Bio chapters 4-6 questions

The amount of energy in the universe is constant. It will never increase nore decrease. This is the ________________.
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As energy is transformed from one trophic level to another __________ is lost.heatOur systems only utilize_____% of energy for synthesis of protiens, ATP, and metabolic requirements.10_____% is lost as heat.90Which of the two major reactions occur in the thylakoid membranes?light dependent reactionwhat are the two main reactions in photosynthesis?light dependent reaction and calvin cyclewhich type of photosynthesis is common among temperate plant species such as wheat or kentucky blue grass?C3 photosynthesisWhich of the two major reactions in C3 Photosynthesis is responsible for the fixation of Carbon Dioxide, the Reduction of the Molecule, and the Recycling of RuBP to capture C02 all over again?Calvin CycleIs photosynthesis considered a Synthesis (Anabolic) or Decomposition (Catabolic) reaction?synthesis or anabolicPlants that have adapted to warmer, hotter weather outside of temperate climates, but not desert dry climates utilize which kind of photosynthesis?C4Which of the following terms is reserved for organisms that can manufacture their own food for their own energy?autotrophsIn a typical food web, the highest organisms at the top of the food web are typically the....Tertiary consumers or Apex predatorsThe pore on the underside of the lear is designed to open up when the plant is full of H20, and it closes and snaps shut when the plant is not fully hydrated. This pore functions to allow the intake of C02, and the release of 02?StomataWhich gaseous molecule do plants absorb from the surrounding enviroment in order to undergo photosynthesis?carbon dioxide gastrue or false: 100% of the energy for all living things on Earth comes from the sun.FalseWhich organelle inside eukaryotic plant cells is responsible for photosynthesis?chloroplastWhat molecule must be split in the light reaction to replace an excited electron that leaps out of the photosystem II?H20Within the inside of the organelle responsible for photosynthesis, there is a stack of green hollow discs. The entire stack of discs is called a ________.granumWhat major fuel molecule is manufactured in photosynthesis?C6H1206In the electron transport chain, which ion is pumped across the inner mitochondrial cristae membrane to build up a chemical gradient of hgih ionic concentration outside the membrane?H+Enzymes work by binding to specific molecules called_____, which fit into them best.substratesEnzymes are considered catalysts, because they work to _____________ a reaction.speed upIn my analogy of Aerobic Respiration, I likened the _________ of a mountain-based Gold mine to the Gluecose molecule.RockWhen plants undergo photosynthesis to capture C02 and light energy and transform them chemically into sugars, what percentage of the light from the sun was utilitiezed in this process and what percentage was released as heat?10% utilitzed; 90% lost as heatThe 2nd Law of thermodynamics states that the universe is constantly moving toward greater and greater____________.disorder, chaos, or entropyWhat type of organic molecule are enzymes classified as?protiensdefined as the substances, ions, or molecules which are utilities in a reaction.reactantsenzymes work by____________ the energy of activation of a reactionreducing or loweringwhich type of reaction is considered exergonic?decomposition reactionsreactions which result in the break down of substances are known as___________.catabolicThe first law of thermodynamics states that the amount of energy in the universe is____________.a constant, unchangingThe carbon-carbon bonds within glucose molecule are an example of ____________energy.potential and chemicalwhat is the first major reaction in aerobic respiration?glycolysisof the four major reactions in aerobic respiration, which one produces the most ATP molecules?electron transport chainChromatin is defined as....DNA plus Histone ProtiensThe three stages of the cell cycle are the.....Interphase, Mitosis, and CytokinesisWhen the cell undergoes DNA replication, what develops on the chromosomes?sister chromatidsHow many chromososmes are found in human body (Somatic) cells?46Which Phase does the cell synthesis new copies of DNA?S-phase of interphaseHow many pairs of chromosomes in each somatic body cell of the human species?23The particular gene that codes for a particular trait. For example: the gene that codes for red hair is known as the red hair_________.alelleThe location on the chromosome that a particular gene can be found is known as the _________.LocusThe first stage of interphase is the.....G1 or First gap phasetrue/false: the cell divides inside the interphase step.false.the process which begins as soon as a cell is formed from cell division from it's parent cell, and continues on until it divides itself is known as the __________ ____________.cell cycleA nucleosomes is defined as....a histone protien wrapped around with DNA strandsHomologous Chromosomes are defined as a __________ ___________ of chromosomes.matching pairCytokinesis is the process of...dividing the cytoplasm into seperate daughter cells.All genetic information for an organism is known as the ________.genomeWhich portion of the visible light spectrum do plants NOT utilize and absorb for photosynthesis?greensIdentify the photosynthetic pigment molecule which utilizes and absorbs mostly reds and blueschlorophyll aWhich type of photosynthesis is adapted for warmer climates like Louisiana?C4What is the enzyme involved in fixing Carbon in C3 PhotosynthesisRuBisCoC4 photosynthesis was an adaption to warmer climates by dividing the photosynthesis into_________different cell compartmentsC3 photosynthesis had an energy-expensive default mechanism during periods of high temperature.