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African-American History Bio's

Famous African-Americans
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Jackie Robinson
(January 31, 1919 - October 24, 1972) was the first black man allowed to play Major League Baseball. He played with the Dodgers for 10 years; He played in six World Series and was the first African-American in the Baseball Hall of Fame (in 1962).
Dred Scott
(1795-1858) was a a slave who sued for his freedom in court, since he had been taken to a "free" state (Wisconsin). He lost his case in St. Louis, Missouri, but won it on appeal. His case was again appealed and Scott lost. The results of his court case led to major political upheavals in the USA and eventually, the Civil War.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
(1929-1968), was a great man who worked for racial equality and civil rights in the United States of America. He was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia.
Although he experienced racism early in life. He decided to do to something to make the world a better and fairer place.
During the 1950's, he became active in the movement for civil rights and racial equality. He participated in the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott and many other peaceful demonstrations that protested the unfair treatment of African-Americans. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

He was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee.
Rosa Parks
(1913-2005). By refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man in the segregated South, she sparked the United States civil rights movement. Her action led to the 1955-56 Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott, and she became a symbol of the power of nonviolent protest.
Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey Douglass or "Frederick Douglas
(Feb. 7, 1817-Feb. 20, 1895) was an abolitionist, orator and writer who fought against slavery and for women's rights. He was the first African-American citizen appointed to offices of high rank in the U.S. government.

In 1847, he started an anti-slavery newspaper called the North Star; it was published until 1860. He served as the assistant secretary of the Santo Domingo Commission (1871). He was later appointed marshal (1877-81) and recorder of deeds (1881-86) of Washington, D.C. His last government appointment was as the U.S. minister and consul general to Haiti (1889-91).

During the Civil War, he met with U.S. President Abraham Lincoln many times, discussing Lincoln's efforts to abolish slavery and the arming of former slaves to fight the Confederacy.
William Edward Burghardt DuBois
(February 23, 1868 - August 27, 1963) was a writer, historian, leader and one of the founders of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People).

He was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He was a gifted student who became a reporter for the New York Globe when he was 15 years old. He later attended Fisk University, then transferred to Harvard University (from which he earned a bachelor's degree in 1890, a master's degree in 1891, and a Ph. D.). He was the first black to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University; his thesis was titled, "The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in America."

He became a teacher and later studied the state of black people in the USA and around the world. In 1903, His famous book, "The Souls of Black Folks," was published. In 1909, he was instrumental in starting the NAACP and founded the NAACP's magazine, "Crisis," which he edited for 25 years. After a trip to Russia in 1927, he embraced communism as a means of obtaining the best welfare for the masses. After working for civil rights for decades, he was disappointed with the progress of civil rights in the USA, and lived in Ghana, Africa, for the last few years of his life in a self-imposed exile.
Hattie McDaniel
(1895?-1952) Oscars Presented, 1940, when she became the first black woman to win an Oscar.
Harriet Tubman
(1820 - 1913) devoted her life to fighting slavery, helping slaves and ex-slaves, and championing the rights of women. An incredibly brave woman, she was known as the "Moses of her people."

Araminta Harriet Greene was born a slave in Maryland. In 1844, She married John _________, who was a free man. She escaped slavery in 1849 and traveled north. She then became a conductor for the Underground Railroad and helped slaves flee to freedom in the North (both to Northern US states and to Canada). The Underground Railroad was a secret system of people of all races who helped slaves escape to the North - it was not an actual railroad, although they used railroad terms to disguise their plans to help free slaves. She made 19 dangerous rescue trips over 10 years, rescuing over 300 slaves from Southern states. Among the people she saved were many members of her family.
Madame C.J. Walker
(December 23, 1867 - May 25, 1919) was an inventor, businesswoman and self-made millionaire.

Sarah Breedlove McWilliams ________________ was an African-American who developed many beauty and hair care products that were extremely popular. She started her cosmetics business in 1905. Her first product was a scalp treatment that used petrolatum and sulphur. She added _____________ to her name and began selling her new "__________System" door-to-door.

She soon added new cosmetic products to her line. The products were very successful and she soon had many saleswomen, called "_______________Agents," who sold her products door to door and to beauty salons.
Dr. Carter G. Woodson
a Harvard Ph.D. and historian, initiated "Negro History Week." He chose the second week in February because it included the birthdays of Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln.
General Gordon Granger
rode to Galveston, Texas, with 2,000 Union troops to enforce the freeing of the slaves.
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