(February 23, 1868 - August 27, 1963) was a writer, historian, leader and one of the founders of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People).
He was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He was a gifted student who became a reporter for the New York Globe when he was 15 years old. He later attended Fisk University, then transferred to Harvard University (from which he earned a bachelor's degree in 1890, a master's degree in 1891, and a Ph. D.). He was the first black to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University; his thesis was titled, "The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in America."
He became a teacher and later studied the state of black people in the USA and around the world. In 1903, His famous book, "The Souls of Black Folks," was published. In 1909, he was instrumental in starting the NAACP and founded the NAACP's magazine, "Crisis," which he edited for 25 years. After a trip to Russia in 1927, he embraced communism as a means of obtaining the best welfare for the masses. After working for civil rights for decades, he was disappointed with the progress of civil rights in the USA, and lived in Ghana, Africa, for the last few years of his life in a self-imposed exile.