Greek goddesses who ruled over the arts and sciened and offered inspiration in those subjects. They were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, who represented memory, which was important for the Muses because they had to carry their work in their memories. Muses: Calliope (epic poetry), Clio (history), Erato (love poetry), Euterpe (music), Melpomene (tradgedy), Polyhymnia (sacred poetry), Terpsichore (dance), Thalia (comedy), and Urania (astronomy). one of the Titans, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, and the first wife of Zeus and became the goddess of wisdom, prudence, and deep thought. According to the prophecy, she would have two children, one being Athena, and the other a son so powerful that would overthrow Zeus. Zeus, being afraid of this, tricked Metis into turning into a fly and swallowed her. When Zeus had a terrible headache, he asked Hephaestus to hit his head with an axe; Athena jumped out in full armor. Greek god of blacksmiths, sculptures, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes; he is symbolized with a hammer, anvil, and tongs. According to Homer's epics, the Illiad and the Odyssey, he is the son of Zeus and Hera, but the Hesiod states the Hera bore Hesphaestus alone, and she threw him from Olympus because he was crippled. He was married to Aphrodite, but then found out about the affair with her brother Ares, and devised a plan to humiliate both lovers in front of the other gods one of the Titans, son of lapetus and Clymene. The name comes from the Greek word forethought. During the war between the titans and the Olympian gods, Prometheus sided with Zeus, helping to overthrow the old gods, which means Prometheus was not punished like the other Titans who were sent to the underworld. Known as the protector and benefactor of mankind. Because Prometheus tricked Zeus at an event called Trick at Mecone, Zeus hid fire from mortals as punishment, which Prometheus stole back in an effort to help humanity. Even more enraged, Zeus asked Hesphaestus to create Pandora, the first woman, who would bring trouble to mankind. He also punished Prometheus by chaining him to a rock and an eagle ate his liver during the day, and the liver was regenerated because of Prometheus' immportality, he was rescued Hercules. hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey, and according to Homer, the king of Ithaca, son of Laertus and Anticleia, and father of Telemachus. Homer portrayed Odysseus as a man of outstanding wisdom and shrewdness, elowuence, resourcefulness, courage, and endurance. In the Illiad, he is portrayed a man best suited to deal with crisis in realtions amoungst the Greeks, and reconcilled the fight between Agamemnon and Achilles. He fought at Troy and struggled to get back to his home of Ithaca. Throughout the 24 books of the Odyssey, Odysseus is faced with many obstacles and challenges along his journey to recover his home. goddess of corn, grain. And harvest. She was the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. It was believed that Demeter made the crops grow each year. She was goddess of the earth, livestock, and fertility in general. She was associated with the seasons. Her daughter Persephone was abducted by Hades to be his wife in the underworld, and in anger Demeter laid a curse on the world that caused plants to wither and die, and the land to become desolate. Zeus, alarmed at the barren eath, sought for Persephone's return. It was decreed that Persephone would spend four months each year in the underworld, and during these months Demeter would grieve and withdraw gifts from the world, creating winter, and her return brought spring. Demeter also founded the Eleusinian Mysteries, huge festivals held every five years. god of war, son of Zeus and Hera. Represented the raw violence and untamed acts that occur in war in controst to Athena, who was a symbol of tactical strategy and planning. He was disliked by his parents, and always depicted as violent in myths. In the Illiad, it mentioned that Zeus hated him more than anyone, and he was on the losing side of the Trojan war, favoring the Trojans. He was the lover of his sister, Aphrodite, who was married to Hespheastus, and because of this Hespheastus made a plan to humiliate them both. Their affair resulted in eight children including Eros. Hen Ares went to war, he was accompanied by Demios (terror) and Phobos (fear). a Titan goddess in Greek mythology, daughter of Titan Coeus and Phoebe, and a early and favorite lover of Zeus.Leto was pregnant when Zeus married Hera, and Hera was jealous of Leto so she Pushed Leto out of Olympus, and no one would take her in in fear of Hera, and hera had the dragon Python chase her. Zeus saved her by carrying her out to sea with the North Wind. Leto settled on the island of Delos, which the goddess' gathered and she birthed Artemis, and then Apollo. Both became powerful archers to protect her, and at four days old, Apollo killed Python, and the Euboean giant Tityus that tried to rape Leto. Leto returned to Zeus' facour after Apollo killed the Cyclops, and he lightened his punishment. She sided with the trojans in the war and helped heal Aeneas from his wounds. goddess of chastity, virginity, the hunt, the moon, and the natural environment. Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo, who she helped birth right after she was born, becoming the protector of childbirth and labour. In the myth of Actaeon, he tried to rape Artemis and as a punishment she turned him into a stag and his hounds killed him. In the myth of Orion, Orion was also a hunting companion of Artemis and the only person to have won her heart, but he was accidently killed by the goddess or a scorpion sent by Gaea. daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths, was one of Apollo's lovers. While Apollo was away, Coronis, already pregnant with Asclepius, fell in love with Ischys, son of Elatus. A white crow Apollo left to guard her informed him of the affair, which enraged him and he was also enraged that the crow did not peck Ischys' eyes out as soon as he approached Coronis, that he put a curse on it that scorched its feathers, which is why crows are black. Apollo sent his sister Artemis to kill Coronis, and was finally at peace once it was done. Upon a sign from Apollo, Hermes cut the unborn child out of her womb and gave it to centaur Chiron to raise. Hermes then brought