affect her results. To minimize these potential preexisting variables, she should be sure to do which of the following?
use random assignment when forming her groups
Which of these is a type of correlation coefficient
since jamilla suffered a head injury in a car accident 3 months ago, she has not experienced dreams as she had in the past. She used to dream vivid, active dreams. Which part of her brain most likely was affected during the car accident which is related to her problem dreaming?
an auto accident rendered chris's nervous system unable to send messages for him to breathe, so he is on a respirator. Which brain structure was damaged in the accident
what is the danger of relying too much on neuroimiging tests?
we run the risk of assigning narrowly defined functions to brain regions, rather than remembering that most functions are distributed
a brain imaging method using magnetic fields to measure the release of energy from water in biological tissues is called
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
While it is well understood in neuroscience research that a deficit of dopamine activity contributes to the symptom of parkinson's disease, other research has found that damage to the basal ganglia is also a contributor to this very serious illness. The fact that there is more than one explanation for the condition demonstrates the critical thinking concept of
ruling out rival hypothesis