________photorespirationMatched pairs of chromosomes are known ashomologous chromosomeshumans have a diploid number of chromosomes equal to_________46humans have_______pairs of chromosomes in each somatic body cell.23which portion of the cell cycle NOT actively dividing?interphasewhich portion of the cell cycle does the cell initially grow to synthesize more organelles,G1which phase of mitosis does the chromatin suddenly become visible under a light microscope?prophasewhat is the term for the connection point between two arms of a chromosome or two sister chromatids?centromeresWhat is the protien that coats the centromere, that the spindle apparatus has to connect during prophase?kinetochoresWhich regulatory checkout does the regulatory protien assess the enviroment for available nutrientsG1Which of the genes is responsible for cancer acts as the gas pedal driving the cell forward through the cell cycleoncogenesName the molecule that gets fixed to C02 in the Calvin Cycle?RuBPEnzymes bind to _______ to create reactions.substrate moleculeswhich of the following reactions is NOT part of aerobic respiration?Calvin CycleWhich molecule must be burned or 'oxidized' to create C02 in aerobic respiration?GlucoseIf no oxygen is available, which reaction will move forward in cell respiration?Glycolysis to lactic acid anaerobic fermentationwhat two products are produced in microbes like bacteria during anaerobic fermentation?alcohol and C02The Glycolysis Reaction is responsible for breaking down...glucosewhich part of aerobic respiration does oxidative phosphorylation occur?electrion transport chainWhich part of aerobic respiration is a microscopic game of hotpotato with a high energy electron?electron transport chainwhere does aerobic respiration happen inside a cell?mitochondriaWhich part of aerobic respiration produces the majority of the ATP a process of Oxidative...electron transport chainwhat product do mammals make in anaerobic meabolism?lactic acidthe energy currency molecule of the cell is...ATPa type of enzyme inhibition where a totally different molecule binds to the active site and locks it upcompetitive inhibitionwhen glucose gets oxidized, which molecule gets reduces?co-enzymes NAD+ and FAD+chemiomosis is the process where_______ions slide down an enzyme channel gradient to make ATPH+Which molecules are in the reactants of the Photosynthesis reaction?C02 and H20what two molecules are in the products of the photosynthesis reaction?sugar and oxygenWhat are the two reactions of photosynthesis?light reaction and calvin cycleWhich of the two reactions in photosynthesis are light independent?Calvin CycleWhich reaction in photosynthesis works alot like the electron transport chain in aerobic respiration?light reactionwhen light hits the photosystems (PSII), which molecule must be broken to replace the electron?h20which reaction in photosynthesis makes the sugar?calvin cycleWhich reaction in photosynthesis does carbon fixation occur?calvin cyclewhat are the stacks of thylakoid disks called inside the chloroplasts?granawhere inside the chloroplast does the calvin cycle occur?stromaoxidation is___________loss of electrons (and H+)reduction is ________ of electronsgain of H+ (and electrons)the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell or a body is the definition of...metabolismwhat percent of the energy from the sun is lost as heat at every step of the trophic pyramids or energy flow..90metabolic pathways involve a series of______which result in a cascading sequence of reactionsenzymessynthesis reactions are considered_______ reactionsdegradationsynthesis reactions require_______ in the reactantsenergythe idea that there is a fixed amount of energy in our universe and energy is a 'constant' is known as the...first law of thermodynamicschemical energy is stored inside________chemical bondsthe idea that the universe is inherently disordered, and spirialing into a state of greater disordersecond law of thermodynamicsmechanical energy is a form of________energykineticenergy associated with objects in motion is_________energykinteicenzymes are________, which means they are molecules which speed up chemical reactionscatalystschemical reactions that have a negative free energy, or loss of free energy are callled____________ reactions.exergonic reactionsenzymes work to __________ the energy of activation, needed to make chemical reactions move...lowerchemical reactions which require energy in the reactants to move forward are called...endergonica developing chick in an egg requires heat from an incubator to complete development. This is a_________endergonicenzymes are mostly what type of molecule?protiensenzymes work when________molecules bind to themsubstrateenzymes have a critical receptor site called a(n) __________site, which bonds to its preferred site