her soul to Tartarus. the superlative centaur, whose skills match those of his foster father Artemis, include medicine, music, archery, hunting, and prophecy. His parents were Cronus and Philyra. His physical appearance differed from other centaurs in that his front legs are human rather than equine, which sets him apart from other centaurs. Chiron was intelligent, kind, and civilized unlike usual centaurs who are drinkers and violent. Chiron was accidently pierced by a poisonous arrow shot by Heracles, he renounced his immortality in favor of Prometheus and was placed amoung the stares as a constellation. a Nereid loved by Zeus and Poseidon. When Themis revealed that Thetis was destined to bear a son mightier than his father, the two gods gave her to Peleus, king of Myrmidons. Thetis, unwilling to wed a mortal, resisted Peleus's advances by changing into various shapes, but assisted by Chiron, Peleus captured her. They had Achilles, who Thetis tried to make immortal but Peleus stopped it. She saved Zeus when Poseidon, Hera, and Athena revolted against him, and rescued Hespdeastus and Dionysus from the sea. king of the Myrmidons, husband of Thetis and the father of Achilles. When Peleus was banished from their father's kingdom, he wewnt to Phthia to be purified by his uncle King Eurytion, but accidently killed Eurytion in during a boar hunt. He went to be purified by King Acastus, whose wife made advances at him, but when he refused, she told Antigone that he wanted to marry her daughter, so Antigone hung herself. Peleus won the marriage of Thetis by capture, and all the gods were invited except Eris, the goddess of discord, who spitefully sent a golden apple to the wedding guests that led to the Trojan War. Peleus was too old to fight so he gave his armour to Achilles. greek goddess of chaos, strife and discord. Daughter of Zeus and Hera, and opposite of Harmonia. She had a son who she brought alongside of her when she rode her chariot to war alongside Aris. When all the Olympians had been invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, she was not, and due to her inclination to cause discord she dropped a golden Apple of Discord into the party, that said "to the fairest one" on it. Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite started fighting over who should be given the apple, so Zeus appointed Paris, the king of Troy, the person to solve the dispute. The goddesses offered Paris various gifts but he picked Aphrodite, who promised him the most beuatiful women in the world, Helen, wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. the last king of Troy and married Arisbe and then Hecuba, and had 50 sons and many daughters according to the Illiad. Homer described Priam as an old man, powerless but kindly, not even blaming Helen, the wife of Paris, for all his personal losses resulting from the war. The death of his favorite son Hector, symbolized the loss of hope for Troy and broke the king's spirit. Priam then ransomed the corpse of Hector, and out of respect Achilles returned it. When Troy fell, Neoptolemus, Achilles son, butchered the old king on an altar. son of King Priam of Troy and Hecuba. A dream regarding his birth was interpreted as evil, and he was expelled from his family as an infant. He was found and raised by shepards, and at a festival he won a boxing match in which he defeated Priam's other sons, his identity was revealed, and he went home again with Priam. Paris, while still a shepard, was choosen by Zeus to determine which of the three goddesses was most beautiful. He rejected bribes from Hera and Athena anad choose Aphrodite who bribed him by helping him win the most beautiful woman alive. His seducation of Helen and refusal to reutrn her was the cause of the Trojan War. During the war, Paris was a good warrior but inferior to his brother Hector and to the Greek leaders he faced. Aphrodite rescued him before Menelaus could defeat him. Paris shot the arrow, by Apollo;s hel, caused the death of Achilles, then after, received a fatal wound from an arrow shot by Philotetes. eldest son of the Trojan kinf Priam and his queen Hecuba. Husband of Andromache and chief warrior in the Trojan army. In the Illiad, Homer depicts him as the ideal warrior and the mainstay of Troy, a good son, loving husband and father, and a trust friend. He is an especial favorite of Apollo. His chief exploits in the Trojan war include his defense of the wounded Sarpedon, his fight with Ajax, son of Telamon his enemy, and the storming of the Greek ramparts. When Achilles, enraged with Agamemnon, deserted the Greeks, Hector drove them back to their ships which he almost succeeded in burning. Patroclus, a friend of Achilles, was slain by Hector and Apollo, and Achilles, to revenge his friend's death, lkilled Hector and dragged his body behind his chariot to the camp, and round the tomb of Patroclus, where Aphrodite and Apollo preserved it from corruption. Priam went to Achilles and asked him to give back the body, which Hector's body was buried in great honor. daughter of Autolycus and Amphithea and mother of Odysseus, and granddaughter of Hermes. In the underworld, Odyseeus encounters the spirit of his mother, Anticleia, and first rebuffs her since he is waiting for the prohpet to approach. After speaking with Tiresias, Odysseus allows his mother to come to him and speak. She asks him why he is in the underworld. She tells him she died of greif, while waiting for him at war, and that Laertes, his father, greives continually countryside in rags. She also says the his wif Penelope is overwhelmed with sadness and longing for him, while Telemachus acts as magistrste for Odysseus' properties. He tries to hug his mother, but she is incorporeal, and his arms pass through her, she says that's how all ghosts are. one of the earliest Greek poets, called "father of didactic poetry". Two complete epics of his survived, the Theogony, relating myths to the gods, and the Works and Days. In Hesiod's Theogony, he recounts the history of the gods, begging with the emergence of Chaos, Gaea (Earth), and Eros. Gaea gives birth to Uranus (heaven), the mountains, and Pontus (the sea). He continues one with the story of how Cronus rebelled agaist Uranus and is overpowered by Zeus. This story of crime and revolt is a central subject in the Theogony. He also presents new mythical family relations that are product of his own speculation.